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ISPELL(1)                                                            ISPELL(1)

       ispell,  buildhash,  munchlist,  findaffix, tryaffix, icombine, ijoin -
       Interactive spelling checking

       ispell [common-flags] [-M|-N] [-Lcontext] [-V] files
       ispell [common-flags] -l
       ispell [common-flags] [-f file] [-s] [-a|-A]
       ispell [-d file] [-w chars] -c
       ispell [-d file] [-w chars] -e[e]
       ispell [-d file] -D
       ispell -v[v]

              [-t] [-n] [-H] [-o] [-b] [-x] [-B] [-C] [-P] [-m] [-S] [-d file]
              [-p file] [-w chars] [-W n] [-T type] [-kname list] [-F program]

       buildhash [-s] dict-file affix-file hash-file
       buildhash -s count affix-file

       munchlist [-l aff-file] [-c conv-file] [-T suffix]
                 [-s hash-file] [-D] [-v] [-w chars] [files]

       findaffix [-p|-s] [-f] [-c] [-m min] [-M max] [-e elim]
                 [-t tabchar] [-l low] [files]

       tryaffix [-p|-s] [-c] expanded-file affix[+addition]

       icombine [-T type] [-w chars] [aff-file]

       ijoin [-s|-u] join-options file1 file2

       Ispell is fashioned after the spell program from ITS (called ispell  on
       Twenex  systems.)  The most common usage is "ispell filename".  In this
       case, ispell will display each word which does not appear in  the  dic-
       tionary  at the top of the screen and allow you to change it.  If there
       are "near misses" in the dictionary (words which differ by only a  sin-
       gle letter, a missing or extra letter, a pair of transposed letters, or
       a missing space or hyphen), then they are also displayed  on  following
       lines.   As  well as "near misses", ispell may display other guesses at
       ways to make the word from a known root, with each  guess  preceded  by
       question marks.  Finally, the line containing the word and the previous
       line are printed at the bottom of the screen.   If  your  terminal  can
       display in reverse video, the word itself is highlighted.  You have the
       option of replacing the word completely, or choosing one  of  the  sug-
       gested  words.   Commands  are  single  characters  as follows (case is

              R      Replace the misspelled word completely.

              Space  Accept the word this time only.

              A      Accept the word for the rest of this ispell session.

              I      Accept the word, capitalized as it is in  the  file,  and
                     update private dictionary.

              U      Accept  the word, and add an uncapitalized (actually, all
                     lower-case) version to the private dictionary.

              0-n    Replace with one of the suggested words.

              L      Look up words in system  dictionary  (controlled  by  the
                     WORDS compilation option).

              X      Write  the  rest of this file, ignoring misspellings, and
                     start next file.

              Q      Exit immediately and leave the file unchanged.

              !      Shell escape.

              ^L     Redraw screen.

              ^Z     Suspend ispell.

              ?      Give help screen.

       If the -M switch is specified, a one-line mini-menu at  the  bottom  of
       the screen will summarize these options.  Conversely, the -N switch may
       be used to suppress the  mini-menu.   (The  minimenu  is  displayed  by
       default  if ispell was compiled with the MINIMENU option, but these two
       switches will always override the default).

       If the -L flag is given, the specified number is used as the number  of
       lines  of  context to be shown at the bottom of the screen (The default
       is to calculate the amount of context as a certain  percentage  of  the
       screen  size).   The  amount  of context is subject to a system-imposed

       If the -V flag is given, characters that are  not  in  the  7-bit  ANSI
       printable  character  set will always be displayed in the style of "cat
       -v", even if ispell thinks that these characters are legal ISO  Latin-1
       on  your  system.   This  is  useful when working with older terminals.
       Without this switch, ispell will display 8-bit characters  "as  is"  if
       they have been defined as string characters for the chosen file type.

       "Normal"  mode,  as  well as the -l, -a, and -A options and interactive
       mode (see below) also accepts the following "common" flags on the  com-
       mand line:

              -t     The input file is in TeX or LaTeX format.

              -n     The input file is in nroff/troff format.

              -H     The  input  file  is  in  SGML/HTML format.  (This should
                     really be -s, but for historical reasons  that  flag  was
                     already taken.)

              -o     The input file should be treated as ordinary text.  (This
                     could be used to override DEFTEXFLAG.)

              -b     Create a backup file by appending ".bak" to the  name  of
                     the input file.

              -x     Delete  the backup file after spell-checking is finished.

              -B     Report run-together words with missing blanks as spelling

              -C     Consider run-together words as legal compounds.

              -P     Don't generate extra root/affix combinations.

              -m     Make  possible root/affix combinations that aren't in the

              -S     Sort the list of guesses by probable correctness.

