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jar(1)                                                                  jar(1)

       jar-The Java Archive Tool

       jar combines multiple files into a single JAR archive file.

          Create jar file
             jar  c[v0Mmfe]  [manifest] [jarfile] [entrypoint] [-C dir] input-
             files [-Joption]

          Update jar file
             jar u[v0Mmfe] [manifest] [jarfile] [entrypoint] [-C  dir]  input-
             files [-Joption]

          Extract jar file
             jar x[vf] [jarfile] [inputfiles] [-Joption]

          List table of contents of jar file
             jar t[vf] [jarfile] [inputfiles] [-Joption]

          Add index to jar file
             jar i jarfile [-Joption]


                Options that control the jar command.

                Jar  file  to  be  created (c), updated (u), extracted (x), or
                have its table of contents viewed (t). The -f option and file-
                name  jarfile  are  a  pair -- if either is present, they must
                both appear. Note that omitting f and jarfile accepts  a  "jar
                file"  from  standard  input  (for  x and t) or sends the "jar
                file" to standard output (for c and u).

                Files or directories, separated by spaces, to be combined into
                jarfile  (for  c  and u), or to be extracted (for x) or listed
                (for t) from jarfile. All  directories  are  processed  recur-
                sively.  The  files  are  compressed unless option 0 (zero) is

                Pre-existing manifest file whose name: value pairs are  to  be
                included  in  MANIFEST.MF  in  the jar file. The -m option and
                filename manifest are a pair -- if  either  is  present,  they
                must  both  appear.  The letters m, f and e must appear in the
                same order that manifest, jarfile, entrypoint appear.

                The name of the class that set as the application entry  point
                for stand-alone applications bundled into executable jar file.
                The -e option and entrypoint  are  a  pair  --  if  either  is
                present,  they  must  both appear. The letters m, f and e must
                appear in the same order that  manifest,  jarfile,  entrypoint

             -C dir
                Temporarily  changes  directories  to dir while processing the
                following inputfiles argument. Multiple -C dir inputfiles sets
                are allowed.

                Option  to be passed into the Java runtime environment. (There
                must be no space between -J and option).

       The jar tool combines multiple files into a single  JAR  archive  file.
       jar  is  a general-purpose archiving and compression tool, based on ZIP
       and the ZLIB @
       http://www.gzip.org/zlib/ compression format. However, jar was designed
       mainly package java applets or applications into a single archive. When
       the components of an applet or application (files, images and sounds)
       are combined into a single archive, they can be downloaded by a java
       agent (like a browser) in a single HTTP transaction, rather than
       requiring a new connection for each piece. This dramatically improves
       download times. jar also compresses files and so further improves down-
       load time. In addition, it allows individual entries in a file to be
       signed by the applet author so that their origin can be authenticated.
       The syntax for the jar tool is almost identical to the syntax for the
       tar command. A jar archive can be used as a class path entry, whether
       or not it is compressed.

       Typical usage to combine files into a jar file is:

          % jar cf myFile.jar *.class

       In this example, all the class files in the current directory are
       placed into the file named myFile.jar. The jar tool automatically gen-
       erates a manifest file entry named META-INF/MANIFEST.MF. It is always
       the first entry in the jar file. The manifest file declares meta-infor-
       mation about the archive, and stores that data as name : value pairs.
       Refer to the JAR file specification @
       notes/guides/jar/jar.html#JAR%20Manifest for details explaining how the
       jar tool stores meta-information in the manifest file.

       If a jar file should include name : value pairs contained in an exist-
       ing manifest file, specify that file using the -m option:

          % jar cmf myManifestFile myFile.jar *.class

       An existing manifest file must end with a new line character.  jar does
       not parse the last line of a manifest file if it does not end with a
       new line character.

       Note:  A jar command that specifies cfm on the command line instead of
       cmf (the order of the m and -f options are reversed), the jar command
       line must specify the name of the jar archive first, followed by the
       name of the manifest file:

          % jar cfm myFile.jar myManifestFile *.class

       The manifest is in a text format inspired by RFC822 ASCII format, so it
       is easy to view and process manifest-file contents.

       To extract the files from a jar file, use x:

          % jar xf myFile.jar

       To extract individual files from a jar file, supply their filenames:

          % jar xf myFile.jar foo bar

       Beginning with version 1.3 of the Java 2 SDK, the jar utility supports
       JarIndex @
       notes/guides/jar/jar.html#JARIndex, which allows application class
       loaders to load classes more efficiently from jar files. If an applica-
       tion or applet is bundled into multiple jar files,  only the necessary
       jar files will be downloaded and opened to load classes. This perfor-
       mance optimization is enabled by running jar with the -ioption. It will
       generate package location information for the specified main jar file
       and all the jar files it depends on, which need to be specified in the
       Class-Path attribute of the main jar file's manifest.

