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javadoc(1)                                                          javadoc(1)

Name
       javadoc - The Java API Documentation Generator

          Generates  HTML  pages  of API documentation from Java source files.
          This document contains Javadoc examples for Sun Solaris.

SYNOPSIS
       javadoc [ options ] [ packagenames ] [ sourcefilenames ] [ -subpack-
       ages pkg1:pkg2:... ] [ @argfiles ]

       Arguments  can  be  in  any  order.  See processing of Source Files for
       details on how the Javadoc tool determines which ".java" files to  pro-
       cess.

             options
                Command-line  options, as specified in this document. To see a
                typical use of javadoc options, see Real-World Example.

             packagenames
                A series of names of packages, separated by  spaces,  such  as
                java.lang java.lang.reflect java.awt.   You   must  separately
                specify each package you want to document. Wildcards  are  not
                allowed; use -subpackages for recursion. The Javadoc tool uses
                -sourcepath to look for these package  names.  See  Example  -
                Documenting One or More Packages

             sourcefilenames
                A  series  of  source file names, separated by spaces, each of
                which can begin with a path and contain  a  wildcard  such  as
                asterisk  (*).  The Javadoc tool will process every file whose
                name ends with ".java", and whose name, when stripped of  that
                suffix, is actually a legal class name (see Identifiers @
                http://java.sun.com/docs/books/jls/second_edition/html/lexi-
                cal.doc.html#40625). Therefore, you can name files with dashes
                (such as X-Buffer), or other illegal characters, to prevent
                them from being documented. This is useful for test files and
                template files The path that precedes the source file name
                determines where javadoc will look for the file. (The Javadoc
                tool does not use -sourcepath to look for these source file
                names.) Relative paths are relative to the current directory,
                so passing in Button.java is identical to ./Button.java. A
                source file name with an absolute path and a wildcard, for
                example, is /home/src/java/awt/Graphics*.java. See Exam-
                ple - Documenting One or More Classes. You can also mix packa-
                genames and sourcefilenames, as in Example - Documenting Both
                Packages and Classes

             -subpackages pkg1:pkg2:...
                Generates documentation from source files in the specified
                packages and recursively in their subpackages. An alternative
                to supplying packagenames or sourcefilenames.

             @argfiles
                One or more files that contain a list of Javadoc options,
                packagenames and sourcefilenames in any order. Wildcards (*)
                and -J options are not allowed in these files.

DESCRIPTION
       The Javadoc tool parses the declarations and documentation comments in
       a set of Java source files and produces a corresponding set of HTML
       pages describing (by default) the public and protected classes, nested
       classes (but not anonymous inner classes), interfaces, constructors,
       methods, and fields. You can use it to generate the API (Application
       Programming Interface) documentation or the implementation documenta-
       tion for a set of source files.

       You can run the Javadoc tool on entire packages, individual source
       files, or both. When documenting entire packages, you can either use
       -subpackages for traversing recursively down from a top-level direc-
       tory, or pass in an explicit list of package names. When documenting
       individual source files, you pass in a list of source (.java) file-
       names. Examples are given at the end of this document. How Javadoc pro-
       cesses source files is covered next.

   Processing of source files
       The Javadoc tool processes files that end in ".java" plus other files
       described under Source Files. If you run the Javadoc tool by explicitly
       passing in individual source filenames, you can determine exactly which
       ".java" files are processed. However, that is not how most developers
       want to work, as it is simpler to pass in package names. The Javadoc
       tool can be run three ways without explicitly specifying the source
       filenames. You can (1) pass in package names, (2) use -subpackages, and
       (3) use wildcards with source filenames (*.java). In these cases, the
       Javadoc tool processes a ".java" file only if it fulfills all of the
       following requirements:

          o Its name, after stripping off the ".java" suffix, is actually a
            legal class name (see Identifiers @
            http://java.sun.com/docs/books/jls/second_edition/html/lexi-
            cal.doc.html#40625 for legal characters)

          o Its directory path relative to the root of the source tree is
            actually a legal package name (after converting its separators to
            dots)

          o Its package statement contains the legal package name (specified
            in the previous bullet)

       Processing of links - During a run, the Javadoc tool automatically adds
       cross-reference links to package, class and member names that are being
       documented as part of that run. Links appear in several places:

          o Declarations (return types, argument types, field types)

          o "See Also" sections generated from @see tags

          o In-line text generated from {@link} tags

          o Exception names generated from @throws tags

          o "Specified by" links to members in interfaces and "Overrides"
            links to members in classes

          o Summary tables listing packages, classes and members

          o Package and class inheritance trees

          o The index

       You can add hyperlinks to existing text for classes not included on the
       command line (but generated separately) by way of the -link and
       -linkoffline options.

       Other processing details - The Javadoc tool produces one complete docu-
       ment each time it is run; it cannot do incremental builds -- that is,
       it cannot modify or directly incorporate results from previous runs of
       the Javadoc tool. However, it can link to results from other runs, as
       just mentioned.

       As implemented, the Javadoc tool requires and relies on the java com-
       piler to do its job. The Javadoc tool calls part of javac to compile
       the declarations, ignoring the member implementation. It builds a rich
       internal representation of the classes, including the class hierarchy,
       and "use" relationships, then generates the HTML from that. The Javadoc
       tool also picks up user-supplied documentation from documentation com-
       ments in the source code.

       In fact, the Javadoc tool will run on .java source files that are pure
       stub files with no method bodies. This means you can write documenta-
       tion comments and run the Javadoc tool in the earliest stages of design
       while creating the API, before writing the implementation.

       Relying on the compiler ensures that the HTML output corresponds
       exactly with the actual implementation, which may rely on implicit,
       rather than explicit, source code. For example, the Javadoc tool docu-
       ments default constructors @
       http://java.sun.com/docs/books/jls/second_edi-
       tion/html/names.doc.html#36154 (section 8.6.7 of Java Language Specifi-
       cation) that are present in the .class files but not in the source
       code.

       In many cases, the Javadoc tool allows you to generate documentation
       for source files whose code is incomplete or erroneous. This is a bene-
       fit that enables you to generate documentation before all debugging and
       troubleshooting is done. For example, according to the Java Language
       Specification, a class that contains an abstract method should itself
       be declared abstract. The Javadoc tool does not check for this, and
       would proceed without a warning, whereas the javac compiler stops on
       this error. The Javadoc tool does do some primitive checking of doc
       comments. Use the DocCheck doclet to check the doc comments more thor-
       oughly.

       When the Javadoc tool builds its internal structure for the documenta-
       tion, it loads all referenced classes. Because of this, the Javadoc
       tool must be able to find all referenced classes, whether bootstrap
       classes, extensions, or user classes. For more about this, see How
       Classes Are Found @
       http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/technotes/tools/findingclasses.html.
       Generally speaking, classes you create must either be loaded as an
       extension or in the Javadoc tool's class path.

   Javadoc Doclets
       You can customize the content and format of the Javadoc tool's output
       by using doclets. The Javadoc tool has a default "built-in" doclet,
       called the standard doclet, that generates HTML-formatted API documen-
       tation. You can modify or subclass the standard doclet, or write your
       own doclet to generate HTML, XML, MIF, RTF or whatever output format
       you'd like. Information about doclets and their use is at the following
       locations:

          o Javadoc Doclets @
            http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/tech-
            notes/guides/javadoc/index.html

          o The -doclet command-line option

       When a custom doclet is not specified with the -doclet command line
       option, the Javadoc tool will use the default standard doclet. The
       javadoc tool has several command line options that are available
       regardless of which doclet is being used. The standard doclet adds a
       supplementary set of command line options. Both sets of options are
       described below in the options section.

   Related Documentation and Doclets
          o Javadoc Enhancements @
            http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/tech-
            notes/guides/javadoc/index.html for details about improvements
            added in Javadoc.

          o Javadoc FAQ @
            http://java.sun.com/j2se/javadoc/faq/index.html for answers to
            common questions, information about Javadoc-related tools, and
            workarounds for bugs.

          o How to Write Doc Comments for Javadoc @
            http://java.sun.com/j2se/javadoc/writingdoccomments/index.html for
            more information about Sun conventions for writing documentation
            comments.

          o Requirements for Writing API Specifications @
            http://java.sun.com/j2se/javadoc/writingapispecs/index.html -
            Standard requirements used when writing the Java 2 Platform Speci-
            fication. It can be useful whether you are writing API specifica-
            tions in source file documentation comments or in other formats.
            It covers requirements for packages, classes, interfaces, fields
            and methods to satisfy testable assertions.

          o Documentation Comment Specification @
            http://java.sun.com/docs/books/jls/first_edition/html/18.doc.html
            - The original specification on documentation comments, Chapter
            18, Documentation Comments, in the Java Language Specification,
            First Edition, by James Gosling, Bill Joy, and Guy Steele. (This
            chapter was removed from the second edition.)

          o DocCheck Doclet @
            http://java.sun.com/javadoc/doccheck - Checks doc comments in
            source files and generates a report listing the errors and irregu-
            larities it finds. It is part of the Sun Doc Check Utilities.

          o MIF Doclet @
            http://java.sun.com/javadoc/mifdoclet - Can automate the genera-
            tion of API documentation in MIF, FrameMaker and PDF formats. MIF
            is Adobe FrameMaker's interchange format.

   Terminology
       The terms documentation comment, doc comment, main description, tag,
       block tag, and in-line tag are described at Documentation Comments.
       These other terms have specific meanings within the context of the
       Javadoc tool:

          generated document
             The document generated by the javadoc tool from the doc comments
             in Java source code. The default generated document is in HTML
             and is created by the standard doclet.

          name
             A name of a program element written in the Java Language -- that
             is, the name of a package, class, interface, field, constructor
             or method. A name can be fully-qualified, such as
             java.lang.String.equals(java.lang.Object), or partially-quali-
             fied, such as equals(Object).

          documented classes
             The classes and interfaces for which detailed documentation is
             generated during a javadoc run. To be documented, the source
             files must be available, their source filenames or package names
             must be passed into the javadoc command, and they must not be
             filtered out by their access modifier (public, protected, pack-
             age-private or private). We also refer to these as the classes
             included in the javadoc output, or the included classes.

          included classes
             Classes and interfaces whose details are documented during a run
             of the Javadoc tool. Same as documented classes.

          excluded classes
             Classes and interfaces whose details are not documented during a
             run of the Javadoc tool.

          referenced classes
             The classes and interfaces that are explicitly referred to in the
             definition (implementation) or doc comments of the documented
             classes and interfaces. Examples of references include return
             type, parameter type, cast type, extended class, implemented
             interface, imported classes, classes used in method bodies, @see,
             {@link}, {@linkplain}, and {@inheritDoc} tags. (Notice this defi-
             nition has changed since 1.3 @
             http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.3/docs/tooldocs/solaris/javadoc.html#ref-
             erencedclasses.) When the Javadoc tool is run, it should load
             into memory all of the referenced classes in javadoc's bootclass-
             path and classpath. (The Javadoc tool prints a "Class not found"
             warning for referenced classes not found.) The Javadoc tool can
             derive enough information from the .class files to determine
             their existence and the fully-qualified names of their members.

          external referenced classes
             The referenced classes whose documentation is not being generated
             during a javadoc run. In other words, these classes are not
             passed into the Javadoc tool on the command line. Links in the
             generated documentation to those classes are said to be external
             references or external links. For example, if you run the Javadoc
             tool on only the java.awt package, then any class in java.lang,
             such as Object, is an external referenced class. External refer-
             enced classes can be linked to using the -link and -linkoffline
             options. An important property of an external referenced class is
             that its source comments are normally not available to the
             Javadoc run. In this case, these comments cannot be inherited.

SOURCE FILES
       The Javadoc tool will generate output originating from four different
       types of "source" files: Java language source files for classes
       (.java), package comment files, overview comment files, and miscella-
       neous unprocessed files. This section also covers test files and tem-
       plate files that can also be in the source tree, but which you want to
       be sure not to document.

   Class Source Code Files
       Each class or interface and its members can have their own documenta-
       tion comments, contained in a .java file. For more details about these
       doc comments, see Documentation Comments.

   Package Comment Files
       Each package can have its own documentation comment, contained in its
       own "source" file, that the Javadoc tool will merge into the package
       summary page that it generates. You typically include in this comment
       any documentation that applies to the entire package.

       To create a package comment file, you have a choice of two files to
       place your comments:

          o package-info.java - Can contain a package declaration, package
            annotations, package comments and Javadoc tags. This file is new
            in JDK 5.0, and is preferred over package.html.

          o package.html - Can contain only package comments and Javadoc tags,
            no package annotations.

       A package may have a single package.html file or a single pack-
       age-info.java file but not both. Place either file in the package
       directory in the source tree along with your .java files.

       package-info.java - This file can contain a package comment of the fol-
       lowing structure -- the comment is placed before the package declara-
       tion:

       File: java/applet/package-info.java

       Note that while the comment separators /** and /* must be present, the
       leading asterisks on the intermediate lines can be omitted.

       package.html - This file can contain a package comment of the following
       structure -- the comment is placed in the <body> element:

       File: java/applet/package.html

       Notice this is just a normal HTML file and does not include a package
       declaration. The content of the package comment file is written in
       HTML, like all other comments, with one exception: The documentation
       comment should not include the comment separators /** and */ or leading
       asterisks. When writing the comment, you should make the first sentence
       a summary about the package, and not put a title or any other text
       between <body> and the first sentence. You can include package tags; as
       with any documentation comment, all block tags must appear after the
       main description. If you add a @see tag in a package comment file, it
       must have a fully-qualified name. For more details, see the example of
       package.html @
       http://java.sun.com/j2se/javadoc/writingdoccomments/index.html#pack-
       agecomments.

       Processing of package comment file - When the Javadoc tool runs, it
       will automatically look for the package comment file; if found, the
       Javadoc tool does the following:

          o Copies the comment for processing. (For package.html, copies all
            content between <body> and </body> HTML tags. You can include a
            <head> section to put a <title>, source file copyright statement,
            or other information, but none of these will appear in the gener-
            ated documentation.)

          o Processes any package tags that are present.

          o Inserts the processed text at the bottom of the package summary
            page it generates, as shown in Package Summary @
            http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/api/java/applet/package-sum-
            mary.html.

          o Copies the first sentence of the package comment to the top of the
            package summary page. It also adds the package name and this first
            sentence to the list of packages on the overview page, as shown in
            Overview Summary @
            http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/api/overview-summary.html. The
            end-of-sentence is determined by the same rules used for the end
            of the first sentence of class and member main descriptions.

   Overview Comment File
       Each application or set of packages that you are documenting can have
       its own overview documentation comment, kept in its own "source" file,
       that the Javadoc tool will merge into the overview page that it gener-
       ates. You typically include in this comment any documentation that
       applies to the entire application or set of packages.