              -d file
                     Specify an alternate dictionary file.  For  example,  use
                     -d  deutsch  to  choose  a  German dictionary in a German

              -p file
                     Specify an alternate personal dictionary.

              -w chars
                     Specify additional characters that can be part of a word.

              -W n   Specify length of words that are always legal.

              -T type
                     Assume a given formatter type for all files.

       The -H, -n, -t, and -o options select whether ispell runs in HTML (-H),
       nroff/troff (-n), TeX/LaTeX (-t), or ordinary  text  (-o)  input  mode.
       mode.   (The  default mode is controlled by the DEFTEXFLAG installation
       option, but is  normally  nroff/troff  mode  for  historical  reasons.)
       Unless overridden by one of the mode-selection switches, TeX/LaTeX mode
       is automatically selected if an input file has  the  extension  ".tex",
       and HTML mode is automatically selected if an input file has the exten-
       sion ".html" or ".htm".

       In HTML mode, HTML tags delimited by <> signs are skipped, except  that
       the  "ALT=" construct is recognized if it appears with no spaces around
       the equals sign, and the text inside is spell-checked.

       In TeX/LaTeX mode, whenever a backslash ("\")  is  found,  ispell  will
       skip  to  the next whitespace or TeX/LaTeX delimiter.  Certain commands
       contain arguments which should not be checked, such as labels and  ref-
       erence keys as are found in the \cite command, since they contain arbi-
       trary, non-word arguments.  Spell checking is also suppressed  when  in
       math mode.  Thus, for example, given

              \chapter {This is a Ckapter} \cite{SCH86}

       ispell  will find "Ckapter" but not "SCH".  The -t option does not rec-
       ognize the TeX comment character  "%",  so  comments  are  also  spell-
       checked.   It  also  assumes correct LaTeX syntax.  Arguments to infre-
       quently used commands and some optional arguments are sometimes checked
       unnecessarily.  The bibliography will not be checked if ispell was com-
       piled with IGNOREBIB defined.   Otherwise,  the  bibliography  will  be
       checked but the reference key will not.

       References for the .IRtib(not available), bibliography system, that is,
       text between a ``[.'' or ``<.'' and ``.]'' or  ``.>''  will  always  be
       ignored in TeX/LaTeX mode.

       The  -b  and  -x  options control whether ispell leaves a backup (.bak)
       file for each input file.  The .bak  file  contains  the  pre-corrected
       text.  If there are file opening / writing errors, the .bak file may be
       left for recovery purposes even with the -x option.   The  default  for
       this option is controlled by the DEFNOBACKUPFLAG installation option.

       The  -B  and  -C options control how ispell handles run-together words,
       such as "notthe" for "not the".  If -B is specified, such words will be
       considered  as errors, and ispell will list variations with an inserted
       blank or hyphen as possible replacements.  If  -C  is  specified,  run-
       together  words  will  be  considered to be legal compounds, so long as
       both components are in the dictionary, and each component is  at  least
       as  long  as  a  language-dependent minimum (3 characters, by default).
       This is useful for languages such as German and Norwegian,  where  many
       compound  words  are  formed  by  concatenation.   (Note that compounds
       formed from three or more root words will still be considered  errors).
       The  default  for this option is language-dependent; in a multi-lingual
       installation the default may vary depending  on  which  dictionary  you

       The  -P and -m options control when ispell automatically generates sug-
       gested root/affix combinations for possible addition to  your  personal
       dictionary.   (These are the entries in the "guess" list which are pre-
       ceded by question marks.)  If -P is specified, such  guesses  are  dis-
       played  only if ispell cannot generate any possibilities that match the
       current dictionary.  If -m is specified, such guesses are  always  dis-
       played.   This can be useful if the dictionary has a limited word list,
       or a word list with few suffixes.  However, you should be careful  when
       using  this  option,  as  it  can generate guesses that produce illegal
       words.  The default for this option is  controlled  by  the  dictionary
       file used.

       The  -S  option suppresses ispell's normal behavior of sorting the list
       of possible replacement words.  Some people may prefer this,  since  it
       somewhat  enhances  the  probability that the correct word will be low-

       The -d option is used to specify an alternate hashed  dictionary  file,
       other  than  the  default.  If the filename does not contain a "/", the
       library directory for the default dictionary file is prefixed; thus, to
       use  a  dictionary in the local directory "-d ./xxx.hash" must be used.
       This is useful to allow dictionaries for alternate  languages.   Unlike
       previous  versions  of  ispell,  a  dictionary of /dev/null is illegal,
       because the dictionary contains the affix table.  If you need an effec-
       tively  empty  dictionary,  create  a  one-entry  list with an unlikely
       string (e.g., "qqqqq").

