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jarsigner(1)                                                      jarsigner(1)

Name
       jarsigner - JAR Signing and Verification Tool

          Generates  signatures for Java ARchive (JAR) files, and verifies the
          signatures of signed JAR files.

SYNOPSIS
       jarsigner [ options ] jar-file alias
       jarsigner -verify [ options ] jar-file

DESCRIPTION
       The jarsigner tool is used for two purposes:

          1. to sign Java ARchive (JAR) files, and

          2. to verify the signatures and integrity of signed JAR files.

       The JAR feature enables the packaging of class files,  images,  sounds,
       and other digital data in a single file for faster and easier distribu-
       tion. A tool named jar(1) enables  developers  to  produce  JAR  files.
       (Technically,  any zip file can also be considered a JAR file, although
       when created by jar or processed by jarsigner, JAR files also contain a
       META-INF/MANIFEST.MF file.)

       A digital signature is a string of bits that is computed from some data
       (the data being "signed") and the private key of an entity  (a  person,
       company,  etc.).  Like a handwritten signature, a digital signature has
       many useful characteristics:

          o Its authenticity can be verified, via a computation that uses  the
            public  key  corresponding to the private key used to generate the
            signature.

          o It cannot be forged, assuming the private key is kept secret.

          o It is a function of the data signed and thus can't be  claimed  to
            be the signature for other data as well.

          o The signed data cannot be changed; if it is, the signature will no
            longer verify as being authentic.

       In order for an entity's signature to be  generated  for  a  file,  the
       entity  must  first  have a public/private key pair associated with it,
       and also one or more certificates authenticating its public key. A cer-
       tificate  is  a digitally signed statement from one entity, saying that
       the public key of some other entity has a particular value.

       jarsigner uses key and  certificate  information  from  a  keystore  to
       generate  digital signatures for JAR files. A keystore is a database of
       private keys and their associated X.509 certificate chains authenticat-
       ing  the  corresponding  public keys. The keytool(1) utility is used to
       create and administer keystores.

       jarsigner uses an entity's private key to  generate  a  signature.  The
       signed JAR file contains, among other things, a copy of the certificate
       from the keystore for the public key corresponding to the  private  key
       used  to  sign  the file. jarsigner can verify the digital signature of
       the signed JAR file using the certificate inside it (in  its  signature
       block file).

       Starting  in J2SE 5.0, jarsigner can generate signatures that include a
       timestamp, thus enabling systems/deployer (including Java  Plug-in)  to
       check whether the JAR file was signed while the signing certificate was
       still valid. In addition, APIs were added in J2SE 5.0 to allow applica-
       tions to obtain the timestamp information.

       At  this  time,  jarsigner  can  only sign JAR files created by the SDK
       jar(1) tool or zip files. (JAR files are the same as zip files,  except
       they  also have a META-INF/MANIFEST.MF file. Such a file will automati-
       cally be created when jarsigner signs a zip file.)

       The default jarsigner behavior is to sign a JAR (or zip) file. Use  the
       -verify option to instead have it verify a signed JAR file.

   Compatibility with JDK 1.1
          The  keytool and jarsigner tools completely replace the javakey tool
          provided in JDK 1.1. These new  tools  provide  more  features  than
          javakey,  including  the ability to protect the keystore and private
          keys with passwords, and the ability to verify signatures  in  addi-
          tion to generating them.

          The  new  keystore  architecture replaces the identity database that
          javakey created and managed. There  is  no  backwards  compatibility
          between  the keystore format and the database format used by javakey
          in 1.1. However,

             o It is possible to  import  the  information  from  an  identity
               database  into a keystore, via the keytool -identitydb command.

             o jarsigner can sign  JAR  files  also  previously  signed  using
               javakey.

             o jarsigner  can  verify JAR files signed using javakey. Thus, it
               recognizes and can work with signer aliases that are from a JDK
               1.1 identity database rather than a Java 2 SDK keystore.

          The  following  table explains how JAR files that were signed in JDK
          1.1.x are treated in the Java 2 platform.

          Notes:

             1. If an identity/alias is mentioned in the policy file, it  must
                be  imported into the keystore for the policy file to have any
                effect on privileges granted.

             2. The policy file/keystore combination  has  precedence  over  a
                trusted identity in the identity database.