          % jar i main.jar

       In this example, an INDEX.LIST file is inserted into the META-INF
       directory of main.jar.
       The application class loader uses the information stored in this file
       for efficient class loading.  For details about how location informa-
       tion is stored in the index file, refer to the JarIndex specification.
       To copy directories, first compress files in dir1 to stdout, then
       extract from stdin to dir2 (omitting the -f option from both jar com-

          % (cd dir1; jar c .) | (cd dir2; jar x)

       To review command samples which use jar to opeate on jar files and jar
       file manifests, see Examples, below. Also refer to the jar trail of the
       Java Tutorial @

          c  Creates a new archive file named jarfile (if f is specified) or
             to standard output (if f and jarfile are omitted). Add to it the
             files and directories specified by inputfiles.

          u  Updates an existing file jarfile (when f is specified) by adding
             to it files and directories specified by inputfiles. For example:

             jar uf foo.jar foo.class

          would add the file foo.class to the existing jar file foo.jar. The
          -u option can also update the manifest entry, as given by this exam-

             jar umf manifest foo.jar

          updates the foo.jar manifest with the name : value pairs in mani-

          x  Extracts files and directories from jarfile (if f is specified)
             or standard input (if f and jarfile are omitted). If inputfiles
             is specified, only those specified files and directories are
             extracted. Otherwise, all files and directories are extracted.
             The time and date of the extracted files are those given in the

          t  Lists the table of contents from jarfile (if f is specified) or
             standard input (if f and jarfile are omitted). If inputfiles is
             specified, only those specified files and directories are listed.
             Otherwise, all files and directories are listed.

          i  Generate index information for the specified jarfile and its
             dependent jar files. For example:

             jar i foo.jar

          would generate an INDEX.LIST file in foo.jar which contains location
          information for each package in foo.jar and all the jar files speci-
          fied in the Class-Path attribute of foo.jar. See the index example.

          f  Specifies the file jarfile to be created (c), updated (u),
             extracted (x), indexed (i), or viewed (t). The -f option and
             filename jarfile are a pair -- if present, they must both appear.
             Omitting f and jarfile accepts a jar file name from stdin(for x
             and t) or sends jar file to stdout (for c and u).

          v  Generates verbose output to standard output. Examples shown

          0  (zero) Store without using ZIP compression.

          M  Do not create a manifest file entry (for c and u), or delete a
             manifest file entry if one exists (for u).

          m  Includes name : value attribute pairs from the specified manifest
             file manifest in the file at META-INF/MANIFEST.MF. jar adds a
             name : value pair unless an entry already exists with the same
             name, in which case jar updates its value.

          On the command line, the letters m and f must appear in the same
          order that manifest and jarfile appear. Example use:

             jar cmf myManifestFile myFile.jar *.class

          You can add special-purpose name : value attribute pairs to the man-
          ifest that aren't contained in the default manifest. For example,
          you can add attributes specifying vendor information, version infor-
          mation, package sealing, or to make JAR-bundled applications exe-
          cutable. See the JAR Files @
          http://java.sun.com/docs/books/tutorial/jar/ trail in the Java Tuto-
          rial  for examples of using the -m option.

          e  Sets entrypoint as the application entry point for stand-alone
             applications bundled into executable jar file. The use of this
             option creates or overrides the Main-Class attribute value in the
             manifest file. This option can be used during creation of jar
             file or while updating the jar file. This option specifies the
             application entry point without editing or creating the manifest
             For example, this command creates Main.jar where the Main-Class
             attribute value in the manifest is set to Main:

             jar cfe Main.jar Main Main.class

          The java runtime can directly invoke this application by running the
          following command:

             java -jar Main.jar

          If the entrypoint class name is in a package it may use either a dot
          (".") or slash ("/") character as the delimiter. For example, if
          Main.class is in a package called foo the entry point can be speci-
          fied in the following ways:

             jar -cfe Main.jar foo/Main foo/Main.class


             jar -cfe Main.jar foo.Main foo/Main.class

          Note:  specifying both -m and -e options together when the given
          manifest also contains the Main-Class attribute results in an
          ambigous Main.class specification, leading to an error and the jar
          creation or update operation is aborted.

