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JOBS(1P)                   POSIX Programmer's Manual                  JOBS(1P)

PROLOG
       This  manual  page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux
       implementation of this interface may differ (consult the  corresponding
       Linux  manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface may
       not be implemented on Linux.

NAME
       jobs - display status of jobs in the current session

SYNOPSIS
       jobs [-l| -p][job_id...]

DESCRIPTION
       The jobs utility shall display the status of jobs that were started  in
       the current shell environment; see Shell Execution Environment .

       When  jobs  reports  the  termination  status of a job, the shell shall
       remove its process ID from the list of  those  "known  in  the  current
       shell execution environment''; see Asynchronous Lists .

OPTIONS
       The  jobs  utility  shall  conform  to  the  Base Definitions volume of
       IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines.

       The following options shall be supported:

       -l     (The letter  ell.)  Provide  more  information  about  each  job
              listed.   This information shall include the job number, current
              job, process group ID, state, and the command  that  formed  the
              job.

       -p     Display  only  the  process IDs for the process group leaders of
              the selected jobs.

       By default, the jobs utility shall display the status  of  all  stopped
       jobs, running background jobs and all jobs whose status has changed and
       have not been reported by the shell.

OPERANDS
       The following operand shall be supported:

       job_id Specifies the jobs for which the status is to be  displayed.  If
              no job_id is given, the status information for all jobs shall be
              displayed. The format of job_id is described in the Base Defini-
              tions volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 3.203, Job Control
              Job ID.

STDIN
       Not used.

INPUT FILES
       None.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       The following environment variables shall affect the execution of jobs:

       LANG   Provide  a  default value for the internationalization variables
              that are unset or null. (See  the  Base  Definitions  volume  of
              IEEE Std 1003.1-2001,  Section  8.2,  Internationalization Vari-
              ables for the precedence of internationalization variables  used
              to determine the values of locale categories.)

       LC_ALL If  set  to a non-empty string value, override the values of all
              the other internationalization variables.

       LC_CTYPE
              Determine the locale for  the  interpretation  of  sequences  of
              bytes  of  text  data as characters (for example, single-byte as
              opposed to multi-byte characters in arguments).

       LC_MESSAGES
              Determine the locale that should be used to  affect  the  format
              and  contents  of  diagnostic messages written to standard error
              and informative messages written to standard output.

       NLSPATH
              Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of
              LC_MESSAGES .

ASYNCHRONOUS EVENTS
       Default.

STDOUT
       If the -p option is specified, the output shall consist of one line for
       each process ID:

              "%d\n", <process ID>

       Otherwise, if the -l option is not specified, the  output  shall  be  a
       series of lines of the form:

              "[%d] %c %s %s\n", <job-number>, <current>, <state>, <command>

       where the fields shall be as follows:

       <current>
              The  character  '+'  identifies  the job that would be used as a
              default for the fg or bg utilities; this job can also be  speci-
              fied  using the job_id %+ or "%%" . The character '-' identifies
              the job that would become the default if the current default job
              were  to  exit;  this job can also be specified using the job_id
              %-. For other jobs, this field is a <space>. At most one job can
              be  identified  with  '+'  and at most one job can be identified
              with '-' . If there is any suspended job, then the  current  job
              shall  be  a  suspended job. If there are at least two suspended
              jobs, then the previous job also shall be a suspended job.

       <job-number>
              A number that can be used to identify the process group  to  the
              wait, fg, bg, and kill utilities. Using these utilities, the job
              can be identified by prefixing the job number with '%' .

       <state>
              One of the following strings (in the POSIX locale):

       Running
              Indicates that the job has not been suspended by  a  signal  and
              has not exited.

       Done
              Indicates  that the job completed and returned exit status zero.

       Done(code)
              Indicates that the job completed normally  and  that  it  exited
              with  the  specified  non-zero exit status, code, expressed as a
              decimal number.

       Stopped
              Indicates that the job was suspended by the SIGTSTP signal.