             3. Untrusted identities are ignored in the Java 2 platform.

             4. Only  trusted  identities can be imported into Java 2 SDK key-
                stores.

   Keystore Aliases
          All keystore entities are accessed via unique aliases.

          When using jarsigner to sign a JAR file, you must specify the  alias
          for the keystore entry containing the private key needed to generate
          the signature. For example, the following will  sign  the  JAR  file
          named  "MyJARFile.jar",  using  the  private key associated with the
          alias "duke" in the keystore named "mystore" in the "working" direc-
          tory. Since no output file is specified, it overwrites MyJARFile.jar
          with the signed JAR file.

              jarsigner -keystore /working/mystore -storepass myspass
                -keypass dukekeypasswd MyJARFile.jar duke

          Keystores are protected with a password, so the store  password  (in
          this  case "myspass") must be specified. You will be prompted for it
          if you don't specify it on the command line. Similarly, private keys
          are  protected  in  a keystore with a password, so the private key's
          password (in this case "dukekeypasswd") must be specified,  and  you
          will  be prompted for it if you don't specify it on the command line
          and it isn't the same as the store password.

   Keystore Location
          jarsigner has a -keystore option for specifying the URL of the  key-
          store  to be used. The keystore is by default stored in a file named
          .keystore in  the  user's  home  directory,  as  determined  by  the
          user.home  system property. On Solaris systems user.home defaults to
          the user's home directory.

          Note that the input stream from the -keystore option  is  passed  to
          the  KeyStore.load  method.  If NONE is specified as the URL, then a
          null stream is passed to the KeyStore.load method.  NONE  should  be
          specified  if  the  KeyStore  is  not file-based, for example, if it
          resides on a hardware token device.

   Keystore Implementation
          The KeyStore class provided in the  java.security  package  supplies
          well-defined  interfaces  to  access and modify the information in a
          keystore. It is possible for there to be multiple different concrete
          implementations,  where each implementation is that for a particular
          type of keystore.

          Currently, there are two command-line tools that make  use  of  key-
          store  implementations (keytool and jarsigner), and also a GUI-based
          tool named Policy Tool. Since KeyStore is publicly available, Java 2
          SDK users can write additional security applications that use it.

          There   is  a  built-in  default  implementation,  provided  by  Sun
          Microsystems. It implements the keystore as a file, utilizing a pro-
          prietary  keystore  type (format) named "JKS". It protects each pri-
          vate key  with  its  individual  password,  and  also  protects  the
          integrity  of  the entire keystore with a (possibly different) pass-
          word.

          Keystore implementations are provider-based. More specifically,  the
          application interfaces supplied by KeyStore are implemented in terms
          of a "Service Provider Interface" (SPI). That is, there is a  corre-
          sponding abstract KeystoreSpi class, also in the java.security pack-
          age, which defines  the  Service  Provider  Interface  methods  that
          "providers" must implement. (The term "provider" refers to a package
          or a set of packages that supply a concrete implementation of a sub-
          set  of  services  that  can  be accessed by the Java Security API.)
          Thus, to provide a keystore implementation, clients must implement a
          provider  and  supply  a  KeystoreSpi  subclass  implementation,  as
          described in How to Implement a Provider for the Java Cryptography
          Architecture @
          http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/technotes/guides/secu-
          rity/crypto/HowToImplAProvider.html.

          Applications can choose different types of keystore implementations
          from different providers, using the "getInstance" factory method
          supplied in the KeyStore class. A keystore type defines the storage
          and data format of the keystore information, and the algorithms used
          to protect private keys in the keystore and the integrity of the
          keystore itself. Keystore implementations of different types are not
          compatible.

          keytool works on any file-based keystore implementation. (It treats
          the keytore location that is passed to it at the command line as a
          filename and converts it to a FileInputStream, from which it loads
          the keystore information.) The jarsigner and policytool tools, on
          the other hand, can read a keystore from any location that can be
          specified using a URL.

          For jarsigner and keytool, you can specify a keystore type at the
          command line, via the -storetype option. For Policy Tool, you can
          specify a keystore type via the "Change Keystore" command in the
          Edit menu.