       The -p option is used to specify an alternate personal dictionary file.
       If the file name does not begin with "/", $HOME is prefixed.  Also, the
       shell variable WORDLIST may be set, which renames the personal  dictio-
       nary  in the same manner.  The command line overrides any WORDLIST set-
       ting.  If neither the -p switch nor the WORDLIST  environment  variable
       is given, ispell will search for a personal dictionary in both the cur-
       rent directory and $HOME, creating one in $HOME if none is found.   The
       preferred  name is constructed by appending ".ispell_" to the base name
       of the hash file.  For example, if you use the English dictionary, your
       personal  dictionary would be named ".ispell_english".  However, if the
       file ".ispell_words" exists, it will be used as the personal dictionary
       regardless  of the language hash file chosen.  This feature is included
       primarily for backwards compatibility.

       If the -p option is not specified, ispell will look for  personal  dic-
       tionaries  in  both  the  current directory and the home directory.  If
       dictionaries exist in both places, they will be merged.  If  any  words
       are  added to the personal dictionary, they will be written to the cur-
       rent directory if a dictionary already existed in that place; otherwise
       they will be written to the dictionary in the home directory.

       The  -w option may be used to specify characters other than alphabetics
       which may also appear in words.  For instance, -w "&" will allow "AT&T"
       to  be  picked up.  Underscores are useful in many technical documents.
       There is an admittedly crude provision in this option for 8-bit  inter-
       national  characters.   Non-printing characters may be specified in the
       usual way by inserting a backslash  followed  by  the  octal  character
       code;  e.g.,  "\014" for a form feed.  Alternatively, if "n" appears in
       the character string, the (up to) three characters following are a DEC-
       IMAL  code  0  - 255, for the character.  For example, to include bells
       and form feeds in your words (an admittedly  silly  thing  to  do,  but
       aren't most pedagogical examples):


       Numeric  digits  other  than the three following "n" are simply numeric
       characters.  Use of "n" does not conflict with anything because  actual
       alphabetics have no meaning - alphabetics are already accepted.  Ispell
       will typically be used with input from a file, meaning that  preserving
       parity for possible 8 bit characters from the input text is OK.  If you
       specify the -l option, and actually type text from the  terminal,  this
       may create problems if your stty settings preserve parity.

       It  is  not possible to use -w with certain characters.  In particular,
       the flag-marker character for the language (defined in the affix  file,
       but usually "/") can never be made into a word character.

       The  -W  option  may  be used to change the length of words that ispell
       always accepts as legal.  Normally, ispell will accept all  1-character
       words as legal, which is equivalent to specifying "-W 1."  (The default
       for this switch is actually  controlled  by  the  MINWORD  installation
       option, so it may vary at your installation.)  If you want all words to
       be checked against the dictionary, regardless of length, you might want
       to specify "-W 0."  On the other hand, if your document specifies a lot
       of three-letter acronyms, you would specify "-W 3" to accept all  words
       of  three  letters  or less.  Regardless of the setting of this option,
       ispell will only generate words that are in the dictionary as suggested
       replacements  for words; this prevents the list from becoming too long.
       Obviously, this option can be very dangerous, since short  misspellings
       may  be missed.  If you use this option a lot, you should probably make
       a last pass without it before you publish  your  document,  to  protect
       yourself against errors.

       The  -T  option  is used to specify a default formatter type for use in
       generating string characters.  This switch overrides the  default  type
       determined  from the file name.  The type argument may be either one of
       the unique names defined in the language affix file (e.g., nroff) or  a
       file  suffix  including  the dot (e.g., .tex).  If no -T option appears
       and no type can be determined from the file name,  the  default  string
       character type declared in the language affix file will be used.

       The  -k option is used to enhance the behavior of certain deformatters.
       The name parameter gives the name of a  deformatter  keyword  set  (see
       below),  and  the  list  parameter gives a list of one or more keywords
       that are to be treated specially.  If list begins with a plus (+) sign,
       it  is added to the existing keywords; otherwise it replaces the exist-
       ing keyword list.   For  example,  -ktexskip1  +bibliographystyle  adds
       "bibliographystyle"   to   the  TeX  skip-1  list,  while  -khtmlignore
       pre,strong replaces the HTML ignore list with "pre" and "strong".   The
       lists available are:

              TeX/LaTeX  commands  that take a single argument that should not
              be spell-checked, such as "bibliographystyle".  The  default  is
              "end",  "vspace",  "hspace",  "cite",  "ref", "parbox", "label",
              "input", "nocite",  "include",  "includeonly",  "documentstyle",
              "documentclass",  "usepackage",  "selectlanguage",  "pagestyle",
              "pagenumbering", "hyphenation",  "pageref",  and  "psfig",  plus
              "bibliography"  in some installations.  These keywords are case-

              TeX/LaTeX commands that take two arguments that  should  not  be
              spell-checked,  such  as  "setlength".   The  default is "rule",
              "setcounter", "addtocounter",  "setlength",  "addtolength",  and
              "settowidth".  These keywords are case-sensitive.