       To create an overview comment file, you can name the file anything you
       want, typically overview.html and place it anywhere, typically at the
       top level of the source tree. For example, if the source files for the
       java.applet package are contained in /home/user/src/java/applet direc-
       tory, you could create an overview comment file at
       /home/user/src/overview.html.

       Notice you can have multiple overview comment files for the same set of
       source files, in case you want to run javadoc multiple times on differ-
       ent sets of packages. For example, you could run javadoc once with
       -private for internal documentation and again without that option for
       public documentation. In this case, you could describe the documenta-
       tion as public or internal in the first sentence of each overview com-
       ment file.

       The content of the overview comment file is one big documentation com-
       ment, written in HTML, like the package comment file described previ-
       ously. See that description for details. To re-iterate, when writing
       the comment, you should make the first sentence a summary about the
       application or set of packages, and not put a title or any other text
       between <body> and the first sentence. You can include overview tags;
       as with any documentation comment, all tags except in-line tags, such
       as {@link}, must appear after the main description. If you add a @see
       tag, it must have a fully-qualified name.

       When you run the Javadoc tool, you specify the overview comment file
       name with the -overview option. The file is then processed similar to
       that of a package comment file.

          o Copies all content between <body> and </body> tags for processing.

          o Processes any overview tags that are present.

          o Inserts the processed text at the bottom of the overview page it
            generates, as shown in Overview Summary @
            http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/api/overview-summary.html.

          o Copies the first sentence of the overview comment to the top of
            the overview summary page.

   Miscellaneous Unprocessed Files
       You can also include in your source any miscellaneous files that you
       want the Javadoc tool to copy to the destination directory. These typi-
       cally includes graphic files, example Java source (.java) and class
       (.class) files, and self-standing HTML files whose content would over-
       whelm the documentation comment of a normal Java source file.

       To include unprocessed files, put them in a directory called doc-files
       which can be a subdirectory of any package directory that contains
       source files. You can have one such subdirectory for each package. You
       might include images, example code, source files, .class files, applets
       and HTML files. For example, if you want to include the image of a but-
       ton button.gif in the java.awt.Button class documentation, you place
       that file in the /home/user/src/java/awt/doc-files/ directory. Notice
       the doc-files directory should not be located at
       /home/user/src/java/doc-files because java is not a package -- that is,
       it does not directly contain any source files.

       All links to these unprocessed files must be hard-coded, because the
       Javadoc tool does not look at the files -- it simply copies the direc-
       tory and all its contents to the destination. For example, the link in
       the Button.java doc comment might look like:

           /**
            * This button looks like this:
            * <img src="doc-files/Button.gif">
            */

   Test Files and Template Files
       Some developers have indicated they want to store test files and tem-
       plates files in the source tree near their corresponding source files.
       That is, they would like to put them in the same directory, or a subdi-
       rectory, of those source files.

       If you run the Javadoc tool by explicitly passing in individual source
       filenames, you can deliberately omit test and templates files and pre-
       vent them from being processed. However, if you are passing in package
       names or wildcards, you need to follow certain rules to ensure these
       test files and templates files are not processed.

       Test files differ from template files in that the former are legal,
       compilable source files, while the latter are not, but may end with
       ".java".

       Test files - Often developers want to put compilable, runnable test
       files for a given package in the same directory as the source files for
       that package. But they want the test files to belong to a package other
       than the source file package, such as the unnamed package (so the test
       files have no package statement or a different package statement from
       the source). In this scenario, when the source is being documented by
       specifying its package name specified on the command line, the test
       files will cause warnings or errors. You need to put such test files in
       a subdirectory. For example, if you want to add test files for source
       files in com.package1, put them in a subdirectory that would be an
       invalid package name (because it contains a hyphen):

           com/package1/test-files/

       The test directory will be skipped by the Javadoc tool with no warn-
       ings.

       If your test files contain doc comments, you can set up a separate run
       of the Javadoc tool to produce documentation of the test files by pass-
       ing in their test source filenames with wildcards, such as com/pack-
       age1/test-files/*.java.

       Templates for source files - Template files have names that often end
       in ".java" and are not compilable. If you have a template for a source
       file that you want to keep in the source directory, you can name it
       with a dash (such as Buffer-Template.java), or any other illegal Java
       character, to prevent it from being processed. This relies on the fact
       that the Javadoc tool will only process source files whose name, when
       stripped of the ".java" suffix, is actually a legal class name (see
       Identifiers @
       http://java.sun.com/docs/books/jls/second_edition/html/lexi-
       cal.doc.html#40625).

GENERATED FILES
       By default, javadoc uses a standard doclet that generates HTML-format-
       ted documentation. This doclet generates the following kinds of files
       (where each HTML "page" corresponds to a separate file). Note that
       javadoc generates files with two types of names: those named after
       classes/interfaces, and those that are not (such as package-sum-
       mary.html). Files in the latter group contain hyphens to prevent file-
       name conflicts with those in the former group.

       Basic Content Pages

          o One class or interface page (classname.html) for each class or
            interface it is documenting.

          o One package page (package-summary.html) for each package it is
            documenting. The Javadoc tool will include any HTML text provided
            in a file named package.html or package-info.java in the package
            directory of the source tree.

          o One overview page (overview-summary.html) for the entire set of
            packages. This is the front page of the generated document. The
            Javadoc tool will include any HTML text provided in a file speci-
            fied with the -overview option. Note that this file is created
            only if you pass into javadoc two or more package names. For fur-
            ther explanation, see HTML Frames.)

       Cross-Reference Pages

          o One class hierarchy page for the entire set of packages
            (overview-tree.html). To view this, click on "Overview" in the
            navigation bar, then click on "Tree".

          o One class hierarchy page for each package (package-tree.html) To
            view this, go to a particular package, class or interface page;
            click "Tree" to display the hierarchy for that package.

          o One "use" page for each package (package-use.html) and a separate
            one for each class and interface (class-use/classname.html). This
            page describes what packages, classes, methods, constructors and
            fields use any part of the given class, interface or package.
            Given a class or interface A, its "use" page includes subclasses
            of A, fields declared as A, methods that return A, and methods and
            constructors with parameters of type A. You can access this page
            by first going to the package, class or interface, then clicking
            on the "Use" link in the navigation bar.

          o A deprecated API page (deprecated-list.html) listing all depre-
            cated names. (A deprecated name is not recommended for use, gener-
            ally due to improvements, and a replacement name is usually given.
            Deprecated APIs may be removed in future implementations.)

          o A constant field values page (constant-values.html) for the values
            of static fields.

          o A serialized form page (serialized-form.html) for information
            about serializable and externalizable classes. Each such class has
            a description of its serialization fields and methods. This
            information is of interest to re-implementors, not to developers
            using the API. While there is no link in the navigation bar, you
            can get to this information by going to any serialized class and
            clicking "Serialized Form" in the "See also" section of the class
            comment. The standard doclet automatically generates a serialized
            form page: any class (public or non-public) that implements Seri-
            alizable is included, along with readObject and writeObject meth-
            ods, the fields that are serialized, and the doc comments from the
            @serial, @serialField, and @serialData tags. Public serializable
            classes can be excluded by marking them (or their package) with
            @serial exclude, and package-private serializable classes can be
            included by marking them (or their package) with @serial include.
            As of 1.4, you can generate the complete serialized form for pub-
            lic and private classes by running javadoc without specifying the
            -private option.

          o An index (index-*.html) of all class, interface, constructor,
            field and method names, alphabetically arranged. This is interna-
            tionalized for Unicode and can be generated as a single file or as
            a separate file for each starting character (such as A-Z for
            English).

       Support Files

          o A help page (help-doc.html) that describes the navigation bar and
            the above pages. You can provide your own custom help file to
            override the default using -helpfile.

          o One index.html file which creates the HTML frames for display.
            This is the file you load to display the front page with frames.
            This file itself contains no text content.

          o Several frame files (*-frame.html) containing lists of packages,
            classes and interfaces, used when HTML frames are being displayed.

          o A package list file (package-list), used by the -link and -linkof-
            fline options. This is a text file, not HTML, and is not reachable
            through any links.

          o A style sheet file (stylesheet.css) that controls a limited amount
            of color, font family, font size, font style and positioning on
            the generated pages.

          o A doc-files directory that holds any image, example, source code
            or other files that you want copied to the destination directory.
            These files are not processed by the Javadoc tool in any manner --
            that is, any javadoc tags in them will be ignored. This directory
            is not generated unless it exists in the source tree.

       HTML Frames

       The Javadoc tool will generate either two or three HTML frames, as
       shown in the figure below. It creates the minimum necessary number of
       frames by omitting the list of packages if there is only one package
       (or no packages). That is, when you pass a single package name or
       source files (*.java) belonging to a single package as arguments into
       the javadoc command, it will create only one frame (C) in the left-hand
       column -- the list of classes. When you pass into javadoc two or more
       package names, it creates a third frame (P) listing all packages, as
       well as an overview page (Detail). This overview page has the filename
       overview-summary.html. Thus, this file is created only if you pass in
       two or more package names. You can bypass frames by clicking on the "No
       Frames" link or entering at overview-summary.html.

       If you are unfamiliar with HTML frames, you should be aware that frames
       can have focus for printing and scrolling. To give a frame focus, click
       on it. Then on many browsers the arrow keys and page keys will scroll
       that frame, and the print menu command will print it.

                     ------------                  ------------
                     |C| Detail |                  |P| Detail |
                     | |        |                  | |        |
                     | |        |                  |-|        |
                     | |        |                  |C|        |
                     | |        |                  | |        |
                     | |        |                  | |        |
                     ------------                  ------------
                    javadoc *.java           javadoc java.lang java.awt

       Load one of the following two files as the starting page depending on
       whether you want HTML frames or not:

          o index.html (for frames)

          o overview-summary.html (for no frames)

       Generated File Structure

       The generated class and interface files are organized in the same
       directory hierarchy that Java source files and class files are orga-
       nized. This structure is one directory per subpackage.

       For example, the document generated for the class java.applet.Applet
       class would be located at java/applet/Applet.html. The file structure
       for the java.applet package follows, given that the destination direc-
       tory is named apidocs. All files that contain the word "frame" appear
       in the upper-left or lower-left frames, as noted. All other HTML files
       appear in the right-hand frame.

          NOTE - Directories are shown in bold. The asterisks (*) indicate the
          files and directories that are omitted when the arguments to javadoc
          are source filenames (*.java) rather than package names. Also when
          arguments are source filenames, package-list is created but is
          empty. The doc-files directory will not be created in the destina-
          tion unless it exists in the source tree.

       apidocs                             Top directory
          index.html                       Initial page that sets up HTML frames
        * overview-summary.html            Lists all packages with first sentence summaries
          overview-tree.html               Lists class hierarchy for all packages
          deprecated-list.html             Lists deprecated API for all packages
          constant-values.html             Lists values of static fields for all packages
          serialized-form.html             Lists serialized form for all packages
        * overview-frame.html              Lists all packages, used in upper-left frame
          allclasses-frame.html            Lists all classes for all packages, used in lower-left frame
          help-doc.html                    Lists user help for how these pages are organized
          index-all.html                   Default index created without -splitindex option
          index-files                      Directory created with -splitindex option
              index-<number>.html          Index files created with -splitindex option
          package-list                     Lists package names, used only for resolving external refs
          stylesheet.css                   HTML style sheet for defining fonts, colors and positions
          java                             Package directory
              applet                       Subpackage directory
                   Applet.html             Page for Applet class
                   AppletContext.html      Page for AppletContext interface
                   AppletStub.html         Page for AppletStub interface
                   AudioClip.html          Page for AudioClip interface
                 * package-summary.html    Lists classes with first sentence summaries for this package
                 * package-frame.html      Lists classes in this package, used in lower left-hand frame
                 * package-tree.html       Lists class hierarchy for this package
                   package-use             Lists where this package is used
                   doc-files               Directory holding image and example files
                   class-use               Directory holding pages API is used
                       Applet.html         Page for uses of Applet class
                       AppletContext.html  Page for uses of AppletContext interface
                       AppletStub.html     Page for uses of AppletStub interface
                       AudioClip.html      Page for uses of AudioClip interface
          src-html                         Source code directory
              java                         Package directory
                  applet                   Subpackage directory
                       Applet.html         Page for Applet source code
                       AppletContext.html  Page for AppletContext source code
                       AppletStub.html     Page for AppletStub source code
                       AudioClip.html      Page for AudioClip source code

   Generated API Declarations
       The Javadoc tool generates a declaration at the start of each class,
       interface, field, constructor, and method description for that API
       item. For example, the declaration for the Boolean class is:

       public final class Boolean
       extends Object
       implements Serializable

       and the declaration for the Boolean.valueOfmethod is:

       public static Boolean valueOf(String s)

       The Javadoc tool can include the modifiers public, protected, private,
       abstract, final, static, transient, and volatile, but not synchronized
       or native. These last two modifiers are considered implementation
       detail and not part of the API specification.

       Rather than relying on the keyword synchronized, APIs should document
       their concurrency semantics in the comment's main description, as in "a
       single Enumeration cannot be used by multiple threads concurrently".
       The document should not describe how to achieve these semantics. As
       another example, while Hashtable should be thread-safe, there's no rea-
       son to specify that we achieve this by synchronizing all of its
       exported methods. We should reserve the right to synchronize internally
       at the bucket level, thus offering higher concurrency.

DOCUMENTATION COMMENTS
       The original "Documentation Comment Specification" can be found under
       related documentation.

   Commenting the Source Code
       You can include documentation comments ("doc comments") in the source
       code, ahead of declarations for any class, interface, method, construc-
       tor, or field. You can also create doc comments for each package and
       another one for the overview, though their syntax is slightly differ-
       ent. Doc comments are also known informally as "Javadoc comments" (but
       this term violates its trademark usage). A doc comment consists of the
       characters between the characters /** that begin the comment and the
       characters */ that end it. Leading asterisks are allowed on each line
       and are described further below. The text in a comment can continue
       onto multiple lines.

       /**
        * This is the typical format of a simple documentation comment
        * that spans two lines.
        */

       To save space you can put a comment on one line:

       /** This comment takes up only one line. */

       Placement of comments - Documentation comments are recognized only when
       placed immediately before class, interface, constructor, method, or
       field declarations -- see the class example, method example, and field
       example. Documentation comments placed in the body of a method are
       ignored. Only one documentation comment per declaration statement is
       recognized by the Javadoc tool.

       A common mistake is to put an import statement between the class com-
       ment and the class declaration. Avoid this, as the Javadoc tool will
       ignore the class comment.