          If you don't explicitly specify a keystore type, the tools choose a
          keystore implementation based simply on the value of the key-
          store.type property specified in the security properties file. The
          security properties file is called java.security, and it resides in
          the SDK security properties directory, java.home/lib/security, where
          java.home is the runtime environment's directory (the jre directory
          in the SDK or the top-level directory of the Java 2 Runtime Environ-
          ment).

          Each tool gets the keystore.type value and then examines all the
          currently-installed providers until it finds one that implements
          keystores of that type. It then uses the keystore implementation
          from that provider.

          The KeyStore class defines a static method named getDefaultType that
          lets applications and applets retrieve the value of the key-
          store.type property. The following line of code creates an instance
          of the default keystore type (as specified in the keystore.type
          property):

              KeyStore keyStore = KeyStore.getInstance(KeyStore.getDefaultType());

          The default keystore type is "jks" (the proprietary type of the key-
          store implementation provided by Sun). This is specified by the fol-
          lowing line in the security properties file:

              keystore.type=jks

          Note: Case doesn't matter in keystore type designations. For exam-
          ple, "JKS" would be considered the same as "jks".

          To have the tools utilize a keystore implementation other than the
          default, change that line to specify a different keystore type. For
          example, if you have a provider package that supplies a keystore
          implementation for a keystore type called "pkcs12", change the line
          to

              keystore.type=pkcs12

          Note that if you us the PKCS#11 provider package, you should refer
          to the KeyTool and JarSigner @
          http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/technotes/guides/secu-
          rity/p11guide.html#KeyToolJarSigner section of the Java PKCS#11 Ref-
          erence Guide for details.

   Supported Algorithms
          By default, jarsigner signs a JAR file using either

             o DSA (Digital Signature Algorithm) with the SHA-1 digest algo-
               rithm, or

             o the RSA algorithm with the MD5 digest algorithm.

          That is, if the signer's public and private keys are DSA keys, jar-
          signer will sign the JAR file using the "SHA1withDSA" algorithm. If
          the signer's keys are RSA keys, jarsigner will attempt to sign the
          JAR file using the "MD5withRSA" algorithm.

          These default signature algorithms can be overridden using the
          -sigalg option.

   The Signed JAR File
          When jarsigner is used to sign a JAR file, the output signed JAR
          file is exactly the same as the input JAR file, except that it has
          two additional files placed in the META-INF directory:

             o a signature file, with a .SF extension, and

             o a signature block file, with a .DSA extension.

          The base file names for these two files come from the value of the
          -sigFile option. For example, if the option appears as

            -sigFile MKSIGN

          the files are named "MKSIGN.SF" and "MKSIGN.DSA".

          If no -sigfile option appears on the command line, the base file
          name for the .SF and .DSA files will be the first 8 characters of
          the alias name specified on the command line, all converted to upper
          case. If the alias name has fewer than 8 characters, the full alias
          name is used. If the alias name contains any characters that are not
          allowed in a signature file name, each such character is converted
          to an underscore ("_") character in forming the file name. Legal
          characters include letters, digits, underscores, and hyphens.

          The Signature (.SF) File

             A signature file (the .SF file) looks similar to the manifest
             file that is always included in a JAR file when jarsigner is used
             to sign the file. That is, for each source file included in the
             JAR file, the .SF file has three lines, just as in the manifest
             file, listing the following:

                o the file name,

                o the name of the digest algorithm used (SHA), and

                o a SHA digest value.

             In the manifest file, the SHA digest value for each source file
             is the digest (hash) of the binary data in the source file. In
             the .SF file, on the other hand, the digest value for a given
             source file is the hash of the three lines in the manifest file
             for the source file.

             The signature file also, by default, includes a header containing
             a hash of the whole manifest file. The presence of the header
             enables verification optimization, as described in JAR File Veri-
             fication.

          The Signature Block (.DSA) File

             The .SF file is signed and the signature is placed in the .DSA
             file. The .DSA file also contains, encoded inside it, the cer-
             tificate or certificate chain from the keystore which authenti-
             cates the public key corresponding to the private key used for
             signing.

   Signature Timestamp
          As of the J2SE 5.0 release, the jarsigner tool can now generate and
          store a signature timestamp when signing a JAR file. In addition,
          jarsigner supports alternative signing mechanisms. This behavior is
          optional and is controlled by the user at the time of signing
          through these options:

             o -tsa url

             o -tsacert alias

             o -altsigner class

             o -altsignerpath classpathlist

          Each of these options is detailed in the Options section below.