              HTML  tags  that  delimit  text that should not be spell-checked
              until the matching end tag is reached.  The default  is  "code",
              "samp",  "kbd", "pre", "listing", and "address".  These keywords
              are case-insensitive.  (Note that the content inside HTML  tags,
              such as HREF=, is not normally checked.)

              Subfields  that  should  be spell-checked even inside HTML tags.
              The default is "alt", so that the ALT= portion of IMG tags  will
              be spell-checked.  These keywords are case-insensitive.

       All  of  the  above  keyword  lists can also be modified by environment
       variables whose names are the same as above, except in uppercase, e.g.,
       TEXSKIP1.   The  -k switch overrides (or adds to) the environment vari-
       ables, and the environment variables override or add  to  the  built-in

       The  -F switch specifies an external deformatter program.  This program
       should read data from its standard input and write to its standard out-
       put.  The program must produce exactly one character of output for each
       character of input, or ispell will lose synchronization and corrupt the
       output  file.  Whitespace characters (especially blanks, tabs, and new-
       lines) and characters that should be  spell-checked  should  be  passed
       through  unchanged.  Characters that should not be spell-checked should
       be converted into blanks or other non-word characters.  For example, an
       HTML  deformatter  might turn all HTML tags into blanks, and also blank
       out all text delimited by tags such as "code" or "kbd".

       The -F switch is the preferred way to deformat files  for  ispell,  and
       eventually will become the only way.

       If  ispell is invoked without any filenames or mode switches, it enters
       an interactive mode designed to let the  user  check  the  spelling  of
       individual  words.   The  program repeatedly prompts on standard output
       with "word:" and responds with either "ok" (possibly with  commentary),
       "not found", or "how about" followed by a list of suggestions.

       The  -l  or  "list"  option to ispell is used to produce a list of mis-
       spelled words from the standard input.

       The -a option is intended to be used  from  other  programs  through  a
       pipe.   In  this  mode, ispell prints a one-line version identification
       message, and then begins reading lines of input.  For each input  line,
       a  single  line is written to the standard output for each word checked
       for spelling on the line.  If the word was found in  the  main  dictio-
       nary,  or  your personal dictionary, then the line contains only a '*'.
       If the word was found through affix removal, then the line  contains  a
       '+',  a  space,  and the root word.  If the word was found through com-
       pound formation (concatenation of  two  words,  controlled  by  the  -C
       option), then the line contains only a '-'.

       If  the  word is not in the dictionary, but there are near misses, then
       the line contains an '&', a space, the misspelled word,  a  space,  the
       number  of  near misses, the number of characters between the beginning
       of the line and the beginning of the misspelled word, a colon,  another
       space,  and  a  list of the near misses separated by commas and spaces.
       Following the near misses (and identified only by  the  count  of  near
       misses),  if  the word could be formed by adding (illegal) affixes to a
       known root, is a list of suggested derivations, again separated by com-
       mas and spaces.  If there are no near misses at all, the line format is
       the same, except that the '&' is replaced by  '?'  (and  the  near-miss
       count  is  always  zero).  The suggested derivations following the near
       misses are in the form:

              [prefix+] root [-prefix] [-suffix] [+suffix]

       (e.g., "re+fry-y+ies" to get "refries") where each optional pfx and sfx
       is  a string.  Also, each near miss or guess is capitalized the same as
       the input word unless such capitalization is  illegal;  in  the  latter
       case   each  near  miss  is  capitalized  correctly  according  to  the

       Finally, if the word does not appear in the dictionary, and  there  are
       no  near  misses, then the line contains a '#', a space, the misspelled
       word, a space, and the character offset from the beginning of the line.
       Each  sentence  of  text  input  is terminated with an additional blank
       line, indicating that ispell has completed processing the input line.

       These output lines can be summarized as follows:

              OK:    *

              Root:  + <root>


              Miss:  &  <original>  <count>  <offset>:  <miss>,  <miss>,  ...,
                     <guess>, ...

              Guess: ? <original> 0 <offset>: <guess>, <guess>, ...

              None:  # <original> <offset>

       For  example,  a  dummy dictionary containing the words "fray", "Frey",
       "fry", and "refried" might produce the following response to  the  com-
       mand "echo 'frqy refries | ispell -a -m -d ./test.hash":
              (#) International Ispell Version 3.0.05 (beta), 08/10/91
              & frqy 3 0: fray, Frey, fry
              & refries 1 5: refried, re+fry-y+ies

       This  mode is also suitable for interactive use when you want to figure
       out the spelling of a single word.