          /**
           * This is the class comment for the class Whatever.
           */

           import com.sun;   // MISTAKE - Important not to put import statement here

           public class Whatever {
           }

       A doc comment is composed of a main description followed by a tag sec-
       tion - The main description begins after the starting delimiter /** and
       continues until the tag section. The tag section starts with the first
       block tag, which is defined by the first @ character that begins a line
       (ignoring leading asterisks, white space, and leading separator /**).
       It is possible to have a comment with only a tag section and no main
       description. The main description cannot continue after the tag section
       begins. The argument to a tag can span multiple lines. There can be any
       number of tags -- some types of tags can be repeated while others can-
       not. For example, this @see starts the tag section:

       /**
        * This sentence would hold the main description for this doc comment.
        * @see java.lang.Object
        */

       Block tags and in-line tags - A tag is a special keyword within a doc
       comment that the Javadoc tool can process. There are two kinds of tags:
       block tags, which appear as @tag (also known as "standalone tags"), and
       in-line tags, which appear within curly braces, as {@tag}. To be inter-
       preted, a block tag must appear at the beginning of a line, ignoring
       leading asterisks, white space, and separator (/**). This means you can
       use the @ character elsewhere in the text and it will not be inter-
       preted as the start of a tag. If you want to start a line with the @
       character and not have it be interpreted, use the HTML entity &#064;.
       Each block tag has associated text, which includes any text following
       the tag up to, but not including, either the next tag, or the end of
       the doc comment. This associated text can span multiple lines. An
       in-line tag is allowed and interpreted anywhere that text is allowed.
       The following example contains the block tag @deprecated and in-line
       tag {@link}.

       /**
        * @deprecated  As of JDK 1.1, replaced by {@link #setBounds(int,int,int,int)}
        */

       Comments are written in HTML - The text must be written in HTML, in
       that they should use HTML entities and can use HTML tags. You can use
       whichever version of HTML your browser supports; we have written the
       standard doclet to generate HTML 3.2-compliant code elsewhere (outside
       of the documentation comments) with the inclusion of cascading style
       sheets and frames. (We preface each generated file with "HTML 4.0"
       because of the frame sets.)

       For example, entities for the less-than (<) and greater-than (>) sym-
       bols should be written < and >. Likewise, the ampersand (&) should be
       written &. The bold HTML tag <b> is shown in the following example.

       Here is a doc comment:

       /**
        * This is a <b>doc</b> comment.
        * @see java.lang.Object
        */

       Leading asterisks - When javadoc parses a doc comment, leading asterisk
       (*) characters on each line are discarded; blanks and tabs preceding
       the initial asterisk (*) characters are also discarded. Starting with
       1.4, if you omit the leading asterisk on a line, the leading white
       space is no longer removed. This enables you to paste code examples
       directly into a doc comment inside a <PRE> tag, and its indentation
       will be honored. Spaces are generally interpreted by browsers more uni-
       formly than tabs. Indentation is relative to the left margin (rather
       than the separator /** or <PRE> tag).

       First sentence - The first sentence of each doc comment should be a
       summary sentence, containing a concise but complete description of the
       declared entity. This sentence ends at the first period that is fol-
       lowed by a blank, tab, or line terminator, or at the first block tag.
       The Javadoc tool copies this first sentence to the member summary at
       the top of the HTML page.

       Declaration with multiple fields - Java allows declaring multiple
       fields in a single statement, but this statement can have only one doc-
       umentation comment, which is copied for all fields. Therefore if you
       want individual documentation comments for each field, you must declare
       each field in a separate statement. For example, the following documen-
       tation comment doesn't make sense written as a single declaration and
       would be better handled as two declarations:

          /**
           * The horizontal and vertical distances of point (x,y)
           */
          public int x, y;      // Avoid this

       The Javadoc tool generates the following documentation from the above
       code:

          public int x

             The horizontal and vertical distances of point (x,y)

          public int y

             The horizontal and vertical distances of point (x,y)

       Use header tags carefully - When writing documentation comments for
       members, it's best not to use HTML heading tags such as <H1> and <H2>,
       because the Javadoc tool creates an entire structured document and
       these structural tags might interfere with the formatting of the gener-
       ated document. However, it is fine to use these headings in class and
       package comments to provide your own structure.

   Automatic Copying of Method Comments
       The Javadoc tool has the ability to copy or "inherit" method comments
       in classes and interfaces under the following two circumstances.
       Constructors, fields and nested classes do not inherit doc comments.

          o Automatically inherit comment to fill in missing text - When a
            main description, or @return, @param or @throws  tag is missing
            from a method comment, the Javadoc tool copies the corresponding
            main description or tag comment from the method it overrides or
            implements (if any), according to the algorithm below.

          More specifically, when a @param tag for a particular parameter is
          missing, then the comment for that parameter is copied from the
          method further up the inheritance hierarchy. When a @throws tag for
          a particular exception is missing, the @throws tag is copied only if
          that exception is declared.

          This behavior contrasts with version 1.3 and earlier, where the
          presence of any main description or tag would prevent all comments
          from being inherited.

          o Explicitly inherit comment with {@inheritDoc} tag - Insert the
            inline tag {@inheritDoc} in a method main description or @return,
            @param or @throws tag comment -- the corresponding inherited main
            description or tag comment is copied into that spot.

       The source file for the inherited method need only be on the path spec-
       ified by -sourcepath for the doc comment to actually be available to
       copy. Neither the class nor its package needs to be passed in on the
       command line. This contrasts with 1.3.x and earlier releases, where the
       class had to be a documented class

       Inherit from classes and interfaces - Inheriting of comments occurs in
       all three possible cases of inheritance from classes and interfaces:

          o When a method in a class overrides a method in a superclass

          o When a method in an interface overrides a method in a superinter-
            face

          o When a method in a class implements a method in an interface

       In the first two cases, for method overrides, the Javadoc tool gener-
       ates a subheading "Overrides" in the documentation for the overriding
       method, with a link to the method it is overriding, whether or not the
       comment is inherited.

       In the third case, when a method in a given class implements a method
       in an interface, the Javadoc tool generates a subheading "Specified by"
       in the documentation for the overriding method, with a link to the
       method it is implementing. This happens whether or not the comment is
       inherited.

       Algorithm for Inheriting Method Comments - If a method does not have a
       doc comment, or has an {@inheritDoc} tag, the Javadoc tool searches for
       an applicable comment using the following algorithm, which is designed
       to find the most specific applicable doc comment, giving preference to
       interfaces over superclasses:

          1. Look in each directly implemented (or extended) interface in the
             order they appear following the word implements (or extends) in
             the method declaration. Use the first doc comment found for this
             method.

          2. If step 1 failed to find a doc comment, recursively apply this
             entire algorithm to each directly implemented (or extended)
             interface, in the same order they were examined in step 1.

          3. If step 2 failed to find a doc comment and this is a class other
             than Object (not an interface):

             a. If the superclass has a doc comment for this method, use it.

             b. If step 3a failed to find a doc comment, recursively apply
                this entire algorithm to the superclass.

JAVADOC TAGS
       The Javadoc tool parses special tags when they are embedded within a
       Java doc comment. These doc tags enable you to autogenerate a complete,
       well-formatted API from your source code. The tags start with an "at"
       sign (@) and are case-sensitive -- they must be typed with the upper-
       case and lowercase letters as shown. A tag must start at the beginning
       of a line (after any leading spaces and an optional asterisk) or it is
       treated as normal text. By convention, tags with the same name are
       grouped together. For example, put all @see tags together.

       Tags come in two types:

          o Block tags - Can be placed only in the tag section that follows
            the main description. Block tags are of the form: @tag.

          o Inline tags - Can be placed anywhere in the main description or in
            the comments for block tags. Inline tags are denoted by curly
            braces: {@tag}.

       For information about tags we might introduce in future releases, see
       Proposed Tags @
       http://java.sun.com/j2se/javadoc/proposed-tags.html.

       The current tags are:

       For custom tags, see the -tag option.

          @author  name-text
             Adds an "Author" entry with the specified name-text to the gener-
             ated docs when the -author option is used. A doc comment may con-
             tain multiple @author tags. You can specify one name per @author
             tag or multiple names per tag. In the former case, the Javadoc
             tool inserts a comma (,) and space between names. In the latter
             case, the entire text is simply copied to the generated document
             without being parsed. Therefore, you can use multiple names per
             line if you want a localized name separator other than comma.

          For more details, see Where Tags Can Be Used and writing @author
          tags @
          http://java.sun.com/j2se/javadoc/writingdoccom-
          ments/index.html#@author.

          @deprecated  deprecated-text

             Note: Starting with JDK 5.0, you can deprecate a program element
             using the @Deprecated annotation @
             http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/technotes/guides/javadoc/depre-
             cation/deprecation.html.

          Adds a comment indicating that this API should no longer be used
          (even though it may continue to work). The Javadoc tool moves the
          deprecated-text ahead of the main description, placing it in italics
          and preceding it with a bold warning: "Deprecated". This tag is
          valid in all doc comments: overview, package, class, interface, con-
          structor, method and field.

          The first sentence of deprecated-text should at least tell the user
          when the API was deprecated and what to use as a replacement. The
          Javadoc tool copies just the first sentence to the summary section
          and index. Subsequent sentences can also explain why it has been
          deprecated. You should include a {@link} tag (for Javadoc 1.2 or
          later) that points to the replacement API:

          For more details, see writing @deprecated tags @
          http://java.sun.com/j2se/javadoc/writingdoccomments/index.html#@dep-
          recated.

             o For Javadoc 1.2 and later, use a {@link} tag. This creates the
               link in-line, where you want it. For example:

             /**
              * @deprecated  As of JDK 1.1, replaced by {@link #setBounds(int,int,int,int)}
              */

             o For Javadoc 1.1, the standard format is to create a @see tag
               (which cannot be in-line) for each @deprecated tag.

          For more about deprecation, see The @deprecated tag @
          http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/technotes/guides/javadoc/depreca-
          tion/index.html.

          {@code  text}
             Equivalent to <code>{@literal}</code>.

          Displays text in code font without interpreting the text as HTML
          markup or nested javadoc tags. This enables you to use regular angle
          brackets (< and >) instead of the HTML entities (< and >) in doc
          comments, such as in parameter types (<Object>), inequalities (3 <
          4), or arrows (<-). For example, the doc comment text:

               {@code A<B>C}

          displays in the generated HTML page unchanged, as:

               A<B>C

          The noteworthy point is that the <B> is not interpreted as bold and
          is in code font.

          If you want the same functionality without the code font, use {@lit-
          eral}.

          {@docRoot}
             Represents the relative path to the generated document's (desti-
             nation) root directory from any generated page. It is useful when
             you want to include a file, such as a copyright page or company
             logo, that you want to reference from all generated pages. Link-
             ing to the copyright page from the bottom of each page is common.

          This {@docRoot} tag can be used both on the command line and in a
          doc comment: This tag is valid in all doc comments: overview, pack-
          age, class, interface, constructor, method and field, including the
          text portion of any tag (such as @return, @param and @deprecated).

             1. On the command line, where the header/footer/bottom are
                defined:

                   javadoc -bottom '<a href="{@docRoot}/copyright.html">Copyright</a>'

             NOTE - When using {@docRoot} this way in a make file, some make-
             file programs require special escaping for the brace {} charac-
             ters. For example, the Inprise MAKE version 5.2 running on Win-
             dows requires double braces: {{@docRoot}}. It also requires dou-
             ble (rather than single) quotes to enclose arguments to options
             such as -bottom (with the quotes around the href argument omit-
             ted).

             2. In a doc comment:

                   /**
                    * See the <a href="{@docRoot}/copyright.html">Copyright</a>.
                    */

          The reason this tag is needed is because the generated docs are in
          hierarchical directories, as deep as the number of subpackages. This
          expression:

            <a href="{@docRoot}/copyright.html">

          would resolve to:

            <a href="../../copyright.html">      for java/lang/Object.java

          and

            <a href="../../../copyright.html">   for java/lang/ref/Reference.java

          @exception  class-name  description
             The @exception tag is a synonym for @throws.

          {@inheritDoc}
             Inherits (copies) documentation from the "nearest" inheritable
             class or implementable interface into the current doc comment at
             this tag's location. This allows you to write more general com-
             ments higher up the inheritance tree, and to write around the
             copied text.

          This tag is valid only in these places in a doc comment:

             o In the main description block of a method. In this case, the
               main description is copied from a class or interface up the
               hierarchy.

             o In the text arguments of the @return, @param and @throws tags
               of a method. In this case, the tag text is copied from the cor-
               responding tag up the hierarchy.

          See Automatic Copying of Method Comments for a more precise descrip-
          tion of how comments are found in the inheritance hierarchy. Note
          that if this tag is missing, the comment is or is not automatically
          inherited according to rules described in that section.

          {@link  package.class#member  label}
             Inserts an in-line link with visible text label that points to
             the documentation for the specified package, class or member name
             of a referenced class. This tag is valid in all doc comments:
             overview, package, class, interface, constructor, method and
             field, including the text portion of any tag (such as @return,
             @param and @deprecated).

          This tag is very simliar to @see -- both require the same references
          and accept exactly the same syntax for package.class#member and
          label. The main difference is that {@link} generates an in-line link
          rather than placing the link in the "See Also" section. Also, the
          {@link} tag begins and ends with curly braces to separate it from
          the rest of the in-line text. If you need to use "}" inside the
          label, use the HTML entity notation &#125;

          There is no limit to the number of {@link} tags allowed in a sen-
          tence. You can use this tag in the main description part of any doc-
          umentation comment or in the text portion of any tag (such as @dep-
          recated, @return or @param).

          For example, here is a comment that refers to the getComponen-
          tAt(int, int) method:

          Use the {@link #getComponentAt(int, int) getComponentAt} method.

          From this, the standard doclet would generate the following HTML
          (assuming it refers to another class in the same package):

          Use the <a href="Component.html#getComponentAt(int, int)">getComponentAt</a> method.

          Which appears on the web page as:

          Use the getComponentAt method.

          You can extend {@link} to link to classes not being documented by
          using the -link option.

          For more details, see writing {@link} tags @
          http://java.sun.com/j2se/javadoc/writingdoccom-
          ments/index.html#{@link}.

          {@linkplain  package.class#member  label}
             Identical to {@link}, except the link's label is displayed in
             plain text than code font. Useful when the label is plain text.
             Example:

               Refer to {@linkplain add() the overridden method}.

          This would display as:

             Refer to the overridden method.

          {@literal  text}
             Displays text without interpreting the text as HTML markup or
             nested javadoc tags. This enables you to use regular angle brack-
             ets (< and >) instead of the HTML entities (< and >) in doc com-
             ments, such as in parameter types (<Object>), inequalities (3 <
             4), or arrows (<-). For example, the doc comment text:

               {@literal A<B>C}

          displays unchanged in the generated HTML page in your browser, as:

               A<B>C

          The noteworthy point is that the <B> is not interpreted as bold (and
          it is not in code font).

          If you want the same functionality but with the text in code font,
          use {@code}.

          @param  parameter-name description
             Adds a parameter with the specified parameter-name followed by
             the specified description to the "Parameters" section. When writ-
             ing the doc comment, you may continue the description onto multi-
             ple lines. This tag is valid only in a doc comment for a method,
             constructor or class.