   JAR File Verification
          A successful JAR file verification occurs if the signature(s) are
          valid, and none of the files that were in the JAR file when the sig-
          natures were generated have been changed since then. JAR file veri-
          fication involves the following steps:

             1. Verify the signature of the .SF file itself.

             That is, the verification ensures that the signature stored in
             each signature block (.DSA) file was in fact generated using the
             private key corresponding to the public key whose certificate (or
             certificate chain) also appears in the .DSA file. It also ensures
             that the signature is a valid signature of the corresponding sig-
             nature (.SF) file, and thus the .SF file has not been tampered
             with.

             2. Verify the digest listed in each entry in the .SF file with
                each corresponding section in the manifest.

             The .SF file by default includes a header containing a hash of
             the entire manifest file. When the header is present, then the
             verification can check to see whether or not the hash in the
             header indeed matches the hash of the manifest file. If that is
             the case, verification proceeds to the next step.

             If that is not the case, a less optimized verification is
             required to ensure that the hash in each source file information
             section in the .SF file equals the hash of its corresponding sec-
             tion in the manifest file (see The Signature (.SF) File).

             One reason the hash of the manifest file that is stored in the
             .SF file header may not equal the hash of the current manifest
             file would be because one or more files were added to the JAR
             file (using the jar tool) after the signature (and thus the .SF
             file) was generated. When the jar tool is used to add files, the
             manifest file is changed (sections are added to it for the new
             files), but the .SF file is not. A verification is still consid-
             ered successful if none of the files that were in the JAR file
             when the signature was generated have been changed since then,
             which is the case if the hashes in the non-header sections of the
             .SF file equal the hashes of the corresponding sections in the
             manifest file.

             3. Read each file in the JAR file that has an entry in the .SF
                file. While reading, compute the file's digest, and then com-
                pare the result with the digest for this file in the manifest
                section. The digests should be the same, or verification
                fails.

          If any serious verification failures occur during the verification
          process, the process is stopped and a security exception is thrown.
          It is caught and displayed by jarsigner.

   Multiple Signatures for a JAR File
          A JAR file can be signed by multiple people simply by running the
          jarsigner tool on the file multiple times, specifying the alias for
          a different person each time, as in:

            jarsigner myBundle.jar susan
            jarsigner myBundle.jar kevin

          When a JAR file is signed multiple times, there are multiple .SF and
          .DSA files in the resulting JAR file, one pair for each signature.
          Thus, in the example above, the output JAR file includes files with
          the following names:

            SUSAN.SF
            SUSAN.DSA
            KEVIN.SF
            KEVIN.DSA

          Note: It is also possible for a JAR file to have mixed signatures,
          some generated by the JDK 1.1 javakey tool and others by jarsigner.
          That is, jarsigner can be used to sign JAR files already previously
          signed using javakey.

OPTIONS
       The various jarsigner options are listed and described below. Note:

          o All option names are preceded by a minus sign (-).

          o The options may be provided in any order.

          o Items in italics (option values) represent the actual values that
            must be supplied.

          o The -keystore, -storepass, -keypass, -sigfile, -sigalg,
            -digestalg, and -signedjar options are only relevant when signing
            a JAR file, not when verifying a signed JAR file. Similarly, an
            alias is only specified on the command line when signing a JAR
            file.

          -keystore url
             Specifies the URL that tells the keystore location. This defaults
             to the file .keystore in the user's home directory, as determined
             by the "user.home" system property.

          A keystore is required when signing, so you must explicitly specify
          one if the default keystore does not exist (or you want to use one
          other than the default).

          A keystore is not required when verifying, but if one is specified,
          or the default exists, and the -verbose option was also specified,
          additional information is output regarding whether or not any of the
          certificates used to verify the JAR file are contained in that key-
          store.