       The -A option works just like -a, except that if a line begins with the
       string "&Include_File&", the rest of the line is taken as the name of a
       file to read for further words.  Input returns  to  the  original  file
       when the include file is exhausted.  Inclusion may be nested up to five
       deep.  The key string may be  changed  with  the  environment  variable
       INCLUDE_STRING (the ampersands, if any, must be included).

       When in the -a mode, ispell will also accept lines of single words pre-
       fixed with any of '*', '&', '@', '+', '-', '~', '#', '!', '%', '`',  or
       '^'.  A line starting with '*' tells ispell to insert the word into the
       user's dictionary (similar to the I command).  A line starting with '&'
       tells  ispell  to  insert an all-lowercase version of the word into the
       user's dictionary (similar to the U command).  A line starting with '@'
       causes  ispell to accept this word in the future (similar to the A com-
       mand).  A line starting with '+', followed immediately by tex or  nroff
       will  cause  ispell  to parse future input according the syntax of that
       formatter.  A line consisting solely of a  '+'  will  place  ispell  in
       TeX/LaTeX  mode  (similar  to  the -t option) and '-' returns ispell to
       nroff/troff mode (but  these  commands  are  obsolete).   However,  the
       string  character  type is not changed; the '~' command must be used to
       do this.  A line starting with '~' causes ispell to set internal param-
       eters  (in  particular, the default string character type) based on the
       filename given in the rest of the line.  (A file suffix is  sufficient,
       but  the  period must be included.  Instead of a file name or suffix, a
       unique name, as listed in the language affix file, may  be  specified.)
       However, the formatter parsing is not changed;  the '+' command must be
       used to change the formatter.  A line prefixed with '#' will cause  the
       personal dictionary to be saved.  A line prefixed with '!' will turn on
       terse mode (see below), and a line prefixed with '%' will return ispell
       to normal (non-terse) mode.  A line prefixed with '`' will turn on ver-
       bose-correction mode (see below); this mode can  only  be  disabled  by
       turning on terse mode with '%'.

       Any  input  following the prefix characters '+', '-', '#', '!', '%', or
       '`' is ignored, as is any input following the filename on a  '~'  line.
       To  allow  spell-checking  of  lines beginning with these characters, a
       line starting with '^' has that character removed before it  is  passed
       to the spell-checking code.  It is recommended that programmatic inter-
       faces prefix every data line with  an  uparrow  to  protect  themselves
       against future changes in ispell.

       To summarize these:

              *      Add to personal dictionary

              @      Accept word, but leave out of dictionary

              #      Save current personal dictionary

              ~      Set parameters based on filename

              +      Enter TeX mode

              -      Exit TeX mode

              !      Enter terse mode

              %      Exit terse mode

              `      Enter verbose-correction mode

              ^      Spell-check rest of line

       In  terse mode, ispell will not print lines beginning with '*', '+', or
       '-', all of which indicate correct words.  This significantly  improves
       running speed when the driving program is going to ignore correct words

       In verbose-correction mode, ispell includes the original  word  immedi-
       ately after the indicator character in output lines beginning with '*',
       '+', and '-', which simplifies interaction for some programs.

       The -s option is only valid in conjunction with the -a or  -A  options,
       and only on BSD-derived systems.  If specified, ispell will stop itself
       with a SIGTSTP signal after each line of input.  It will not read  more
       input until it receives a SIGCONT signal.  This may be useful for hand-
       shaking with certain text editors.

       The -f option is only valid in conjunction with the -a or  -A  options.
       If  -f  is  specified, ispell will write its results to the given file,
       rather than to standard output.

       The -v option causes ispell to print its current version identification
       on the standard output and exit.  If the switch is doubled, ispell will
       also print the options that it was compiled with.

       The -c, -e[1-5], and -D options of ispell, are primarily  intended  for
       use  by  the  munchlist  shell  script.  The -c switch causes a list of
       words to be read from the standard input.  For each  word,  a  list  of
       possible root words and affixes will be written to the standard output.
       Some of the root words will be illegal and must be  filtered  from  the
       output  by other means; the munchlist script does this.  As an example,
       the command:

              echo BOTHER | ispell -c


              BOTHER BOTHE/R BOTH/R

       The -e switch is the reverse of -c; it expands affix flags to produce a
       list of words.  For example, the command:

              echo BOTH/R | ispell -e


              BOTH BOTHER

       An  optional expansion level can also be specified.  A level of 1 (-e1)
       is the same as -e alone.  A level of 2 causes the  original  root/affix
       combination to be prepended to the line:

              BOTH/R BOTH BOTHER

       A level of 3 causes multiple lines to be output, one for each generated
       word, with the original root/affix combination followed by the word  it

              BOTH/R BOTH
              BOTH/R BOTHER

       A  level  of 4 causes a floating-point number to be appended to each of
       the level-3 lines, giving the ratio between the length of the root  and
       the total length of all generated words including the root:

              BOTH/R BOTH 2.500000
              BOTH/R BOTHER 2.500000

       A level of 5 causes multiple lines to be output, one for each generated
       word.  If the generated word did not use any affixes, the line is  just
       that word.  If one or more affixes were used, the original root and the
       affixes actually used are printed, joined by a plus sign; then the gen-
       erated word is printed:

              BOTH+R BOTHER

       Finally,  the  -D flag causes the affix tables from the dictionary file
       to be dumped to standard output.