          The parameter-name can be the name of a parameter in a method or
          constructor, or the name of a type parameter of a class, method or
          constructor. Use angle brackets around this parameter name to spec-
          ify the use of a type parameter.

          Example of a type parameter of a class:

               /**
                * @param <E> Type of element stored in a list
                */
               public interface List<E> extends Collection<E> {
               }

          Example of a type parameter of a method:

               /**
                * @param string  the string to be converted
                * @param type    the type to convert the string to
                * @param <T>     the type of the element
                * @param <V>     the value of the element
                */
               <T, V extends T> V convert(String string, Class<T> type) {
               }

          For more details, see writing @param tags @
          http://java.sun.com/j2se/javadoc/writingdoccom-
          ments/index.html#@param.

          @return  description
             Adds a "Returns" section with the description text. This text
             should describe the return type and permissible range of values.
             This tag is valid only in a doc comment for a method.

          For more details, see writing @return tags @
          http://java.sun.com/j2se/javadoc/writingdoccom-
          ments/index.html#@return.

          @see  reference
             Adds a "See Also" heading with a link or text entry that points
             to reference. A doc comment may contain any number of @see tags,
             which are all grouped under the same heading. The @see tag has
             three variations; the third form below is the most common. This
             tag is valid in any doc comment: overview, package, class, inter-
             face, constructor, method or field. For inserting an in-line link
             within a sentence to a package, class or member, see {@link}.

             @see "string"
                Adds a text entry for string. No link is generated. The string
                is a book or other reference to information not available by
                URL. The Javadoc tool distinguishes this from the previous
                cases by looking for a double-quote (") as the first charac-
                ter. For example:

                     @see "The Java Programming Language"

             This generates text such as:

                   See Also:
                      "The Java Programming Language"

          @see <a href="URL#value">label</a>
             Adds a link as defined by URL#value. The URL#value is a relative
             or absolute URL. The Javadoc tool distinguishes this from other
             cases by looking for a less-than symbol (<) as the first charac-
             ter. For example:

                  @see <a href="spec.html#section">Java Spec</a>

          This generates a link such as:

                See Also:
                   Java Spec

          @see  package.class#member  label
             Adds a link, with visible text label, that points to the documen-
             tation for the specified name in the Java Language that is refer-
             enced. The label is optional; if omitted, the name appears
             instead as the visible text, suitably shortened -- see How a name
             is displayed. Use -noqualifier to globally remove the package
             name from this visible text. Use the label when you want the vis-
             ible text to be different from the auto-generated visible text.

          Only in version 1.2, just the name but not the label would automati-
          cally appear in <code> HTML tags, Starting with 1.2.2, the <code> is
          always included around the visible text, whether or not a label is
          used.

             o package.class#member is any valid program element name that is
               referenced -- a package, class, interface, constructor, method
               or field name -- except that the character ahead of the member
               name should be a hash character (#). The class represents any
               top-level or nested class or interface. The member represents
               any constructor, method or field (not a nested class or inter-
               face). If this name is in the documented classes, the Javadoc
               tool will automatically create a link to it. To create links to
               external referenced classes, use the -link option. Use either
               of the other two @see forms for referring to documentation of a
               name that does not belong to a referenced class. This argument
               is described at greater length below under Specifying a Name.

             o label is optional text that is visible as the link's label. The
               label can contain whitespace. If label is omitted, then pack-
               age.class.member will appear, suitably shortened relative to
               the current class and package -- see How a name is displayed.

             o A space is the delimiter between package.class#member and
               label. A space inside parentheses does not indicate the start
               of a label, so spaces may be used between parameters in a
               method.

          Example - In this example, an @see tag (in the Character class)
          refers to the equals method in the String class. The tag includes
          both arguments: the name "String#equals(Object)" and the label
          "equals".

              /**
               * @see String#equals(Object) equals
               */

          The standard doclet produces HTML something like this:

             <dl>
             <dt><b>See Also:</b>
             <dd><a href="../../java/lang/String#equals(java.lang.Object)"><code>equals<code></a>
             </dl>

          Which looks something like this in a browser, where the label is the
          visible link text:

                See Also:
                   equals

          Specifying a name - This package.class#member name can be either
          fully-qualified, such as java.lang.String#toUpperCase() or not, such
          as String#toUpperCase() or #toUpperCase(). If less than fully-quali-
          fied, the Javadoc tool uses the normal Java compiler search order to
          find it, further described below in Search order for @see. The name
          can contain whitespace within parentheses, such as between method
          arguments.

          Of course the advantage of providing shorter, "partially-qualified"
          names is that they are shorter to type and there is less clutter in
          the source code. The following table shows the different forms of
          the name, where Class can be a class or interface, Type can be a
          class, interface, array, or primitive, and method can be a method or
          constructor.

          The following notes apply to the above table:

             o The first set of forms (with no class or package) will cause
               the Javadoc tool to search only through the current class's
               hierarchy. It will find a member of the current class or inter-
               face, one of its superclasses or superinterfaces, or one of its
               enclosing classes or interfaces (search steps 1-3). It will not
               search the rest of the current package or other packages
               (search steps 4-5).

             o If any method or constructor is entered as a name with no
               parentheses, such as getValue, and if there is no field with
               the same name, the Javadoc tool will correctly create a link to
               it, but will print a warning message reminding you to add the
               parentheses and arguments. If this method is overloaded, the
               Javadoc tool will link to the first method its search encoun-
               ters, which is unspecified.

             o Nested classes must be specified as outer.inner, not simply
               inner, for all forms.

             o As stated, the hash character (#), rather than a dot (.) sepa-
               rates a member from its class. This enables the Javadoc tool to
               resolve ambiguities, since the dot also separates classes,
               nested classes, packages, and subpackages. However, the Javadoc
               tool is generally lenient and will properly parse a dot if you
               know there is no ambiguity, though it will print a warning.

          Search order for @see - the Javadoc tool will process a @see tag
          that appears in a source file (.java), package file (package.html or
          package-info.java) or overview file (overview.html). In the latter
          two files, you must fully-qualify the name you supply with @see. In
          a source file, you can specify a name that is fully-qualified or
          partially-qualified.

          When the Javadoc tool encounters a @see tag in a .java file that is
          not fully qualified, it searches for the specified name in the same
          order as the Java compiler would (except the Javadoc tool will not
          detect certain namespace ambiguities, since it assumes the source
          code is free of these errors). This search order is formally defined
          in Chapter 6, "Names" of the Java Language Specification, Second
          Edition. The Javadoc tool searches for that name through all related
          and imported classes and packages. In particular, it searches in
          this order:

             1. the current class or interface

             2. any enclosing classes and interfaces, searching closest first

             3. any superclasses and superinterfaces, searching closest first

             4. the current package

             5. any imported packages, classes and interfaces, searching in
                the order of the import statement

          The Javadoc tool continues to search recursively through steps 1-3
          for each class it encounters until it finds a match. That is, after
          it searches through the current class and its enclosing class E, it
          will search through E's superclasses before E's enclosing classes.
          In steps 4 and 5, the Javadoc tool does not search classes or inter-
          faces within a package in any specified order (that order depends on
          the particular compiler). In step 5, the Javadoc tool looks in
          java.lang, since that is automatically imported by all programs.

          The Javadoc tool does not necessarily look in subclasses, nor will
          it look in other packages even if their documentation is being gen-
          erated in the same run. For example, if the @see tag is in the
          java.awt.event.KeyEvent class and refers to a name in the java.awt
          package, javadoc does not look in that package unless that class
          imports it.

          How a name is displayed - If label is omitted, then pack-
          age.class.member appears. In general, it is suitably shortened rela-
          tive to the current class and package. By "shortened", we mean the
          Javadoc tool displays only the minimum name necessary. For example,
          if the String.toUpperCase() method contains references to a member
          of the same class and to a member of a different class, the class
          name is displayed only in the latter case, as shown in the following
          table.

          Use -noqualifier to globally remove the package names.

          Examples of @see
          The comment to the right shows how the name would be displayed if
          the @see tag is in a class in another package, such as
          java.applet.Applet.

                                                     See also:
          @see java.lang.String                   //  String
          @see java.lang.String The String class  //  The String class
          @see String                             //  String
          @see String#equals(Object)              //  String.equals(Object)
          @see String#equals                      //  String.equals(java.lang.Object)
          @see java.lang.Object#wait(long)        //  java.lang.Object.wait(long)
          @see Character#MAX_RADIX                //  Character.MAX_RADIX
          @see <a href="spec.html">Java Spec</a>  //  Java Spec
          @see "The Java Programming Language"    //  "The Java Programming Language"

          You can extend @see to link to classes not being documented by using
          the -link option.

          For more details, see writing @see tags @
          http://java.sun.com/j2se/javadoc/writingdoccomments/index.html#@see.

          @serial  field-description | include | exclude
             Used in the doc comment for a default serializable field.

          An optional field-description should explain the meaning of the
          field and list the acceptable values. If needed, the description can
          span multiple lines. The standard doclet adds this information to
          the serialized form page.

          If a serializable field was added to a class some time after the
          class was made serializable, a statement should be added to its main
          description to identify at which version it was added.

          The include and exclude arguments identify whether a class or pack-
          age should be included or excluded from the serialized form page.
          They work as follows:

             o A public or protected class that implements Serializable is
               included unless that class (or its package) is marked @serial
               exclude.

             o A private or package-private class that implements Serializable
               is excluded unless that class (or its package) is marked
               @serial include.

          Examples: The javax.swing package is marked @serial exclude (in
          package.html or package-info.java). The public class java.secu-
          rity.BasicPermission is marked @serial exclude. The package-private
          class java.util.PropertyPermissionCollection is marked @serial
          include.

          The tag @serial at a class level overrides @serial at a package
          level.

          For more information about how to use these tags, along with an
          example, see " Documenting Serializable Fields and Data for a Class
          @
          http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/platform/serializa-
          tion/spec/serial-arch.html," Section 1.6 of the Java Object Serial-
          ization Specification. Also see the Serialization FAQ @
          http://java.sun.com/products/jdk/serializa-
          tion/faq/#javadoc_warn_missing, which covers common questions, such
          as "Why do I see javadoc warnings stating that I am missing @serial
          tags for private fields if I am not running javadoc with the -pri-
          vate switch?". Also see Sun's criteria @
          http://java.sun.com/j2se/javadoc/writingapispecs/serialized-crite-
          ria.html for including classes in the serialized form specification.

          @serialField  field-name  field-type  field-description
             Documents an ObjectStreamField component of a Serializable
             class's serialPersistentFields member. One @serialField tag
             should be used for each ObjectStreamField component.

          @serialData  data-description
             The data-description documents the types and order of data in the
             serialized form. Specifically, this data includes the optional
             data written by the writeObject method and all data (including
             base classes) written by the Externalizable.writeExternal method.

          The @serialData tag can be used in the doc comment for the writeOb-
          ject, readObject, writeExternal, readExternal, writeReplace, and
          readResolve methods.

          @since  since-text
             Adds a "Since" heading with the specified since-text to the gen-
             erated documentation. The text has no special internal structure.
             This tag is valid in any doc comment: overview, package, class,
             interface, constructor, method or field. This tag means that this
             change or feature has existed since the software release speci-
             fied by the since-text. For example:

              @since 1.5

          For source code in the Java platform, this tag indicates the version
          of the Java platform API specification (not necessarily when it was
          added to the reference implementation). Multiple @since tags are
          allowed and are treated like multiple @author tags. You could use
          multiple tags if the prgram element is used by more than one API.

          @throws  class-name  description
             The @throws and @exception tags are synonyms. Adds a "Throws"
             subheading to the generated documentation, with the class-name
             and description text. The class-name is the name of the exception
             that may be thrown by the method. This tag is valid only in the
             doc comment for a method or constructor. If this class is not
             fully-specified, the Javadoc tool uses the search order to look
             up this class. Multiple @throws tags can be used in a given doc
             comment for the same or different exceptions.

          To ensure that all checked exceptions are documented, if a @throws
          tag does not exist for an exception in the throws clause, the
          Javadoc tool automatically adds that exception to the HTML output
          (with no description) as if it were documented with @throws tag.

          The @throws documentation is copied from an overridden method to a
          subclass only when the exception is explicitly declared in the over-
          ridden method. The same is true for copying from an interface method
          to an implementing method. You can use {@inheritDoc} to force
          @throws to inherit documentation.

          For more details, see writing @throws tags @
          http://java.sun.com/j2se/javadoc/writingdoccom-
          ments/index.html#@exception.

          {@value  package.class#field}
             When {@value} is used (without any argument) in the doc comment
             of a static field, it displays the value of that constant:

              /**
               * The value of this constant is {@value}.
               */
              public static final String SCRIPT_START = "<script>"

          When used with argument package.class#field in any doc comment, it
          displays the value of the specified constant:

              /**
               * Evaluates the script starting with {@value #SCRIPT_START}.
               */
              public String evalScript(String script) {
              }

          The argument package.class#field takes a form identical to that of
          the @see argument, except that the member must be a static field.

          These values of these constants are also displayed on the Constant
          Field Values @
          http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/api/constant-values.html page.

          @version  version-text
             Adds a "Version" subheading with the specified version-text to
             the generated docs when the -version option is used. This tag is
             intended to hold the current version number of the software that
             this code is part of (as opposed to @since, which holds the ver-
             sion number where this code was introduced). The version-text has
             no special internal structure. To see where the version tag can
             be used, see Where Tags Can Be Used.

          A doc comment may contain multiple @version tags. If it makes sense,
          you can specify one version number per @version tag or multiple ver-
          sion numbers per tag. In the former case, the Javadoc tool inserts a
          comma (,) and space between names. In the latter case, the entire
          text is simply copied to the generated document without being
          parsed. Therefore, you can use multiple names per line if you want a
          localized name separator other than comma.

          For more details, see writing @version tags @
          http://java.sun.com/j2se/javadoc/writingdoccomments/index.html#@ver-
          sion.

   Where Tags Can Be Used
       The following sections describe where the tags can be used. Note that
       these tags can be used in all doc comments: @see, @since, @deprecated,
       {@link}, {@linkplain}, and {@docroot}.

   Overview Documentation Tags
       Overview tags are tags that can appear in the documentation comment for
       the overview page (which resides in the source file typically named
       overview.html). Like in any other documentation comments, these tags
       must appear after the main description.

       NOTE - The {@link} tag has a bug in overview documents in version 1.2
       -- the text appears properly but has no link. The {@docRoot} tag does
       not currently work in overview documents.

   Package Documentation Tags
       Package tags are tags that can appear in the documentation comment for
       a package (which resides in the source file named package.html or
       package-info.java). The @serial tag can only be used here with the
       include or exclude argument.

   Class and Interface Documentation Tags
       The following are tags that can appear in the documentation comment for
       a class or interface. The @serial tag can only be used here with the
       include or exclude argument.