          Note: the -keystore argument can actually be a file name (and path)
          specification rather than a URL, in which case it will be treated
          the same as a "file:" URL. That is,

            -keystore filePathAndName

          is treated as equivalent to

            -keystore file:filePathAndName

          If the Sun PKCS#11 provider has been configured in the java.security
          security properties file (located in the JRE's $JAVA_HOME/lib/secu-
          rity directory), then keytool and jarsigner can operate on the
          PKCS#11 token by specifying these options:

             o -keystore NONE

             o -storetype PKCS11
          For example, this command lists the contents of the configured
          PKCS#11 token:

                jarsigner -keystore NONE -storetype PKCS11 -list

          -storetype storetype
             Specifies the type of keystore to be instantiated. The default
             keystore type is the one that is specified as the value of the
             "keystore.type" property in the security properties file, which
             is returned by the static getDefaultType method in java.secu-
             rity.KeyStore.

          The PIN for a PCKS#11 token can also be specified using the
          -storepass option. If none has been specified, keytool and jarsigner
          will prompt for the token PIN. If the token has a protected authen-
          tication path (such as a dedicated PIN-pad or a biometric reader),
          then the -protected option must be specified and no password options
          can be specified.

          -storepass password
             Specifies the password which is required to access the keystore.
             This is only needed when signing (not verifying) a JAR file. In
             that case, if a -storepass option is not provided at the command
             line, the user is prompted for the password.

          Note: The password shouldn't be specified on the command line or in
          a script unless it is for testing purposes, or you are on a secure
          system. Also, when typing in a password at the password prompt, the
          password is echoed (displayed exactly as typed), so be careful not
          to type it in front of anyone.

          -keypass password
             Specifies the password used to protect the private key of the
             keystore entry addressed by the alias specified on the command
             line. The password is required when using jarsigner to sign a JAR
             file. If no password is provided on the command line, and the
             required password is different from the store password, the user
             is prompted for it.

          Note: The password shouldn't be specified on the command line or in
          a script unless it is for testing purposes, or you are on a secure
          system. Also, when typing in a password at the password prompt, the
          password is echoed (displayed exactly as typed), so be careful not
          to type it in front of anyone.

          -sigfile file
             Specifies the base file name to be used for the generated .SF and
             .DSA files. For example, if file is "DUKESIGN", the generated .SF
             and .DSA files will be named "DUKESIGN.SF" and "DUKESIGN.DSA",
             and will be placed in the "META-INF" directory of the signed JAR
             file.

          The characters in file must come from the set "a-zA-Z0-9_-". That
          is, only letters, numbers, underscore, and hyphen characters are
          allowed. Note: All lowercase characters will be converted to upper-
          case for the .SF and .DSA file names.

          If no -sigfile option appears on the command line, the base file
          name for the .SF and .DSA files will be the first 8 characters of
          the alias name specified on the command line, all converted to upper
          case. If the alias name has fewer than 8 characters, the full alias
          name is used. If the alias name contains any characters that are not
          legal in a signature file name, each such character is converted to
          an underscore ("_") character in forming the file name.

          -sigalg algorithm

             Specifies the name of the signature algorithm to use to sign the
             JAR file.

             See Appendix A @
             http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/technotes/guides/secu-
             rity/crypto/CryptoSpec.html#AppA of the Java Cryptography Archi-
             tecture for a list of standard signature algorithm names. This
             algorithm must be compatible with the private key used to sign
             the JAR file. If this option is not specified, SHA1withDSA or
             MD5withRSA will be used depending on the type of private key.
             There must either be a statically installed provider supplying an
             implementation of the specified algorithm or the user must spec-
             ify one with the -providerClass option, otherwise the command
             will not succeed.

          -digestalg algorithm
             Specifies the name of the message digest algorithm to use when
             digesting the entries of a jar file.

             See Appendix A @
             http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/technotes/guides/secu-
             rity/crypto/CryptoSpec.html#AppA of the Java Cryptography Archi-
             tecture for a list of standard message digest algorithm names. If
             this option is not specified, SHA-1 will be used. There must
             either be a statically installed provider supplying an implemen-
             tation of the specified algorithm or the user must specify one
             with the -providerClass option, otherwise the command will not
             succeed.

          -signedjar file
             Specifies the name to be used for the signed JAR file.

          If no name is specified on the command line, the name used is the
          same as the input JAR file name (the name of the JAR file to be
          signed); in other words, that file is overwritten with the signed
          JAR file.