       Ispell is aware of the correct capitalizations of words in the  dictio-
       nary  and  in  your  personal dictionary.  As well as recognizing words
       that must be capitalized (e.g., George) and words that must be all-cap-
       itals (e.g., NASA), it can also handle words with "unusual" capitaliza-
       tion (e.g., "ITCorp" or "TeX").  If a word is capitalized  incorrectly,
       the  list of possibilities will include all acceptable capitalizations.
       (More than one capitalization may be acceptable; for example,  my  dic-
       tionary lists both "ITCorp" and "ITcorp".)

       Normally,  this  feature will not cause you surprises, but there is one
       circumstance you need to be aware of.  If you use "I" to add a word  to
       your dictionary that is at the beginning of a sentence (e.g., the first
       word of this paragraph if "normally" were not in  the  dictionary),  it
       will  be  marked  as  "capitalization required".  A subsequent usage of
       this word without capitalization (e.g., the quoted word in the previous
       sentence)  will be considered a misspelling by ispell, and it will sug-
       gest the  capitalized  version.   You  must  then  compare  the  actual
       spellings by eye, and then type "I" to add the uncapitalized variant to
       your personal dictionary.  You can avoid this problem by using  "U"  to
       add the original word, rather than "I".

       The rules for capitalization are as follows:

       (1)    Any word may appear in all capitals, as in headings.

       (2)    Any  word  that  is  in the dictionary in all-lowercase form may
              appear either in lowercase or capitalized (as at  the  beginning
              of a sentence).

       (3)    Any word that has "funny" capitalization (i.e., it contains both
              cases and there is an uppercase  character  besides  the  first)
              must appear exactly as in the dictionary, except as permitted by
              rule (1).  If the word is acceptable in all-lowercase,  it  must
              appear thus in a dictionary entry.

       The  buildhash  program builds hashed dictionary files for later use by
       ispell.  The raw word list (with affix flags) is  given  in  dict-file,
       and  the  the affix flags are defined by affix-file.  The hashed output
       is written to hash-file.  The  formats  of  the  two  input  files  are
       described  in  ispell(5).   The -s (silent) option suppresses the usual
       status messages that are written to the standard error device.

       The munchlist shell script is used to reduce  the  size  of  dictionary
       files, primarily personal dictionary files.  It is also capable of com-
       bining dictionaries from various sources.  The  given  files  are  read
       (standard input if no arguments are given), reduced to a minimal set of
       roots and affixes that will match the same list of words,  and  written
       to standard output.

       Input  for munchlist contains of raw words (e.g from your personal dic-
       tionary files) or root and affix combinations  (probably  generated  in
       earlier  munchlist  runs).  Each word or root/affix combination must be
       on a separate line.

       The -D (debug) option leaves  temporary  files  around  under  standard
       names  instead  of  deleting  them, so that the script can be debugged.
       Warning: on a multiuser system, this can be a security hole.  To  avoid
       possible  destruction of important files, don't run the script as root,
       and set MUNCHDEBUGDIR to the name of a  directory  that  only  you  can

       The  -v  (verbose)  option  causes  progress messages to be reported to
       stderr so you won't get nervous that munchlist has hung.

       If the -s (strip) option is specified, words that are in the  specified
       hash-file are removed from the word list.  This can be useful with per-
       sonal dictionaries.

       The -l option can be used to specify an alternate affix-file for munch-
       ing dictionaries in languages other than English.

       The  -c option can be used to convert dictionaries that were built with
       an older affix file, without risk  of  accidentally  introducing  unin-
       tended affix combinations into the dictionary.

       The  -T  option  allows  dictionaries  to  be  converted to a canonical
       string-character format.  The suffix specified  is  looked  up  in  the
       affix  file  (-l  switch) to determine the string-character format used
       for the input file; the output always uses the canonical string-charac-
       ter  format.  For example, a dictionary collected from TeX source files
       might be converted to canonical format by specifying -T tex.

       The -w option is passed on to ispell.