       An example of a class comment:

       /**
        * A class representing a window on the screen.
        * For example:
        * <pre>
        *    Window win = new Window(parent);
        *    win.show();
        * </pre>
        *
        * @author  Sami Shaio
        * @version 1.13, 06/08/06
        * @see     java.awt.BaseWindow
        * @see     java.awt.Button
        */
       class Window extends BaseWindow {
          ...
       }

   Field Documentation Tags
       The following are the tags that can appear in the documentation comment
       for a field.

       An example of a field comment:

           /**
            * The X-coordinate of the component.
            *
            * @see #getLocation()
            */
           int x = 1263732;

   Constructor and Method Documentation Tags
       The following are the tags that can appear in the documentation comment
       for a constructor or method, except for @return, which cannot appear in
       a constructor, and {@inheritDoc}, which has certain restrictions. The
       @serialData tag can only be used in the doc comment for certain serial-
       ization methods.

       An example of a method doc comment:

           /**
            * Returns the character at the specified index. An index
            * ranges from <code>0</code> to <code>length() - 1</code>.
            *
            * @param     index  the index of the desired character.
            * @return    the desired character.
            * @exception StringIndexOutOfRangeException
            *              if the index is not in the range <code>0</code>
            *              to <code>length()-1</code>.
            * @see       java.lang.Character#charValue()
            */
           public char charAt(int index) {
              ...
           }

OPTIONS
       The javadoc tool uses doclets to determine its output. The Javadoc tool
       uses the default standard doclet unless a custom doclet is specified
       with the -doclet option. The Javadoc tool provides a set of com-
       mand-line options that can be used with any doclet -- these options are
       described below under the sub-heading Javadoc Options. The standard
       doclet provides an additional set of command-line options that are
       described below under the sub-heading Options Provided by the Standard
       Doclet. All option names are case-insensitive, though their arguments
       can be case-sensitive.

       The options are:

       Options shown in italic are the Javadoc core options, which are pro-
       vided by the front end of the Javadoc tool and are available to all
       doclets. The standard doclet itself provides the non-italic options.

   Javadoc Options
          -overview  path/filename
             Specifies that javadoc should retrieve the text for the overview
             documentation from the "source" file specified by path/filename
             and place it on the Overview page (overview-summary.html). The
             path/filename is relative to the -sourcepath.

          While you can use any name you want for filename and place it any-
          where you want for path, a typical thing to do is to name it
          overview.html and place it in the source tree at the directory that
          contains the topmost package directories. In this location, no path
          is needed when documenting packages, since -sourcepath will point to
          this file. For example, if the source tree for the java.lang package
          is /src/classes/java/lang/, then you could place the overview file
          at /src/classes/overview.html. See Real World Example.

          For information about the file specified by path/filename, see
          overview comment file.

          Note that the overview page is created only if you pass into javadoc
          two or more package names. For further explanation, see HTML
          Frames.)

          The title on the overview page is set by -doctitle.

          -public
             Shows only public classes and members.

          -protected
             Shows only protected and public classes and members. This is the
             default.

          -package
             Shows only package, protected, and public classes and members.

          -private
             Shows all classes and members.

          -help
             Displays the online help, which lists these javadoc and doclet
             command line options.

          -doclet  class
             Specifies the class file that starts the doclet used in generat-
             ing the documentation. Use the fully-qualified name. This doclet
             defines the content and formats the output. If the -doclet option
             is not used, javadoc uses the standard doclet for generating the
             default HTML format. This class must contain the start(Root)
             method. The path to this starting class is defined by the
             -docletpath option.

          For example, to call the MIF doclet, use:

              -doclet com.sun.tools.doclets.mif.MIFDoclet

          For full, working examples of running a particular doclet, see the
          MIF Doclet documentation @
          http://java.sun.com/j2se/javadoc/mifdoclet/docs/mifdoclet.html.

          -docletpath  classpathlist
             Specifies the path to the doclet starting class file (specified
             with the -doclet option) and any jar files it depends on. If the
             starting class file is in a jar file, then this specifies the
             path to that jar file, as shown in the example below. You can
             specify an absolute path or a path relative to the current direc-
             tory. If classpathlist contains multiple paths or jar files, they
             should be separated with a colon (:) on Solaris and a semi-colon
             (;) on Windows. This option is not necessary if the doclet start-
             ing class is already in the search path.

          Example of path to jar file that contains the starting doclet class
          file. Notice the jar filename is included.

             -docletpath /home/user/mifdoclet/lib/mifdoclet.jar

          Example of path to starting doclet class file. Notice the class
          filename is omitted.

             -docletpath /home/user/mifdoclet/classes/com/sun/tools/doclets/mif/

          For full, working examples of running a particular doclet, see the
          MIF Doclet documentation @
          http://java.sun.com/j2se/javadoc/mifdoclet/docs/mifdoclet.html.

          -1.1
             This feature has been removed from Javadoc 1.4. There is no
             replacement for it. This option created documentation with the
             appearance and functionality of documentation generated by
             Javadoc 1.1 (it never supported nested classes). If you need this
             option, use Javadoc 1.2 or 1.3 instead.

          -source release
             Specifies the version of source code accepted. The following val-
             ues for release are allowed:

          Use the value of release corresponding to that used when compiling
          the code with javac.

          -sourcepath  sourcepathlist
             Specifies the search paths for finding source files (.java) when
             passing package names or -subpackages into the javadoc command.
             The sourcepathlist can contain multiple paths by separating them
             with a colon (:). The Javadoc tool will search in all subdirecto-
             ries of the specified paths. Note that this option is not only
             used to locate the source files being documented, but also to
             find source files that are not being documented but whose com-
             ments are inherited by the source files being documented.

          Note that you can use the -sourcepath option only when passing pack-
          age names into the javadoc command -- it will not locate .java files
          passed into the javadoc command. (To locate .java files, cd to that
          directory or include the path ahead of each file, as shown at Docu-
          menting One or More Classes.) If -sourcepath is omitted, javadoc
          uses the class path to find the source files (see -classpath).
          Therefore, the default -sourcepath is the value of class path. If
          -classpath is omitted and you are passing package names into
          javadoc, it looks in the current directory (and subdirectories) for
          the source files.

          Set sourcepathlist to the root directory of the source tree for the
          package you are documenting. For example, suppose you want to docu-
          ment a package called com.mypackage whose source files are located
          at:

            /home/user/src/com/mypackage/*.java

          In this case you would specify the sourcepath to /home/user/src, the
          directory that contains com/mypackage, and then supply the package
          name com.mypackage:

            % javadoc -sourcepath /home/user/src/ com.mypackage
          This is easy to remember by noticing that if you concatenate the
          value of sourcepath and the package name together and change the dot
          to a slash "/", you end up with the full path to the package:
          /home/user/src/com/mypackage.

          To point to two source paths:

            % javadoc -sourcepath /home/user1/src:/home/user2/src com.mypackage

          -classpath  classpathlist
             Specifies the paths where javadoc will look for referenced
             classes (.class files) -- these are the documented classes plus
             any classes referenced by those classes. The classpathlist can
             contain multiple paths by separating them with a colon (:). The
             Javadoc tool will search in all subdirectories of the specified
             paths. Follow the instructions in class path @
             http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/technotes/tools/index.html#gen-
             eral documentation for specifying classpathlist.

          If -sourcepath is omitted, the Javadoc tool uses -classpath to find
          the source files as well as class files (for backward compatibil-
          ity). Therefore, if you want to search for source and class files in
          separate paths, use both -sourcepath and -classpath.

          For example, if you want to document com.mypackage, whose source
          files reside in the directory /home/user/src/com/mypackage, and if
          this package relies on a library in /home/user/lib, you would spec-
          ify:

            % javadoc -classpath /home/user/lib -sourcepath /home/user/src com.mypackage
          As with other tools, if you do not specify -classpath, the Javadoc
          tool uses the CLASSPATH environment variable, if it is set. If both
          are not set, the Javadoc tool searches for classes from the current
          directory.

          For an in-depth description of how the Javadoc tool uses -classpath
          to find user classes as it relates to extension classes and boot-
          strap classes, see How Classes Are Found @
          http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/technotes/tools/finding-
          classes.html.

          As a special convenience, a class path element containing a basename
          of * is considered equivalent to specifying a list of all the files
          in the directory with the extension .jar or .JAR (a java program
          cannot tell the difference between the two invocations).
          For example, if directory foo contains a.jar and b.JAR, then the
          class path element foo/* is expanded to a A.jar:b.JAR, except that
          the order of jar files is unspecified. All jar files in the speci-
          fied directory, even hidden ones, are included in the list. A class-
          path entry consisting simply of * expands to a list of all the jar
          files in the current directory. The CLASSPATH environment variable,
          where defined, will be similarly expanded. Any classpath wildcard
          expansion occurs before the Java virtual machine is started -- no
          Java program will ever see unexpanded wildcards except by querying
          the environment. For example; by invoking System.getenv("CLASS-
          PATH").

          -subpackages  package1:package2:...
             Generates documentation from source files in the specified pack-
             ages and recursively in their subpackages. This option is useful
             when adding new subpackages to the source code, as they are auto-
             matically included. Each package argument is any top-level sub-
             package (such as java) or fully qualified package (such as
             javax.swing) that does not need to contain source files. Argu-
             ments are separated by colons (on all operating systmes). Wild-
             cards are not needed or allowed. Use -sourcepath to specify where
             to find the packages. This option is smart about not processing
             source files that are in the source tree but do not belong to the
             packages, as described at processing of source files.

          For example:

            % javadoc -d docs -sourcepath /home/user/src -subpackages java:javax.swing
          This command generates documentation for packages named "java" and
          "javax.swing" and all their subpackages.

          You can use -subpackages in conjunction with -exclude to exclude
          specific packages.

          -exclude  packagename1:packagename2:...
             Unconditionally excludes the specified packages and their sub-
             packages from the list formed by -subpackages. It excludes those
             packages even if they would otherwise be included by some previ-
             ous or later -subpackages option. For example:

               % javadoc -sourcepath /home/user/src -subpackages java -exclude java.net:java.lang
             would include java.io, java.util, and java.math (among others),
             but would exclude packages rooted at java.net and java.lang.
             Notice this excludes java.lang.ref, a subpackage of java.lang).

          -bootclasspath  classpathlist
             Specifies the paths where the boot classes reside. These are nom-
             inally the Java platform classes. The bootclasspath is part of
             the search path the Javadoc tool will use to look up source and
             class files. See How Classes Are Found @
             http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/technotes/tools/finding-
             classes.html#srcfiles. for more details. Separate directories in
             classpathlist with colons (:).

          -extdirs  dirlist
             Specifies the directories where extension classes reside. These
             are any classes that use the Java Extension mechanism. The
             extdirs is part of the search path the Javadoc tool will use to
             look up source and class files. See -classpath (above) for more
             details. Separate directories in dirlist with colons (:).

          -verbose
             Provides more detailed messages while javadoc is running. Without
             the verbose option, messages appear for loading the source files,
             generating the documentation (one message per source file), and
             sorting. The verbose option causes the printing of additional
             messages specifying the number of milliseconds to parse each java
             source file.

          -quiet
             Shuts off non-error and non-warning messages, leaving only the
             warnings and errors appear, making them easier to view. Also sup-
             presses the version string.

          -breakiterator
             Uses the internationalized sentence boundary of
             java.text.BreakIterator @
             http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/api/java/text/BreakItera-
             tor.html to determine the end of the first sentence for English
             (all other locales already use BreakIterator), rather than an
             English language, locale-specific algorithm. By first sentence,
             we mean the first sentence in the main description of a package,
             class or member. This sentence is copied to the package, class or
             member summary, and to the alphabetic index.

          From JDK 1.2 forward, the BreakIterator class is already used to
          determine the end of sentence for all languages but English. There-
          fore, the -breakiterator option has no effect except for English
          from 1.2 forward. English has its own default algorithm:

             o English default sentence-break algorithm - Stops at a period
               followed by a space or a HTML block tag, such as <P>.

             o Breakiterator sentence-break algorithm - In general, stops at a
               period, question mark or exclamation mark followed by a space
               if the next word starts with a capital letter. This is meant to
               handle most abbreviations (such as "The serial no. is valid",
               but won't handle "Mr. Smith"). Doesn't stop at HTML tags or
               sentences that begin with numbers or symbols. Stops at the last
               period in "../filename", even if embedded in an HTML tag.

             NOTE: We have removed from 1.5.0 the breakiterator warning mes-
             sages that were in 1.4.x and have left the default sentence-break
             algorithm unchanged. That is, the -breakiterator option is not
             the default in 1.5.0, nor do we expect it to become the default.
             This is a reversal from our former intention that the default
             would change in the "next major release" (1.5.0). This means if
             you have not modified your source code to eliminate the breakit-
             erator warnings in 1.4.x, then you don't have to do anything, and
             the warnings go away starting with 1.5.0. The reason for this
             reversal is because any benefit to having breakiterator become
             the default would be outweighed by the incompatible source change
             it would require. We regret any extra work and confusion this has
             caused.

          -locale  language_country_variant

             Important - The -locale option must be placed ahead (to the left)
             of any options provided by the standard doclet or any other
             doclet. Otherwise, the navigation bars will appear in English.
             This is the only command-line option that is order-dependent.

          Specifies the locale that javadoc uses when generating documenta-
          tion. The argument is the name of the locale, as described in
          java.util.Locale documentation, such as en_US (English, United
          States) or en_US_WIN (Windows variant).

          Specifying a locale causes javadoc to choose the resource files of
          that locale for messages (strings in the navigation bar, headings
          for lists and tables, help file contents, comments in
          stylesheet.css, and so forth). It also specifies the sorting order
          for lists sorted alphabetically, and the sentence separator to
          determine the end of the first sentence. It does not determine the
          locale of the doc comment text specified in the source files of the
          documented classes.

          -encoding  name
             Specifies the encoding name of the source files, such as
             EUCJIS/SJIS. If this option is not specified, the platform
             default converter is used.

          Also see -docencoding and -charset.

          -Jflag
             Passes flag directly to the runtime system java that runs
             javadoc. Notice there must be no space between the J and the
             flag. For example, if you need to ensure that the system sets
             aside 32 megabytes of memory in which to process the generated
             documentation, then you would call the -Xmx option of java as
             follows (-Xms is optional, as it only sets the size of initial
             memory, which is useful if you know the minimum amount of memory
             required):

                % javadoc -J-Xmx32m -J-Xms32m com.mypackage
             To tell what version of javadoc you are using, call the "-ver-
             sion" option of java:

                % javadoc -J-version
                java version "1.2"
                Classic VM (build JDK-1.2-V, green threads, sunwjit)
             (The version number of the standard doclet appears in its output
             stream.)