          -verify
             If this appears on the command line, the specified JAR file will
             be verified, not signed. If the verification is successful, "jar
             verified" will be displayed. If you try to verify an unsigned JAR
             file, or a JAR file signed with an unsupported algorithm (e.g.,
             RSA when you don't have an RSA provider installed), the following
             is displayed: "jar is unsigned. (signatures missing or not
             parsable)"

          It is possible to verify JAR files signed using either jarsigner or
          the JDK 1.1 javakey tool, or both.

          For further information on verification, see JAR File Verification.

          -certs
             If this appears on the command line, along with the -verify and
             -verbose options, the output includes certificate information for
             each signer of the JAR file. This information includes

             o the name of the type of certificate (stored in the .DSA file)
               that certifies the signer's public key

             o if the certificate is an X.509 certificate (more specifically,
               an instance of java.security.cert.X509Certificate): the distin-
               guished name of the signer

          The keystore is also examined. If no keystore value is specified on
          the command line, the default keystore file (if any) will be
          checked. If the public key certificate for a signer matches an entry
          in the keystore, then the following information will also be dis-
          played:

             o in parentheses, the alias name for the keystore entry for that
               signer. If the signer actually comes from a JDK 1.1 identity
               database instead of from a keystore, the alias name will appear
               in brackets instead of parentheses.

          -verbose
             If this appears on the command line, it indicates "verbose" mode,
             which causes jarsigner to output extra information as to the
             progress of the JAR signing or verification.

          -internalsf
             In the past, the .DSA (signature block) file generated when a JAR
             file was signed used to include a complete encoded copy of the
             .SF file (signature file) also generated. This behavior has been
             changed. To reduce the overall size of the output JAR file, the
             .DSA file by default doesn't contain a copy of the .SF file
             anymore. But if -internalsf appears on the command line, the old
             behavior is utilized. This option is mainly useful for testing;
             in practice, it should not be used, since doing so eliminates a
             useful optimization.

          -sectionsonly
             If this appears on the command line, the .SF file (signature
             file) generated when a JAR file is signed does not include a
             header containing a hash of the whole manifest file. It just con-
             tains information and hashes related to each individual source
             file included in the JAR file, as described in The Signature
             (.SF) File .

          By default, this header is added, as an optimization. When the
          header is present, then whenever the JAR file is verified, the veri-
          fication can first check to see whether or not the hash in the
          header indeed matches the hash of the whole manifest file. If so,
          verification proceeds to the next step. If not, it is necessary to
          do a less optimized verification that the hash in each source file
          information section in the .SF file equals the hash of its corre-
          sponding section in the manifest file.

          For further information, see JAR File Verification.

          This option is mainly useful for testing; in practice, it should not
          be used, since doing so eliminates a useful optimization.

          -protected
             Either true or false. This value should be specified as true if a
             password must be given via a protected authentication path such
             as a dedicated PIN reader.

          -provider provider-class-name
             Used to specify the name of cryptographic service provider's mas-
             ter class file when the service provider is not listed in the
             security properties file, java.security.

          Used in conjunction with the -providerArg ConfigFilePath option,
          keytool and jarsigner will install the provider dynamically (where
          ConfigFilePath is the path to the token configuration file). Here's
          an example of a command to list a PKCS#11 keystore when the Sun
          PKCS#11 provider has not been configured in the security properties
          file.

             jarsigner -keystore NONE -storetype PKCS11 \
                       -providerClass sun.security.pkcs11.SunPKCS11 \
                       -providerArg /foo/bar/token.config \
                       -list

          -providerName providerName
             If more than one provider has been configured in the java.secu-
             rity security properties file, you can use the -providerName
             option to target a specific provider instance. The argument to
             this option is the name of the provider.

          For the Sun PKCS#11 provider, providerName is of the form
          SunPKCS11-TokenName, where TokenName is the name suffix that the
          provider instance has been configured with, as detailed in the con-
          figuration attributes table @
          http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/technotes/guides/secu-
          rity/p11guide.html#ATTRS. For example, the following command lists
          the contents of the PKCS#11 keystore provider instance with name
          suffix SmartCard:

             jarsigner -keystore NONE -storetype PKCS11 \
                     -providerName SunPKCS11-SmartCard \
                     -list

          -Jjavaoption
             Passes through the specified javaoption string directly to the
             Java interpreter. (jarsigner is actually a "wrapper" around the
             interpreter.) This option should not contain any spaces. It is
             useful for adjusting the execution environment or memory usage.
             For a list of possible interpreter options, type java -h or java
             -X at the command line.