       The findaffix shell script  is  an  aid  to  writers  of  new  language
       descriptions in choosing affixes.  The given dictionary files (standard
       input if none are given) are examined for possible prefixes (-p switch)
       or suffixes (-s switch, the default).  Each commonly-occurring affix is
       presented along with a count of the number of times it appears  and  an
       estimate  of  the  number  of bytes that would be saved in a dictionary
       hash file if it were added to the language table.   Only  affixes  that
       generate legal roots (found in the original input) are listed.

       If  the "-c" option is not given, the output lines are in the following


       where strip is the string that should be  stripped  from  a  root  word
       before adding the affix, add is the affix to be added, count is a count
       of the number of times that this  strip/add  combination  appears,  and
       bytes  is an estimate of the number of bytes that might be saved in the
       raw dictionary file if this combination is added  to  the  affix  file.
       The  field  separator in the output will be the tab character specified
       by the -t switch;  the default is a slash ("/").

       If the -c ("clean output") option is given, the appearance of the  out-
       put  is  made visually cleaner (but harder to post-process) by changing
       it to:


       where strip, add, count, and bytes are as before, and <tab>  represents
       the ASCII tab character.

       The  method used to generate possible affixes will also generate longer
       affixes which have common headers or trailers.  For  example,  the  two
       words  "moth" and "mother" will generate not only the obvious substitu-
       tion "+er" but also "-h+her" and "-th+ther" (and possibly  even  longer
       ones, depending on the value of min).  To prevent cluttering the output
       with such affixes, any affix pair that shares a common header (or,  for
       prefixes,  trailer) string longer than elim characters (default 1) will
       be suppressed.  You may want to set "elim" to a value greater than 1 if
       your  language has string characters; usually the need for this parame-
       ter will become obvious when you examine the output of  your  findaffix

       Normally,  the  affixes  are  sorted according to the estimate of bytes
       saved.  The -f switch may be used to cause the affixes to be sorted  by
       frequency of appearance.

       To  save output file space, affixes which occur fewer than 10 times are
       eliminated; this limit may be changed  with  the  -l  switch.   The  -M
       switch  specifies  a  maximum affix length (default 8).  Affixes longer
       than this will not be reported.  (This saves on  temporary  disk  space
       and makes the script run faster.)

       Affixes  which generate stems shorter than 3 characters are suppressed.
       (A stem is the word after the strip string has been removed, and before
       the add string has been added.)  This reduces both the running time and
       the size of the output file.  This limit may be  changed  with  the  -m
       switch.   The minimum stem length should only be set to 1 if you have a
       lot of free time and disk space (in the range of many days and hundreds
       of megabytes).

       The findaffix script requires a non-blank field-separator character for
       internal use.  Normally, this character is a slash ("/"),  but  if  the
       slash  appears as a character in the input word list, a different char-
       acter can be specified with the -t switch.

       Ispell dictionaries should be expanded before being fed  to  findaffix;
       in  addition,  characters that are not in the English alphabet (if any)
       should be translated to lowercase.

       The tryaffix shell script is used to estimate the  effectiveness  of  a
       proposed  prefix  (-p switch) or suffix (-s switch, the default) with a
       given expanded-file.  Only one affix can be tried with  each  execution
       of  tryaffix, although multiple arguments can be used to describe vary-
       ing forms of the same affix flag (e.g., the D flag for English can  add
       either  D  or ED depending on whether a trailing E is already present).
       Each word in the expanded dictionary that ends  (or  begins)  with  the
       chosen suffix (or prefix) has that suffix (prefix) removed; the dictio-
       nary is then searched for root words  that  match  the  stripped  word.
       Normally, all matching roots are written to standard output, but if the
       -c (count) flag is given, only a statistical summary of the results  is
       written.   The  statistics  given are a count of words the affix poten-
       tially applies to and an estimate of the  number  of  dictionary  bytes
       that  a  flag using the affix would save.  The estimate will be high if
       the flag generates words that are currently generated  by  other  affix
       flags  (e.g.,  in English, bathers can be generated by either bath/X or

       The dictionary file, expanded-file, must already be expanded (using the
       -e  switch  of ispell) and sorted, and things will usually work best if
       uppercase has been folded to lower with 'tr'.

       The affix arguments are things to be stripped from the dictionary  file
       to  produce trial roots: for English, con (prefix) and ing (suffix) are
       examples.  The addition parts of the argument are  letters  that  would
       have  been stripped off the root before adding the affix.  For example,
       in English the affix ing normally strips e for  words  ending  in  that
       letter (e.g., like becomes liking) so we might run:

              tryaffix ing ing+e

       to cover both cases.

       All  of  the  shell  scripts contain documentation as commentary at the
       beginning; sometimes these comments contain useful  information  beyond
       the scope of this manual page.

       It is possible to install ispell in such a way as to only support ASCII
       range text if desired.