   Options Provided by the Standard Doclet
          -d  directory
             Specifies the destination directory where javadoc saves the gen-
             erated HTML files. (The "d" means "destination.") Omitting this
             option causes the files to be saved to the current directory. The
             value directory can be absolute, or relative to the current work-
             ing directory. As of 1.4, the destination directory is automati-
             cally created when javadoc is run.

          For example, the following generates the documentation for the
          package com.mypackage and saves the results in the /home/user/doc/
          directory:

            % javadoc -d /home/user/doc com.mypackage

          -use
             Includes one "Use" page for each documented class and package.
             The page describes what packages, classes, methods, constructors
             and fields use any API of the given class or package. Given class
             C, things that use class C would include subclasses of C, fields
             declared as C, methods that return C, and methods and construc-
             tors with parameters of type C.

          For example, let's look at what might appear on the "Use" page for
          String. The getName() method in the java.awt.Font class returns type
          String. Therefore, getName() uses String, and you will find that
          method on the "Use" page for String.

          Note that this documents only uses of the API, not the implementa-
          tion. If a method uses String in its implementation but does not
          take a string as an argument or return a string, that is not consid-
          ered a "use" of String.

          You can access the generated "Use" page by first going to the class
          or package, then clicking on the "Use" link in the navigation bar.

          -version
             Includes the @version text in the generated docs. This text is
             omitted by default. To tell what version of the Javadoc tool you
             are using, use the -J-version option.

          -author
             Includes the @author text in the generated docs.

          -splitindex
             Splits the index file into multiple files, alphabetically, one
             file per letter, plus a file for any index entries that start
             with non-alphabetical characters.

          -windowtitle  title
             Specifies the title to be placed in the HTML <title> tag. This
             appears in the window title and in any browser bookmarks
             (favorite places) that someone creates for this page. This title
             should not contain any HTML tags, as the browser will not prop-
             erly interpret them. Any internal quotation marks within title
             may have to be escaped. If -windowtitle is omitted, the Javadoc
             tool uses the value of -doctitle for this option.

               % javadoc -windowtitle "Java 2 Platform" com.mypackage

          -doctitle  title
             Specifies the title to be placed near the top of the overview
             summary file. The title will be placed as a centered, level-one
             heading directly beneath the upper navigation bar. The title may
             contain html tags and white space, though if it does, it must be
             enclosed in quotes. Any internal quotation marks within title may
             have to be escaped.

               % javadoc -doctitle "Java<sup><font size=\"-2\">TM</font></sup>" com.mypackage

          -title  title
             This option no longer exists. It existed only in Beta versions of
             Javadoc 1.2. It has been renamed to -doctitle. This option is
             being renamed to make it clear that it defines the document title
             rather than the window title.

          -header  header
             Specifies the header text to be placed at the top of each output
             file. The header will be placed to the right of the upper
             navigation bar. header may contain HTML tags and white space,
             though if it does, it must be enclosed in quotes. Any internal
             quotation marks within header may have to be escaped.

               % javadoc -header "<b>Java 2 Platform </b><br>v1.4" com.mypackage

          -footer  footer
             Specifies the footer text to be placed at the bottom of each out-
             put file. The footer will be placed to the right of the lower
             navigation bar. footer may contain html tags and white space,
             though if it does, it must be enclosed in quotes. Any internal
             quotation marks within footer may have to be escaped.

          -bottom  text
             Specifies the text to be placed at the bottom of each output
             file. The text will be placed at the bottom of the page, below
             the lower navigation bar. The text may contain HTML tags and
             white space, though if it does, it must be enclosed in quotes.
             Any internal quotation marks within text may have to be escaped.

          -link  extdocURL
             Creates links to existing javadoc-generated documentation of
             external referenced classes. It takes one argument:

             o extdocURL is the absolute or relative URL of the directory con-
               taining the external javadoc-generated documentation you want
               to link to. Examples are shown below. The package-list file
               must be found in this directory (otherwise, use -linkoffline).
               The Javadoc tool reads the package names from the package-list
               file and then links to those packages at that URL. When the
               Javadoc tool is run, the extdocURL value is copied literally
               into the <A HREF> links that are created. Therefore, extdocURL
               must be the URL to the directory, not to a file.

             You can use an absolute link for extdocURL to enable your docs to
             link to a document on any website, or can use a relative link to
             link only to a relative location. If relative, the value you pass
             in should be the relative path from the destination directory
             (specified with -d) to the directory containing the packages
             being linked to.

             When specifying an absolute link you normally use an http: link.
             However, if you want to link to a file system that has no web
             server, you can use a file: link -- however, do this only if
             everyone wanting to access the generated documentation shares the
             same file system.

             In all cases, and on all operating systems, you should use a for-
             ward slash as the separator, whether the URL is absolute or rela-
             tive, and "http:" or "file:" based (as specified in the URL Memo
             @
             http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1738.txt).

                Absolute http: based link:
                   -link http://<host>/<directory>/<directory>/.../<name>

                Absolute file: based link:
                   -link file://<host>/<directory>/<directory>/.../<name>

                Relative link:
                   -link <directory>/<directory>/.../<name>

          You can specify multiple -link options in a given javadoc run to
          link to multiple documents. Choosing between -linkoffline and -link:
          Use -link:

             o when using a relative path to the external API document, or

             o when using an absolute URL to the external API document, if
               your shell allows a program to open a connection to that URL
               for reading.
          Use -linkoffline:

             o when using an absolute URL to the external API document, if
               your shell does not allow a program to open a connection to
               that URL for reading. This can occur if you are behind a fire-
               wall and the document you want to link to is on the other side.

          Example using absolute links to the external docs - Let's say you
          want to link to the java.lang, java.io and other Java 2 Platform
          packages at http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.5.0/docs/api @
          http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.5.0/docs/api, The following command gen-
          erates documentation for the package com.mypackage with links to the
          Java 2 Platform packages. The generated documentation will contain
          links to the Object class, for example, in the class trees. (Other
          options, such as -sourcepath and -d, are not shown.)

            % javadoc -link http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.5.0/docs/api com.mypackage
          Example using relative links to the external docs - Let's say you
          have two packages whose docs are generated in different runs of the
          Javadoc tool, and those docs are separated by a relative path. In
          this example, the packages are com.apipackage, an API, and com.spi-
          package, an SPI (Service Provide Interface). You want the documenta-
          tion to reside in docs/api/com/apipackage and docs/spi/com/spipack-
          age. Assuming the API package documentation is already generated,
          and that docs is the current directory, you would document the SPI
          package with links to the API documentation by running:

            % javadoc -d ./spi -link ../api com.spipackage

          Notice the -link argument is relative to the destination directory
          (docs/spi).

          Details - The -link option enables you to link to classes referenced
          to by your code but not documented in the current javadoc run. For
          these links to go to valid pages, you must know where those HTML
          pages are located, and specify that location with extdocURL. This
          allows, for instance, third party documentation to link to java.*
          documentation on http://java.sun.com.

          Omit the -link option for javadoc to create links only to API within
          the documentation it is generating in the current run. (Without the
          -link option, the Javadoc tool does not create links to documenta-
          tion for external references, because it does not know if or where
          that documentation exists.)

          This option can create links in several places in the generated doc-
          umentation.

          Another use is for cross-links between sets of packages: Execute
          javadoc on one set of packages, then run javadoc again on another
          set of packages, creating links both ways between both sets.

          How a Class Must be Referenced - For a link to an external refer-
          enced class to actually appear (and not just its text label), the
          class must be referenced in the following way. It is not sufficient
          for it to be referenced in the body of a method. It must be refer-
          enced in either an import statement or in a declaration. Here are
          examples of how the class java.io.File can be referenced:

             o In any kind of import statement: by wildcard import, import
               explicitly by name, or automatically import for java.lang.*.
               For example, this would suffice:
               import java.io.*;
               In 1.3.x and 1.2.x, only an explicit import by name works -- a
               wildcard import statement does not work, nor does the automatic
               import java.lang.*.

             o In a declaration:
               void foo(File f) {}
               The reference and be in the return type or parameter type of a
               method, constructor, field, class or interface, or in an imple-
               ments, extends or throws statement.

          An important corollary is that when you use the -link option, there
          may be many links that unintentionally do not appear due to this
          constraint. (The text would appear without a hypertext link.) You
          can detect these by the warnings they emit. The most innocuous way
          to properly reference a class and thereby add the link would be to
          import that class, as shown above.

          Package List - The -link option requires that a file named pack-
          age-list, which is generated by the Javadoc tool, exist at the URL
          you specify with -link. The package-list file is a simple text file
          that lists the names of packages documented at that location. In the
          earlier example, the Javadoc tool looks for a file named pack-
          age-list at the given URL, reads in the package names and then links
          to those packages at that URL.

          For example, the package list for the Java 2 Platform 5.0 API is
          located at http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.5.0/docs/api/package-list @
          http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.5.0/docs/api/package-list. and starts out
          as follows:

            java.applet
            java.awt
            java.awt.color
            java.awt.datatransfer
            java.awt.dnd
            java.awt.event
            java.awt.font
            etc.

          When javadoc is run without the -link option, when it encounters a
          name that belongs to an external referenced class, it prints the
          name with no link. However, when the -link option is used, the
          Javadoc tool searches the package-list file at the specified
          extdocURL location for that package name. If it finds the package
          name, it prefixes the name with extdocURL.

          In order for there to be no broken links, all of the documentation
          for the external references must exist at the specified URLs. The
          Javadoc tool will not check that these pages exist -- only that the
          package-list exists.

          Multiple Links - You can supply multiple -link options to link to
          any number of external generated documents.   Javadoc 1.2 has a
          known bug which prevents you from supplying more than one -link com-
          mand. This was fixed in 1.2.2.

          Specify a different link option for each external document to link
          to:

             % javadoc -link extdocURL1 -link extdocURL2 ... -link extdocURLn
          com.mypackage

          where extdocURL1,  extdocURL2,  ... extdocURLn point respectively to
          the roots of external documents, each of which contains a file named
          package-list.

          Cross-links - Note that "bootstrapping" may be required when
          cross-linking two or more documents that have not previously been
          generated. In other words, if package-list does not exist for either
          document, when you run the Javadoc tool on the first document, the
          package-list will not yet exist for the second document. Therefore,
          to create the external links, you must re-generate the first docu-
          ment after generating the second document.

          In this case, the purpose of first generating a document is to cre-
          ate its package-list (or you can create it by hand it if you're cer-
          tain of the package names). Then generate the second document with
          its external links. The Javadoc tool prints a warning if a needed
          external package-list file does not exist.

          -linkoffline  extdocURL  packagelistLoc
             This option is a variation of -link; they both create links to
             javadoc-generated documentation for external referenced classes.
             Use the -linkoffline option when linking to a document on the web
             when the Javadoc tool itself is "offline" -- that is, it cannot
             access the document through a web connection.

          More specifically, use -linkoffline if the external document's pack-
          age-list file is not accessible or does not exist at the extdocURL
          location but does exist at a different location, which can be speci-
          fied by packageListLoc (typically local). Thus, if extdocURL is
          accessible only on the World Wide Web, -linkoffline removes the con-
          straint that the Javadoc tool have a web connection when generating
          the documentation.

          Another use is as a "hack" to update docs: After you have run
          javadoc on a full set of packages, then you can run javadoc again on
          onlya smaller set of changed packages, so that the updated files can
          be inserted back into the original set. Examples are given below.

          The -linkoffline option takes two arguments -- the first for the
          string to be embedded in the <a href> links, the second telling it
          where to find package-list:

             o extdocURL is the absolute or relative URL of the directory con-
               taining the external javadoc-generated documentation you want
               to link to. If relative, the value should be the relative path
               from the destination directory (specified with -d) to the root
               of the packages being linked to. For more details, see
               extdocURL in the -link option.

             o packagelistLoc is the path or URL to the directory containing
               the package-list file for the external documentation. This can
               be a URL (http: or file:) or file path, and can be absolute or
               relative. If relative, make it relative to the current direc-
               tory from where javadoc was run. Do not include the pack-
               age-list filename.

          You can specify multiple -linkoffline options in a given javadoc
          run. (Prior to 1.2.2, it could be specified only once.)

          Example using absolute links to the external docs - Let's say you
          want to link to the java.lang, java.io and other Java 2 Platform
          packages at http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.5.0/docs/api, but your shell
          does not have web access. You could open the package-list file in a
          browser at http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.5.0/docs/api/package-list @
          http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.5.0/docs/api/package-list, save it to a
          local directory, and point to this local copy with the second argu-
          ment, packagelistLoc. In this example, the package list file has
          been saved to the current directory "." . The following command gen-
          erates documentation for the package com.mypackage with links to the
          Java 2 Platform packages. The generated documentation will contain
          links to the Object class, for example, in the class trees. (Other
          necessary options, such as -sourcepath, are not shown.)

          % javadoc -linkoffline http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.5.0/docs/api . com.mypackage

          Example using relative links to the external docs - It's not very
          common to use -linkoffline with relative paths, for the simple rea-
          son that -link usually suffices. When using -linkoffline, the pack-
          age-list file is generally local, and when using relative links, the
          file you are linking to is also generally local. So it is usually
          unnecessary to give a different path for the two arguments to
          -linkoffline. When the two arguments are identical, you can use
          -link. See the -link relative example.

          Manually Creating a package-list File - If a package-list file does
          not yet exist, but you know what package names your document will
          link to, you can create your own copy of this file by hand and spec-
          ify its path with packagelistLoc. An example would be the previous
          case where the package list for com.spipackage did not exist when
          com.apipackage was first generated. This technique is useful when
          you need to generate documentation that links to new external docu-
          mentation whose package names you know, but which is not yet pub-
          lished. This is also a way of creating package-list files for pack-
          ages generated with Javadoc 1.0 or 1.1, where package-list files
          were not generated. Likewise, two companies can share their unpub-
          lished package-list files, enabling them to release their
          cross-linked documentation simultaneously.

          Linking to Multiple Documents - You can include -linkoffline once
          for each generated document you want to refer to (each option is
          shown on a separate line for clarity):

          % javadoc -linkoffline extdocURL1 packagelistLoc1 \
                    -linkoffline extdocURL2 packagelistLoc2 \
                    ...

          Updating docs - Another use for -linkoffline option is useful if
          your project has dozens or hundreds of packages, if you have already
          run javadoc on the entire tree, and now, in a separate run, you want
          to quickly make some small changes and re-run javadoc on just a
          small portion of the source tree. This is somewhat of a hack in that
          it works properly only if your changes are only to doc comments and
          not to declarations. If you were to add, remove or change any decla-
          rations from the source code, then broken links could show up in the
          index, package tree, inherited member lists, use page, and other
          places.

          First, you create a new destination directory (call it update) for
          this new small run. Let's say the original destination directory was
          named html. In the simplest example, cd to the parent of html. Set
          the first argument of -linkoffline to the current directory "." and
          set the second argument to the relative path to html, where it can
          find package-list, and pass in only the package names of the pack-
          ages you want to update:

            % javadoc -d update -linkoffline . html com.mypackage
          When the Javadoc tool is done, copy these generated class pages in
          update/com/package (not the overview or index), over the original
          files in html/com/package.