          -tsa url
             If "-tsa http://example.tsa.url" appears on the command line when
             signing a JAR file then a timestamp is generated for the signa-
             ture. The URL, http://example.tsa.url, identifies the location of
             the Time Stamping Authority (TSA). It overrides any URL found via
             the -tsacert option. The -tsa option does not require the TSA's
             public key certificate to be present in the keystore.

          To generate the timestamp, jarsigner communicates with the TSA using
          the Time-Stamp Protocol (TSP) defined in RFC 3161 @
          http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3161.txt. If successful, the timestamp
          token returned by the TSA is stored along with the signature in the
          signature block file.

          -tsacert alias
             If "-tsacert alias" appears on the command line when signing a
             JAR file then a timestamp is generated for the signature. The
             alias identifies the TSA's public key certificate in the keystore
             that is currently in effect. The entry's certificate is examined
             for a Subject Information Access extension that contains a URL
             identifying the location of the TSA.

          The TSA's public key certificate must be present in the keystore
          when using -tsacert.

          -altsigner class
             Specifies that an alternative signing mechanism be used. The
             fully-qualified class name identifies a class file that extends
             the com.sun.jarsigner.ContentSigner abstract class. The path to
             this class file is defined by the -altsignerpath option. If the
             -altsigner option is used, jarsigner uses the signing mechanism
             provided by the specified class. Otherwise, jarsigner uses its
             default signing mechanism.

          For example, to use the signing mechanism provided by a class named
          com.sun.sun.jarsigner.AuthSigner, use the jarsigner option "-alt-
          signer com.sun.jarsigner.AuthSigner"

          -altsignerpath classpathlist
             Specifies the path to the class file (the class file name is
             specified with the -altsigner option described above) and any JAR
             files it depends on. If the class file is in a JAR file, then
             this specifies the path to that JAR file, as shown in the example
             below.

          An absolute path or a path relative to the current directory may be
          specified. If classpathlist contains multiple paths or JAR files,
          they should be separated with a colon (:) on Solaris and a
          semi-colon (;) on Windows. This option is not necessary if the class
          is already in the search path.

          Example of specifying the path to a jar file that contains the class
          file:

             -altsignerpath /home/user/lib/authsigner.jar

          Note that the JAR file name is included.

          Example of specifying the path to the jar file that contains the
          class file:

             -altsignerpath /home/user/classes/com/sun/tools/jarsigner/

          Note that the JAR file name is omitted.

EXAMPLES
   Signing a JAR File
          Suppose you have a JAR file named "bundle.jar" and you'd like to
          sign it using the private key of the user whose keystore alias is
          "jane" in the keystore named "mystore" in the "working" directory.
          Suppose the keystore password is "myspass" and the password for
          jane's private key is "j638klm". You can use the following to sign
          the JAR file and name the signed JAR file "sbundle.jar":

              jarsigner -keystore /working/mystore -storepass myspass
                -keypass j638klm -signedjar sbundle.jar bundle.jar jane

          Note that there is no -sigfile specified in the command above, so
          the generated .SF and .DSA files to be placed in the signed JAR file
          will have default names based on the alias name. That is, they will
          be named JANE.SF and JANE.DSA.

          If you want to be prompted for the store password and the private
          key password, you could shorten the above command to

              jarsigner -keystore /working/mystore
                -signedjar sbundle.jar bundle.jar jane

          If the keystore to be used is the default keystore (the one named
          ".keystore" in your home directory), you don't need to specify a
          keystore, as in:

              jarsigner -signedjar sbundle.jar bundle.jar jane

          Finally, if you want the signed JAR file to simply overwrite the
          input JAR file (bundle.jar), you don't need to specify a -signedjar
          option:

              jarsigner bundle.jar jane

   Verifying a Signed JAR File
          To verify a signed JAR file, that is, to verify that the signature
          is valid and the JAR file has not been tampered with, use a command
          such as the following:

              jarsigner -verify sbundle.jar

          If the verification is successful,

              jar verified.

          is displayed. Otherwise, an error message appears.