       The icombine program is a helper for munchlist.  It  reads  a  list  of
       words  in dictionary format (roots plus flags) from the standard input,
       and produces a reduced list on standard output  which  combines  common
       roots  found on adjacent entries.  Identical roots which have differing
       flags will have their flags combined, and roots  which  have  differing
       capitalizations  will  be combined in a way which only preserves impor-
       tant capitalization information.  The  optional  aff-file  specifies  a
       language file which defines the character sets used and the meanings of
       the various flags.  The -T switch can be used to select among  alterna-
       tive  string character types by giving a dummy suffix that can be found
       in an altstringtype statement.  The -w switch is identical to the  same
       switch in ispell.

       The  ijoin program is a re-implementation of join(1) which handles long
       lines and 8-bit characters correctly.  The -s switch specifies that the
       sort(1)  program used to prepare the input to ijoin uses signed compar-
       isons on 8-bit characters; the -u switch specifies  that  sort(1)  uses
       unsigned  comparisons.   All other options and behaviors of join(1) are
       duplicated as exactly as possible based on the manual page, except that
       ijoin  will  not  handle newline as a field separator.  See the join(1)
       manual page for more information.

              Default dictionary to use, if no -d flag is given.

              Formatter type or character encoding to use, if none  is  chosen
              by a flag option.

              Personal dictionary file name

              Code for file inclusion under the -A option

       TMPDIR Directory used for some of munchlist's temporary files

              Directory used to hold the output of munchlists' -D option.

              List  of single-argument TeX keywords that ispell should ignore.

              List of two-argument TeX keywords that ispell should ignore.

              List of HTML keywords that  delimit  text  that  should  not  be

              List  of  HTML  fields that should always be spell-checked, even
              inside a tag.

              Hashed dictionary (may be found in some other  local  directory,
              depending on the system).

              Affix-definition file for munchlist

              For the Lookup function.

              User's private dictionary

              Directory-specific private dictionary

       egrep(1),   look(1),   join(1),   sort(1),  sq(1),  tib(not available),
       ispell(5), english(5)

       On some machines it takes too long for ispell to read in the  hash  ta-
       ble, depending on size.

       When all options are enabled, ispell may take several seconds to gener-
       ate all the guesses at corrections for a  misspelled  word;  on  slower
       machines this time is long enough to be annoying.

       The  hash table is stored as a quarter-megabyte (or larger) array, so a
       PDP-11 or 286 version does not seem likely.

       Ispell should understand more troff syntax, and deal more intelligently
       with contractions.

       Although small personal dictionaries are sorted before they are written
       out, the order of capitalizations of the same word is somewhat  random.

       When  the  -x  flag  is specified, ispell will unlink any existing .bak

       There are too many flags, and many of them have non-mnemonic names.

       The -e flag should accept mnemonic arguments instead of numeric ones.

       Munchlist does not deal very gracefully with dictionaries which contain
       "non-word"  characters.   Such  characters ought to be deleted from the
       dictionary with a warning message.

       Findaffix and munchlist require tremendous amounts  of  temporary  file
       space  for  large dictionaries.  They do respect the TMPDIR environment
       variable, so this space can be redirected.  However, a lot of the  tem-
       porary space needed is for sorting, so TMPDIR is only a partial help on
       systems with an uncooperative sort(1).  ("Cooperative"  is  defined  as
       accepting  the  undocumented  -T switch).  At its peak usage, munchlist
       takes 10 to 40 times the original dictionary's size in Kb.  (The larger
       ratio  is  for  dictionaries that already have heavy affix use, such as
       the one distributed with ispell).  Munchlist is also very slow;  munch-
       ing  a  normal-sized  dictionary  (15K roots, 45K expanded words) takes
       around an hour on a small workstation.  (Most of this time is spent  in
       sort(1), and munchlist can run much faster on machines that have a more
       modern sort that makes better use  of  the  memory  available  to  it.)
       Findaffix is even worse; the smallest English dictionary cannot be pro-
       cessed with this script in a mere 50Kb of free space,  and  even  after
       specifying  switches to reduce the temporary space required, the script
       will run for over 24 hours on a small workstation.

       Pace Willisson (pace@mit-vax), 1983, based on the PDP-10 assembly  ver-
       sion.   That  version  was  written  by  R. E. Gorin in 1971, and later
       revised by W. E. Matson (1974) and W. B. Ackerman (1978).

       Collected, revised, and enhanced for the Usenet by Walt Buehring, 1987.

       Table-driven multi-lingual version by Geoff Kuenning, 1987-88.

       Large dictionaries provided by Bob Devine (vianet!devine).

       A  complete list of contributors is too large to list here, but is dis-
       tributed with the ispell sources in the file "Contributors".

       The version of ispell described by this manual  page  is  International
       Ispell Version 3.1.20, 10/10/95.

                                     local                           ISPELL(1)

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