          -linksource
             Creates an HTML version of each source file (with line numbers)
             and adds links to them from the standard HTML documentation.
             Links are created for classes, interfaces, constructors, methods
             and fields whose declarations are in a source file. Otherwise,
             links are not created, such as for default constructors and gen-
             erated classes.

          This option exposes all private implementation details in the
          included source files, including private classes, private fields,
          and the bodies of private methods, regardless of the -public, -pack-
          age, -protected and -private options. Unless you also use the -pri-
          vate option, not all private classes or interfaces will necessarily
          be accessible via links.

          Each link appears on the name of the identifier in its declaration.
          For example, the link to the source code of the Button class would
          be on the word "Button":

              public class Button
              extends Component
              implements Accessible

          and the link to the source code of the getLabel() method in the But-
          ton class would be on the word "getLabel":

              public String getLabel()

          -group  groupheading  packagepattern:packagepattern:...
             Separates packages on the overview page into whatever groups you
             specify, one group per table. You specify each group with a dif-
             ferent -group option. The groups appear on the page in the order
             specified on the command line; packages are alphabetized within a
             group. For a given -group option, the packages matching the list
             of packagepattern expressions appear in a table with the heading
             groupheading.

             o groupheading can be any text, and can include white space. This
               text is placed in the table heading for the group.

             o packagepattern can be any package name, or can be the start of
               any package name followed by an asterisk (*). The asterisk is a
               wildcard meaning "match any characters". This is the only wild-
               card allowed. Multiple patterns can be included in a group by
               separating them with colons (:).

             NOTE: If using an asterisk in a pattern or pattern list, the pat-
             tern list must be inside quotes, such as "java.lang*:java.util"

          If you do not supply any -group option, all packages are placed in
          one group with the heading "Packages". If the all groups do not
          include all documented packages, any leftover packages appear in a
          separate group with the heading "Other Packages".

          For example, the following option separates the four documented
          packages into core, extension and other packages. Notice the trail-
          ing "dot" does not appear in "java.lang*" -- including the dot, such
          as "java.lang.*" would omit the java.lang package.

            % javadoc -group "Core Packages" "java.lang*:java.util"
                      -group "Extension Packages" "javax.*"
                      java.lang java.lang.reflect java.util javax.servlet java.new
          This results in the groupings:

                Core Packages
                   java.lang java.lang.reflect java.util

                Extension Packages
                   javax.servlet

                Other Packages
                   java.new

          -nodeprecated
             Prevents the generation of any deprecated API at all in the docu-
             mentation. This does what -nodeprecatedlist does, plus it does
             not generate any deprecated API throughout the rest of the docu-
             mentation. This is useful when writing code and you don't want to
             be distracted by the deprecated code.

          -nodeprecatedlist
             Prevents the generation of the file containing the list of depre-
             cated APIs (deprecated-list.html) and the link in the navigation
             bar to that page. (However, javadoc continues to generate the
             deprecated API throughout the rest of the document.) This is use-
             ful if your source code contains no deprecated API, and you want
             to make the navigation bar cleaner.

          -nosince
             Omits from the generated docs the "Since" sections associated
             with the @since tags.

          -notree
             Omits the class/interface hierarchy pages from the generated
             docs. These are the pages you reach using the "Tree" button in
             the navigation bar. The hierarchy is produced by default.

          -noindex
             Omits the index from the generated docs. The index is produced by
             default.

          -nohelp
             Omits the HELP link in the navigation bars at the top and bottom
             of each page of output.

          -nonavbar
             Prevents the generation of the navigation bar, header and footer,
             otherwise found at the top and bottom of the generated pages. Has
             no affect on the "bottom" option. The -nonavbar option is useful
             when you are interested only in the content and have no need for
             navigation, such as converting the files to PostScript or PDF for
             print only.

          -helpfile  path/filename
             Specifies the path of an alternate help file path/filename that
             the HELP link in the top and bottom navigation bars link to.
             Without this option, the Javadoc tool automatically creates a
             help file help-doc.html that is hard-coded in the Javadoc tool.
             This option enables you to override this default. The filename
             can be any name and is not restricted to help-doc.html -- the
             Javadoc tool will adjust the links in the navigation bar accord-
             ingly. For example:

               % javadoc -helpfile /home/user/myhelp.html java.awt

          -stylesheetfile  path/filename
             Specifies the path of an alternate HTML stylesheet file. Without
             this option, the Javadoc tool automatically creates a stylesheet
             file stylesheet.css that is hard-coded in the Javadoc tool. This
             option enables you to override this default. The filename can be
             any name and is not restricted to stylesheet.css. For example:

               % javadoc -stylesheetfile /home/user/mystylesheet.css com.mypackage

          -serialwarn
             Generates compile-time warnings for missing @serial tags. By
             default, Javadoc 1.2.2 (and later versions) generates no serial
             warnings. (This is a reversal from earlier versions.) Use this
             option to display the serial warnings, which helps to properly
             document default serializable fields and writeExternal methods.

          -charset  name
             Specifies the HTML character set for this document. The name
             should be a preferred MIME name as given in the IANA Registry @
             http://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets. For example:

               % javadoc -charset "iso-8859-1" mypackage
             would insert the following line in the head of every generated
             page:

                <META http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1">

             This META tag is described in the HTML standard @
             http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/charset.html#h-5.2.2. (4197265
             and 4137321)

          Also see -encoding and -docencoding.

          -docencoding  name
             Specifies the encoding of the generated HTML files. The name
             should be a preferred MIME name as given in the IANA Registry @
             http://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets. If you omit this
             option but use -encoding, then the encoding of the generated HTML
             files is determined by -encoding. Example:

               % javadoc -docencoding "ISO-8859-1" mypackage
             Also see -encoding and -charset.

          -keywords
             Adds HTML meta keyword tags to the generated file for each class.
             These tags can help the page be found by search engines that look
             for meta tags. (Most search engines that search the entire Inter-
             net do not look at meta tags, because pages can misuse them; but
             search engines offered by companies that confine their search to
             their own website can benefit by looking at meta tags.)

          The meta tags include the fully qualified name of the class and the
          unqualified names of the fields and methods. Constructors are not
          included because they are identical to the class name. For example,
          the class String starts with these keywords:

               <META NAME="keywords" CONTENT="java.lang.String class">
               <META NAME="keywords" CONTENT="CASE_INSENSITIVE_ORDER">
               <META NAME="keywords" CONTENT="length()">
               <META NAME="keywords" CONTENT="charAt()">

          -tag  tagname:Xaoptcmf:"taghead"
             Enables the Javadoc tool to interpret a simple, one-argument cus-
             tom block tag @tagname in doc comments. So the Javadoc tool can
             "spell-check" tag names, it is important to include a -tag option
             for every custom tag that is present in the source code, dis-
             abling (with X) those that are not being output in the current
             run.

          The colon (:) is always the separator. To use a colon in tagname,
          see Use of Colon in Tag Name.

          The -tag option outputs the tag's heading taghead in bold, followed
          on the next line by the text from its single argument, as shown in
          the example below. Like any block tag, this argument's text can con-
          tain inline tags, which are also interpreted. The output is similar
          to standard one-argument tags, such as @return and @author. Omitting
          taghead causes tagname to appear as the heading.

          Placement of tags - The Xaoptcmf part of the argument determines
          where in the source code the tag is allowed to be placed, and
          whether the tag can be disabled (using X). You can supply either a,
          to allow the tag in all places, or any combination of the other let-
          ters: X (disable tag)
          a (all)
          o (overview)
          p (packages)
          t (types, that is classes and interfaces)
          c (constructors)
          m (methods)
          f (fields)

          Examples of single tags - An example of a tag option for a tag that
          can be used anywhere in the source code is:

              -tag todo:a:"To Do:"

          If you wanted @todo to be used only with constructors, methods and
          fields, you would use:

              -tag todo:cmf:"To Do:"

          Notice the last colon (:) above is not a parameter separator, but is
          part of the heading text (as shown below). You would use either tag
          option for source code that contains the tag @todo, such as:

               @todo The documentation for this method needs work.

          Use of Colon in Tag Name - A colon can be used in a tag name if it
          is escaped with a backslash. For this doc comment:

              /**
               * @ejb:bean
               */

          use this tag option:

              -tag ejb\\:bean:a:"EJB Bean:"

          Spell-checking tag names (Disabling tags) - Some developers put cus-
          tom tags in the source code that they don't always want to output.
          In these cases, it is important to list all tags that are present in
          the source code, enabling the ones you want to output and disabling
          the ones you don't want to output. The presence of X disables the
          tag, while its absence enables the tag. This gives the Javadoc tool
          enough information to know if a tag it encounters is unknown, proba-
          bly the results of a typo or a misspelling. It prints a warning in
          these cases.

          You can add X to the placement values already present, so that when
          you want to enable the tag, you can simply delete the X. For exam-
          ple, if @todo is a tag that you want to suppress on output, you
          would use:

              -tag todo:Xcmf:"To Do:"

          or, if you'd rather keep it simple:

              -tag todo:X

          The syntax -tag todo:X works even if @todo is defined by a taglet.

          Order of tags - The order of the -tag (and -taglet) options deter-
          mine the order the tags are output. You can mix the custom tags with
          the standard tags to intersperse them. The tag options for standard
          tags are placeholders only for determining the order -- they take
          only the standard tag's name. (Subheadings for standard tags cannot
          be altered.) This is illustrated in the following example.

          If -tag is missing, then the position of -taglet determines its
          order. If they are both present, then whichever appears last on the
          command line determines its order. (This happens because the tags
          and taglets are processed in the order that they appear on the com-
          mand line. For example, if -taglet and -tag both have the name
          "todo", the one that appears last on the command line will determine
          its order.

          Example of a complete set of tags - This example inserts "To Do"
          after "Parameters" and before "Throws" in the output. By using "X",
          it also specifies that @example is a tag that might be encountered
          in the source code that should not be output during this run. Notice
          that if you use @argfile, you can put the tags on separate lines in
          an argument file like this (no line continuation characters needed):

             -tag param
             -tag return
             -tag todo:a:"To Do:"
             -tag throws
             -tag see
             -tag example:X

          When javadoc parses the doc comments, any tag encountered that is
          neither a standard tag nor passed in with -tag or -taglet is consid-
          ered unknown, and a warning is thrown.

          The standard tags are initially stored internally in a list in their
          default order. Whenever -tag options are used, those tags get
          appended to this list -- standard tags are moved from their default
          position. Therefore, if a -tag option is omitted for a standard tag,
          it remains in its default position.

          Avoiding Conflicts - If you want to slice out your own namespace,
          you can use a dot-separated naming convention similar to that used
          for packages: com.mycompany.todo. Sun will continue to create stan-
          dard tags whose names do not contain dots. Any tag you create will
          override the behavior of a tag by the same name defined by Sun. In
          other words, if you create a tag or taglet @todo, it will always
          have the same behavior you define, even if Sun later creates a stan-
          dard tag of the same name.

          Annotations vs. Javadoc Tags - In general, if the markup you want to
          add is intended to affect or produce documentation, it should proba-
          bly be a javadoc tag; otherwise, it should be an annotation. See
          Comparing Annotations and Javadoc Tags @
          http://java.sun.com/j2se/javadoc/writingdoccomments/index.html#anno-
          tations

          You can also create more complex block tags, or custom inline tags
          with the -taglet option.

          -taglet  class
             Specifies the class file that starts the taglet used in generat-
             ing the documentation for that tag. Use the fully-qualified name
             for class. This taglet also defines the number of text arguments
             that the custom tag has. The taglet accepts those arguments, pro-
             cesses them, and generates the output. For extensive documenta-
             tion with example taglets, see:

             o Taglet Overview @
               http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/tech-
               notes/guides/javadoc/taglet/overview.html

          Taglets are useful for block or inline tags. They can have any num-
          ber of arguments and implement custom behavior, such as making text
          bold, formatting bullets, writing out the text to a file, or start-
          ing other processes.

          Taglets can only determine where a tag should appear and in what
          form. All other decisions are made by the doclet. So a taglet cannot
          do things such as remove a class name from the list of included
          classes. However, it can execute side effects, such as printing the
          tag's text to a file or triggering another process.

          Use the -tagletpath option to specify the path to the taglet. Here
          is an example that inserts the "To Do" taglet after "Parameters" and
          ahead of "Throws" in the generated pages:

              -taglet com.sun.tools.doclets.ToDoTaglet
              -tagletpath /home/taglets
              -tag return
              -tag param
              -tag todo
              -tag throws
              -tag see

          Alternatively, you can use the -taglet option in place of its -tag
          option, but that may be harder to read.

          -tagletpath  tagletpathlist
             Specifies the search paths for finding taglet class files
             (.class). The tagletpathlist can contain multiple paths by sepa-
             rating them with a colon (:). The Javadoc tool will search in all
             subdirectories of the specified paths.

          -docfilessubdirs
             Enables deep copying of "doc-files" directories. In other words,
             subdirectories and all contents are recursively copied to the
             destination. For example, the directory doc-files/example/images
             and all its contents would now be copied. There is also an option
             to exclude subdirectories.

          -excludedocfilessubdir  name1:name2...
             Excludes any "doc-files" subdirectories with the given names.
             This prevents the copying of SCCS and other source-code-control
             subdirectories.

          -noqualifier  all  |  packagename1:packagename2:...
             Omits qualifying package name from ahead of class names in out-
             put. The argument to -noqualifier is either "all" (all package
             qualifiers are omitted) or a colon-separate list of packages,
             with wildcards, to be removed as qualifiers. The package name is
             removed from places where class or interface names appear.

          The following example omits all package qualifiers:

              -noqualifier all

          The following example omits "java.lang" and "java.io" package
          qualifiers:

              -noqualifier java.lang:java.io

          The following example omits package qualifiers starting with "java",
          and "com.sun" subpackages (but not "javax"):

              -noqualifier java.*:com.sun.*

          Where a package qualifier would appear due to the above behavior,
          the name can be suitably shortened -- see How a name is displayed.
          This rule is in effect whether or not -noqualifier is used.

          -notimestamp
             Suppresses the timestamp, which is hidden in an HTML comment in
             the generated HTML near the top of each page. Useful when you
             want to run javadoc on two source bases and diff them, as it pre-
             vents timestamps from causing a diff (which would otherwise be a
             diff on every page). The timestamp includes the javadoc version
             number, and currently looks like this:

                  <!-- Generated by javadoc (build 1.5.0-internal) on Tue Jun 22 09:57:24 PDT 2004 -->

          -nocomment
             Suppress the entire comment body, including the main description
             and all tags, generating only declarations. This option enables
             re-using source files originally intended for a different pur-
             pose, to produce skeleton HTML documentation at the early stages
             of a new project.