          You can get more information if you use the -verbose option. A sam-
          ple use of jarsigner with the -verbose option is shown below, along
          with sample output:

              jarsigner -verify -verbose sbundle.jar

                     198 Fri Sep 26 16:14:06 PDT 1997 META-INF/MANIFEST.MF
                     199 Fri Sep 26 16:22:10 PDT 1997 META-INF/JANE.SF
                    1013 Fri Sep 26 16:22:10 PDT 1997 META-INF/JANE.DSA
              smk   2752 Fri Sep 26 16:12:30 PDT 1997 AclEx.class
              smk    849 Fri Sep 26 16:12:46 PDT 1997 test.class

                s = signature was verified
                m = entry is listed in manifest
                k = at least one certificate was found in keystore

              jar verified.

   Verification with Certificate Information
       If you specify the -certs option when verifying, along with the -verify
       and -verbose options, the output includes certificate information for
       each signer of the JAR file, including the certificate type, the signer
       distinguished name information (iff it's an X.509 certificate), and, in
       parentheses, the keystore alias for the signer if the public key cer-
       tificate in the JAR file matches that in a keystore entry. For example,

           jarsigner -keystore /working/mystore -verify -verbose -certs myTest.jar

                  198 Fri Sep 26 16:14:06 PDT 1997 META-INF/MANIFEST.MF
                  199 Fri Sep 26 16:22:10 PDT 1997 META-INF/JANE.SF
                 1013 Fri Sep 26 16:22:10 PDT 1997 META-INF/JANE.DSA
                  208 Fri Sep 26 16:23:30 PDT 1997 META-INF/JAVATEST.SF
                 1087 Fri Sep 26 16:23:30 PDT 1997 META-INF/JAVATEST.DSA
           smk   2752 Fri Sep 26 16:12:30 PDT 1997 Tst.class

             X.509, CN=Test Group, OU=Java Software, O=Sun Microsystems, L=CUP, S=CA, C=US (javatest)
             X.509, CN=Jane Smith, OU=Java Software, O=Sun, L=cup, S=ca, C=us (jane)

             s = signature was verified
             m = entry is listed in manifest
             k = at least one certificate was found in keystore

           jar verified.

       If the certificate for a signer is not an X.509 certificate, there is
       no distinguished name information. In that case, just the certificate
       type and the alias are shown. For example, if the certificate is a PGP
       certificate, and the alias is "bob", you'd get

             PGP, (bob)

   Verification of a JAR File that Includes Identity Database Signers
       If a JAR file has been signed using the JDK 1.1 javakey tool, and thus
       the signer is an alias in an identity database, the verification output
       includes an "i" symbol. If the JAR file has been signed by both an
       alias in an identity database and an alias in a keystore, both "k" and
       "i" appear.

       When the -certs option is used, any identity database aliases are shown
       in square brackets rather than the parentheses used for keystore
       aliases. For example:

           jarsigner -keystore /working/mystore -verify -verbose -certs writeFile.jar

                  198 Fri Sep 26 16:14:06 PDT 1997 META-INF/MANIFEST.MF
                  199 Fri Sep 26 16:22:10 PDT 1997 META-INF/JANE.SF
                 1013 Fri Sep 26 16:22:10 PDT 1997 META-INF/JANE.DSA
                  199 Fri Sep 27 12:22:30 PDT 1997 META-INF/DUKE.SF
                 1013 Fri Sep 27 12:22:30 PDT 1997 META-INF/DUKE.DSA
          smki   2752 Fri Sep 26 16:12:30 PDT 1997 writeFile.html

             X.509, CN=Jane Smith, OU=Java Software, O=Sun, L=cup, S=ca, C=us (jane)
             X.509, CN=Duke, OU=Java Software, O=Sun, L=cup, S=ca, C=us [duke]

             s = signature was verified
             m = entry is listed in manifest
             k = at least one certificate was found in keystore
             i = at least one certificate was found in identity scope

           jar verified.

       Note that the alias "duke" is in brackets to denote that it is an iden-
       tity database alias, not a keystore alias.

SEE ALSO
          o jar(1) tool documentation

          o keytool(1) tool documentation

          o the Security @
            http://java.sun.com/docs/books/tutorial/security/index.html trail
            of the Java Tutorial @
            http://java.sun.com/docs/books/tutorial/index.html for examples of
            the use of the jarsigner tool

                                  06 Apr 2010                     jarsigner(1)
 

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