       Stopped (SIGTSTP)

              Indicates that the job was suspended by the SIGTSTP signal.

       Stopped (SIGSTOP)

              Indicates that the job was suspended by the SIGSTOP signal.

       Stopped (SIGTTIN)

              Indicates that the job was suspended by the SIGTTIN signal.

       Stopped (SIGTTOU)

              Indicates that the job was suspended by the SIGTTOU signal.

       The implementation may substitute the  string  Suspended  in  place  of
       Stopped.  If  the job was terminated by a signal, the format of <state>
       is unspecified, but it shall be visibly distinct from all of the  other
       <state>  formats  shown here and shall indicate the name or description
       of the signal causing the termination.

       <command>
              The associated command that was given to the shell.

       If the -l option is specified, a field containing the process group  ID
       shall  be  inserted before the <state> field. Also, more processes in a
       process group may be output on separate lines, using only  the  process
       ID and <command> fields.

STDERR
       The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.

OUTPUT FILES
       None.

EXTENDED DESCRIPTION
       None.

EXIT STATUS
       The following exit values shall be returned:

        0     Successful completion.

       >0     An error occurred.

CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS
       Default.

       The following sections are informative.

APPLICATION USAGE
       The -p option is the only portable way to find out the process group of
       a job because different implementations have different  strategies  for
       defining  the  process group of the job. Usage such as $( jobs -p) pro-
       vides a way of referring to the process group of the job in  an  imple-
       mentation-independent way.

       The  jobs utility does not work as expected when it is operating in its
       own utility execution  environment  because  that  environment  has  no
       applicable jobs to manipulate. See the APPLICATION USAGE section for bg
       . For this reason, jobs is generally implemented  as  a  shell  regular
       built-in.

EXAMPLES
       None.

RATIONALE
       Both  "%%"  and  "%+" are used to refer to the current job.  Both forms
       are of equal validity-the "%%" mirroring "$$" and  "%+"  mirroring  the
       output  of  jobs.   Both forms reflect historical practice of the Korn-
       Shell and the C shell with job control.

       The job control features provided by bg, fg, and jobs are based on  the
       KornShell.  The standard developers examined the characteristics of the
       C shell versions of these utilities and found that  differences  exist.
       Despite  widespread  use  of  the  C shell, the KornShell versions were
       selected for this volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 to maintain  a  degree
       of uniformity with the rest of the KornShell features selected (such as
       the very popular command line editing features).

       The jobs utility is not dependent on the job control option, as are the
       seemingly  related bg and fg utilities because jobs is useful for exam-
       ining background jobs, regardless of  the  condition  of  job  control.
       When  the  user  has  invoked a set +m command and job control has been
       turned off, jobs can still be used to examine the background jobs asso-
       ciated  with that current session.  Similarly, kill can then be used to
       kill background jobs with kill% <background job number>.

       The output for terminated jobs is left unspecified to accommodate vari-
       ous historical systems. The following formats have been witnessed:

        1. Killed( signal name)

        2. signal name

        3. signal name( coredump)

        4. signal description- core dumped

       Most  users  should  be  able  to understand these formats, although it
       means that applications have trouble parsing them.

       The calculation of job IDs was not described since this  would  suggest
       an implementation, which may impose unnecessary restrictions.

       In  an  early proposal, a -n option was included to "Display the status
       of jobs that have changed, exited, or stopped  since  the  last  status
       report".  It  was  removed  because the shell always writes any changed
       status of jobs before each prompt.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS
       None.

SEE ALSO
       Shell Execution Environment, bg, fg, kill(), wait()

COPYRIGHT
       Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in  electronic  form
       from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technology
       -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX),  The  Open  Group  Base
       Specifications  Issue  6,  Copyright  (C) 2001-2003 by the Institute of
       Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open  Group.  In  the
       event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and
       The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group  Standard
       is  the  referee document. The original Standard can be obtained online
       at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .

IEEE/The Open Group                  2003                             JOBS(1P)
 

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