COMMAND LINE ARGUMENT FILES
       To shorten or simplify the javadoc command line, you can specify one or
       more files that themselves contain arguments to the javadoc command
       (except -J options). This enables you to create javadoc commands of any
       length on any operating system.

       An argument file can include javac options and source filenames in any
       combination. The arguments within a file can be space-separated or new-
       line-separated. If a filename contains embedded spaces, put the whole
       filename in double quotes.

       Filenames within an argument file are relative to the current direc-
       tory, not the location of the argument file. Wildcards (*) are not
       allowed in these lists (such as for specifying *.java). Use of the '@'
       character to recursively interpret files is not supported. The -J
       options are not supported because they are passed to the launcher,
       which does not support argument files.

       When executing javadoc, pass in the path and name of each argument file
       with the '@' leading character. When javadoc encounters an argument
       beginning with the character `@', it expands the contents of that file
       into the argument list.

   Example - Single Arg File
       You could use a single argument file named "argfile" to hold all
       Javadoc arguments:

         % javadoc @argfile

       This argument file could contain the contents of both files shown in
       the next example.

   Example - Two Arg Files
       You can create two argument files -- one for the Javadoc options and
       the other for the package names or source filenames: (Notice the
       following lists have no line-continuation characters.)

       Create a file named "options" containing:

            -d docs-filelist
            -use
            -splitindex
            -windowtitle 'Java 2 Platform v1.3 API Specification'
            -doctitle 'Java<sup><font size="-2">TM</font></sup> 2 Platform 5.0 API Specification'
            -header '<b>Java 2 Platform </b><br><font size="-1">5.0</font>'
            -bottom 'Copyright 1993-2000 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved.'
            -group "Core Packages" "java.*"
            -overview /java/pubs/ws/1.5/src/share/classes/overview-core.html
            -sourcepath /java/pubs/ws/1.5/src/share/classes

       Create a file named "packages" containing:

            com.mypackage1
            com.mypackage2
            com.mypackage3

       You would then run javadoc with:

         % javadoc @options @packages

   Example - Arg Files with Paths
       The argument files can have paths, but any filenames inside the files
       are relative to the current working directory (not path1 or path2):

         % javadoc @path1/options @path2/packages

   Example - Option Arguments
       Here's an example of saving just an argument to a javadoc option in an
       argument file. We'll use the -bottom option, since it can have a
       lengthy argument. You could create a file named "bottom" containing its
       text argument:

       bug or feature</a><br><br>Java is a trademark or registered trademark of
       Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the US and other countries.<br>Copyright 1993-2000 Sun
       Microsystems, Inc. 901 San Antonio Road,<br>Palo Alto, California, 94303, U.S.A.
       All Rights Reserved.</font>'

       Then run the Javadoc tool with:

         % javadoc -bottom @bottom @packages

       Or you could include the -bottom option at the start of the argument
       file, and then just run it as:

         % javadoc @bottom @packages

Name
       Running

RUNNING JAVADOC
       Version Numbers - The version number of javadoc can be determined using
       javadoc -J-version. The version number of the standard doclet appears
       in its output stream. It can be turned off with -quiet.

       Public programmatic interface - To invoke the Javadoc tool from within
       programs written in the Java language. This interface is in
       com.sun.tools.javadoc.Main (and javadoc is re-entrant). For more
       details, see Standard Doclet @
       http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/technotes/guides/javadoc/stan-
       dard-doclet.html#runningprogrammatically.

       Running Doclets - The instructions given below are for invoking the
       standard HTML doclet. To invoke a custom doclet, use the -doclet and
       -docletpath options. For full, working examples of running a particular
       doclet, see the MIF Doclet documentation @
       http://java.sun.com/j2se/javadoc/mifdoclet/docs/mifdoclet.html.

SIMPLE EXAMPLES
       You can run javadoc on entire packages or individual source files. Each
       package name has a corresponding directory name. In the following exam-
       ples, the source files are located at /home/src/java/awt/*.java. The
       destination directory is /home/html.

   Documenting One or More Packages
       To document a package, the source files (*.java) for that package must
       be located in a directory having the same name as the package. If a
       package name is made up of several identifiers (separated by dots, such
       as java.awt.color), each subsequent identifier must correspond to a
       deeper subdirectory (such as java/awt/color). You may split the source
       files for a single package among two such directory trees located at
       different places, as long as -sourcepath points to them both -- for
       example src1/java/awt/color and src2/java/awt/color.

       You can run javadoc either by changing directories (with cd) or by
       using -sourcepath option. The examples below illustrate both alterna-
       tives.

          o Case 1 - Run recursively starting from one or more packages - This
            example uses -sourcepath so javadoc can be run from any directory
            and -subpackages (a new 1.4 option) for recursion. It traverses
            the subpackages of the java directory excluding packages rooted at
            java.net and java.lang. Notice this excludes java.lang.ref, a sub-
            package of java.lang).

              % javadoc -d /home/html -sourcepath /home/src -subpackages java -exclude java.net:java.lang

          To also traverse down other package trees, append their names to the
          -subpackages argument, such as java:javax:org.xml.sax.

          o Case 2 - Run on explicit packages after changing to the "root"
            source directory - Change to the parent directory of the
            fully-qualified package. Then run javadoc, supplying names of one
            or more packages you want to document:

              % cd /home/src/
              % javadoc -d /home/html java.awt java.awt.event

          o Case 3 - Run from any directory on explicit packages in a single
            directory tree - In this case, it doesn't matter what the current
            directory is. Run javadoc supplying -sourcepath with the parent
            directory of the top-level package, and supplying names of one or
            more packages you want to document:

              % javadoc -d /home/html -sourcepath /home/src java.awt java.awt.event

          o Case 4 - Run from any directory on explicit packages in multiple
            directory trees - This is the same as case 3, but for packages in
            separate directory trees. Run javadoc supplying -sourcepath with
            the path to each tree's root (colon-separated) and supply names of
            one or more packages you want to document. All source files for a
            given package do not need to be located under a single root direc-
            tory -- they just need to be found somewhere along the sourcepath.

              % javadoc -d /home/html -sourcepath /home/src1:/home/src2 java.awt java.awt.event

       Result: All cases generate HTML-formatted documentation for the public
       and protected classes and interfaces in packages java.awt and
       java.awt.event and save the HTML files in the specified destination
       directory (/home/html). Because two or more packages are being gener-
       ated, the document has three HTML frames -- for the list of packages,
       the list of classes, and the main class pages.

   Documenting One or More Classes
       The second way to run the Javadoc tool is by passing in one or more
       source files (.java). You can run javadoc either of the following two
       ways -- by changing directories (with cd) or by fully-specifying the
       path to the .java files. Relative paths are relative to the current
       directory. The -sourcepath option is ignored when passing in source
       files. You can use command line wildcards, such as asterisk (*), to
       specify groups of classes.

          o Case 1 - Changing to the source directory - Change to the direc-
            tory holding the .java files. Then run javadoc, supplying names of
            one or more source files you want to document.

              % cd /home/src/java/awt
              % javadoc -d /home/html Button.java Canvas.java Graphics*.java
            This example generates HTML-formatted documentation for the
            classes Button, Canvas and classes beginning with Graphics.
            Because source files rather than package names were passed in as
            arguments to javadoc, the document has two frames -- for the list
            of classes and the main page.

          o Case 2 - Changing to the package root directory - This is useful
            for documenting individual source files from different subpackages
            off the same root. Change to the package root directory, and sup-
            ply the source files with paths from the root.

              % cd /home/src/
              % javadoc -d /home/html java/awt/Button.java java/applet/Applet.java
            This example generates HTML-formatted documentation for the
            classes Button and Applet.

          o Case 3 - From any directory - In this case, it doesn't matter what
            the current directory is. Run javadoc supplying the absolute path
            (or path relative to the current directory) to the .java files you
            want to document.

              % javadoc -d /home/html /home/src/java/awt/Button.java /home/src/java/awt/Graphics*.java
            This example generates HTML-formatted documentation for the class
            Button and classes beginning with Graphics.

   Documenting Both Packages and Classes
       You can document entire packages and individual classes at the same
       time. Here's an example that mixes two of the previous examples. You
       can use -sourcepath for the path to the packages but not for the path
       to the individual classes.

         % javadoc -d /home/html -sourcepath /home/src java.awt /home/src/java/applet/Applet.java

       This example generates HTML-formatted documentation for the package
       java.awt and class Applet. (The Javadoc tool determines the package
       name for Applet from the package declaration, if any, in the
       Applet.java source file.)

REAL WORLD EXAMPLE
       The Javadoc tool has many useful options, some of which are more com-
       monly used than others. Here is effectively the command we use to run
       the Javadoc tool on the Java platform API. We use 180MB of memory to
       generate the documentation for the 1500 (approx.) public and protected
       classes in the Java 2 Platform, Standard Edition, v1.2.

       The same example is shown twice -- first as executed on the command
       line, then as executed from a makefile. It uses absolute paths in the
       option arguments, which enables the same javadoc command to be run from
       any directory.

   Command Line Example
       This command line example is over 900 characters, which is too long for
       some shells, such as DOS. You can use a command line argument file (or
       write a shell script) to workaround this limitation.

       % javadoc -sourcepath /java/jdk/src/share/classes            \
           -overview /java/jdk/src/share/classes/overview.html      \
           -d /java/jdk/build/api                                   \
           -use                                                     \
           -splitIndex                                              \
           -windowtitle 'Java 2 Platform 5.0 API Specification'    \
           -doctitle 'Java<sup><font size="-2">TM</font></sup> 2 Platform 5.0 API Specification' \
           -header '<b>Java 2 Platform </b><br><font size="-1">5.0</font>' \
           -bottom '<font size="-1"><a href="http://java.sun.com/cgi-bin/bugreport.cgi">Submit
       a bug or feature</a><br><br>Java is a trademark or registered trademark of Sun Microsystems,
       Inc. in the US and other countries.<br>Copyright 1993-1999 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
       901 San Antonio Road,<br>Palo Alto, California, 94303, U.S.A. All Rights Reserved.</font>' \
           -group "Core Packages" "java.*:com.sun.java.*:org.omg.*" \
           -group "Extension Packages" "javax.*"                    \
           -J-Xmx180m                                               \
           @packages

       where packages is the name of a file containing the packages to pro-
       cess, such as java.applet java.lang. None of the options should contain
       any newline characters between the single quotes. (For example, if you
       copy and paste this example, delete the newline characters from the
       -bottom option.) See the other notes listed below.

   Makefile Example
       This is an example of a GNU makefile. For an example of a Windows make-
       file, see creating a makefile for Windows @
       http://java.sun.com/j2se/javadoc/faq/index.html#makefiles.

       javadoc -sourcepath $(SRCDIR)              \   /* Sets path for source files     */
               -overview $(SRCDIR)/overview.html  \   /* Sets file for overview text    */
               -d /java/jdk/build/api             \   /* Sets destination directory     */
               -use                               \   /* Adds "Use" files               */
               -splitIndex                        \   /* Splits index A-Z               */
               -windowtitle $(WINDOWTITLE)        \   /* Adds a window title            */
               -doctitle $(DOCTITLE)              \   /* Adds a doc title               */
               -header $(HEADER)                  \   /* Adds running header text       */
               -bottom $(BOTTOM)                  \   /* Adds text at bottom            */
               -group $(GROUPCORE)                \   /* 1st subhead on overview page   */
               -group $(GROUPEXT)                 \   /* 2nd subhead on overview page   */
               -J-Xmx180m                         \   /* Sets memory to 180MB           */
               java.lang java.lang.reflect        \   /* Sets packages to document      */
               java.util java.io java.net         \
               java.applet

       WINDOWTITLE = 'Java 2 Platform v1.2 API Specification'
       DOCTITLE = 'Java<sup><font size="-2">TM</font></sup> 2 Platform v1.2 API Specification'
       HEADER = '<b>Java 2 Platform </b><br><font size="-1">v1.2</font>'
       BOTTOM = '<font size="-1"><a href="http://java.sun.com/cgi-bin/bugreport.cgi">Submit
           a bug or feature</a><br><br>Java is a trademark or registered trademark
           of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the US and other countries.<br>Copyright 1993-1999
           Sun Microsystems, Inc. 901 San Antonio Road,<br>Palo Alto, California, 94303, U.S.A.
           All Rights Reserved.</font>'
       GROUPCORE = '"Core Packages" "java.*:com.sun.java.*:org.omg.*"'
       GROUPEXT  = '"Extension Packages" "javax.*"'
       SRCDIR = '/java/jdk/1.2/src/share/classes'

       Single quotes are used to surround makefile arguments.

       NOTES

          o If you omit the -windowtitle option, the Javadoc tool copies the
            doc title to the window title. The -windowtitle text is basically
            the same as the -doctitle but without HTML tags, to prevent those
            tags from appearing as raw text in the window title.

          o If you omit the -footer option, as done here, the Javadoc tool
            copies the header text to the footer.

          o Other important options you might want to use but not needed in
            this example are -classpath and -link.

TROUBLESHOOTING
   General Troubleshooting
          o Javadoc FAQ - Commonly-encountered bugs and troubleshooting tips
            can be found on the Javadoc FAQ @
            http://java.sun.com/j2se/javadoc/faq/index.html#B

          o Bugs and Limitations - You can also see some bugs listed at Impor-
            tant Bug Fixes and Changes.

          o Version number - See version numbers.

          o Documents only legal classes - When documenting a package, javadoc
            only reads files whose names are composed of legal class names.
            You can prevent javadoc from parsing a file by including, for
            example, a hyphen "-" in its filename.

   Errors and Warnings
       Error and warning messages contain the filename and line number to the
       declaration line rather than to the particular line in the doc comment.

          o "error: cannot read: Class1.java" the Javadoc tool is trying to
            load the class Class1.java in the current directory. The class
            name is shown with its path (absolute or relative), which in this
            case is the same as ./Class1.java.

ENVIRONMENT
          CLASSPATH
             Environment variable that provides the path which javadoc uses to
             find user class files. This environment variable is overridden by
             the -classpath option. Separate directories with a colon, for
             example:

SEE ALSO
          o javac(1)

          o java(1)

          o jdb(1)

          o javah(1)

          o javap(1)

          o Javadoc Home Page @
            http://java.sun.com/j2se/javadoc/index.jsp

          o How to Write Doc Comments for Javadoc @
            http://java.sun.com/j2se/javadoc/writingdoccomments/index.html

          o Setting the Class Path @
            http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/technotes/tools/index.html#gen-
            eral

          o How Javac and Javadoc Find Classes @
            http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/technotes/tools/finding-
            classes.html#srcfiles (tools.jar)

       Javadoc is a trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. (The javadoc command
       itself does not require the trademark symbol.)

                                  06 Apr 2010                       javadoc(1)
 

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