          -C  dir
             Temporarily changes directories (cd dir) during execution of the
             jar command while processing the following inputfiles argument.
             Its operation is intended to be similar to the -C option of the
             UNIX tar utility.
             For example, this command changes to the classes directory and
             adds the bar.class from that directory to foo.jar:

             jar uf foo.jar -C classes bar.class

          This command changes to the classes directory and adds to foo.jar
          all files within the classes directory (without creating a classes
          directory in the jar file), then changes back to the original direc-
          tory before changing to the bin directory to add xyz.class to

             jar uf foo.jar -C classes . -C bin xyz.class

          If classes holds files bar1 and bar2, then here's what the jar file
          will contain using jar tf foo.jar:


             Pass option to the Java runtime environment, where option is one
             of the options described on the reference page for the java
             application launcher. For example, -J-Xmx48M sets the maximum
             memory to 48 megabytes. It is a common convention for -J to pass
             options to the underlying runtime environment.

       To shorten or simplify the jar command line, you can specify one or
       more files that themselves contain arguments to the jar command (except
       -J options). This enables you to create jar commands of any length,
       overcoming command line limits imposed by the operating system.

       An argument file can include options and filenames. The arguments
       within a file can be space-separated or newline-separated. Filenames
       within an argument file are relative to the current directory, not rel-
       ative to the location of the argument file. Wildcards (*) that might
       otherwise be expanded by the operating system shell are not expanded.
       Use of the @ character to recursively interpret files is not supported.
       The -J options are not supported because they are passed to the
       launcher, which does not support argument files.

       When executing jar, pass in the path and name of each argument file
       with the @ leading character. When jar encounters an argument beginning
       with the character @, it expands the contents of that file into the
       argument list.
       The example below, classes.list holds the names of files output by a
       find command:

          % find . -name '*.class' -print > classes.list

       You can then execute the jar command on Classes.list by passing it to
       jar using argfile syntax:

          % jar cf my.jar @classes.list

       An argument file can specify a path, but any filenames inside the argu-
       ment file that have relative paths are relative to the current working
       directory, not to the path passed in. Here is an example:

          % jar @path1/classes.list

       To add all the files in a particular directory to an archive (overwrit-
       ing contents if the archive already exists). Enumerating verbosely
       (with the -v option) will tell you more information about the files in
       the archive, such as their size and last modified date.

          % ls
          1.au          Animator.class    monkey.jpg
          2.au          Wave.class        spacemusic.au
          3.au          at_work.gif

          % jar cvf bundle.jar *
          added manifest
          adding: 1.au(in = 2324) (out= 67)(deflated 97%)
          adding: 2.au(in = 6970) (out= 90)(deflated 98%)
          adding: 3.au(in = 11616) (out= 108)(deflated 99%)
          adding: Animator.class(in = 2266) (out= 66)(deflated 97%)
          adding: Wave.class(in = 3778) (out= 81)(deflated 97%)
          adding: at_work.gif(in = 6621) (out= 89)(deflated 98%)
          adding: monkey.jpg(in = 7667) (out= 91)(deflated 98%)
          adding: spacemusic.au(in = 3079) (out= 73)(deflated 97%)

       If you already have separate subdirectories for images, audio files and
       classes, you can combine them into a single jar file:

          % ls -F
          audio/ classes/ images/

          % jar cvf bundle.jar audio classes images
          added manifest
          adding: audio/(in = 0) (out= 0)(stored 0%)
          adding: audio/1.au(in = 2324) (out= 67)(deflated 97%)
          adding: audio/2.au(in = 6970) (out= 90)(deflated 98%)
          adding: audio/3.au(in = 11616) (out= 108)(deflated 99%)
          adding: audio/spacemusic.au(in = 3079) (out= 73)(deflated 97%)
          adding: classes/(in = 0) (out= 0)(stored 0%)
          adding: classes/Animator.class(in = 2266) (out= 66)(deflated 97%)
          adding: classes/Wave.class(in = 3778) (out= 81)(deflated 97%)
          adding: images/(in = 0) (out= 0)(stored 0%)
          adding: images/monkey.jpg(in = 7667) (out= 91)(deflated 98%)
          adding: images/at_work.gif(in = 6621) (out= 89)(deflated 98%)

          % ls -F
          audio/ bundle.jar classes/ images/

       To see the entry names in the jarfile, use the t option:

          % jar tf bundle.jar

       To add an index file to the jar file for speeding up class loading, use
       the i option.

          If you split the inter-dependent classes for a stock trade applica-
          tion into three jar files: main.jar, buy.jar, and sell.jar.

          If you specify the Class-path attribute in the main.jar manifest as:

          Class-Path: buy.jar sell.jar

          then you can use the -i option to speed up the class loading time
          for your application:

          % jar i main.jar

          An INDEX.LIST file is inserted to the META-INF directory. This
          enables the application class loader to download the specified jar
          files when it is searching for classes or resources.

       The Jar Overview @

       The Jar File Specification @

       The JarIndex Spec @

       Jar Tutorial @
       http://java.sun.com/docs/books/tutorial/jar on the Java Software web


                                  06 Apr 2010                           jar(1)

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