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idn.conf(5)                                                        idn.conf(5)

       idn.conf,  .idnrc,  idnalias.conf  -  configuration  files  for  idnkit


       idn.conf and .idnrc are configuration files for idnkit library which is
       a toolkit for handling internationalized domain names.

       idnkit  library  tries  to  load the user's configuration file ~/.idnrc
       first, and then tries  the  system  configutation  file  /etc/idn.conf.
       Note that idnkit library loads either, not both.

       To  use  internationalized domain names in DNS or other protocols, they
       must be converted to an appropriate format before  further  processing.
       In idnkit, this conversion process is comprised of the following tasks.

       1. Convert the given domain name in application's local codeset to Uni-
          code, and vice versa.

       2. Map  certain characters in the name to period character so that they
          are treated as the domain name delimiter (delimiter mapping).

       3. Map certain characters in the name to other characters  or  chracter
          sequences,  according  to a mapping rule determined by its top level
          domain (TLD).

       4. Perform NAMEPREP, which is a starndard name preparation process  for
          internationalized  domain  names.   This  process is composed of the
          tree  steps  called  mapping,  normalization,  prohibited  character
          checking and bidirectional string checking.

       5. Convert  the nameprepped name to IDN encoding, which is the standard
          encoding for internationalized domain names (also  known  as  ASCII-
          compatible encoding, ACE), and vice versa.

       The  configuration  file specifies the parameters for these tasks, such

         - the encoding of internationalized domain names (IDN encoding).

         - NAMEPREP schemes.

       The configuration file is a simple text files, and  each  line  in  the
       file  (other  than  comment  lines,  which  begin with ``#'', and empty
       lines) forms an entry of the following format:

           keyword value..

       IDN encoding entry specifies the encoding name (codeset name) which  is
       used as the encoding of internationalized domain names.

       The syntax of this entry is:

           idn-encoding encoding

       encoding  is  the  encoding  name  to be used, and any of the following
       names can be specified.

         o ``Punycode''

         o ``UTF-8''

         o Codeset names which iconv_open() library function accepts.   Please
           consult iconv() documentation for the available codesets.

         o Any  alias  names  for  the above, defined by the alias file.  (See
           section ``ENCODING-ALIAS-FILE'')

       The standard encoding was determined as Punycode.

       Nameprep entry specifies the version of NAMEPREP, which is a specifica-
       tion  of  ``canonicalization'' process of internationalized domain name
       before it is converted to the IDN encoding.

       The syntax of this entry is:

           nameprep version

       version is the version name of NAMEPREP  specification,  and  currently
       the following versions can be specified.

         o ``RFC3491''
           This version refers to RFC3491 ``rfc-3491.txt''.

       The NAMEPREP process consists of the following 4 subprocesses.

       1. mapping,  which  maps  certain characters in a name to other charac-
          ters, possibly none.

       2. normalization, which replaces character variants  in  a  name  to  a
          unique one.

       3. prohibited character checking, which detects invalid characters in a

       4. unassigned codepoint checking, which also invalid  codepoints  in  a

       5. bidirectional string checking, which detecs invalid string.

       This  entry  specifies  localized  mapping  phase before NAMEPREP takes
       place.  Different mapping rules can be specified  for  each  TLD  (top-
       level  domain).   For  example,  you  can  have one mapping for ``.tw''
       domain, and another for ``.jp'' domain.

       The syntax of this entry is:

           local-map tld scheme [scheme..]

       tld specifies the TLD to which the mapping rule is to be  applied,  and
       scheme  specifies  the  mapping scheme, and currently available schemes

             Specify mapping defined by RFC3491.

             Specify mapping defined by the file pathname.  See ``MAPFILE FOR-
             MAT'' for the format of this file.

       There  are  two  special tlds for specifying the mapping rule for local
       domain names (domain names without any dots in them), and  the  default
       mapping  rule.   If  tld is ``-'', it matches domain names which do not
       contain any dots.  If tld is ``.'', it matches any domain  names  which
       don't  match  to  any  other  mapping  rules specified by ``local-map''

       A mapfile defines a set of character  mapping  rules.   It  can  define
       unconditional  one-character  to N-character-sequence (N can be 0, 1 or
       more) mappings.

       A mapfile is a simple text file, and each line specifies a single  map-
       ping.  Each line is of the form:

           src-codepoint; mapped-codepoint-seq;

       src-codepoint  indicates source character of the mapping, and must be a
       Unicode codepoint value in hexadecimal string.  mapped-codepoint-seq is
       a  sequence of characters which is the outcome of the mapping, and must
       be a (possibly empty) list of Unicode codepoint values  in  hexadecimal
       string, separated by spaces.

       Lines which begin with ``#'' are treated as comments and ignored.

       A sample mapfile is shown below.

           # map "A" to "a"
           0041; 0061;
           # map "#" to nothing
           0023; ;
           # map "@" to "at"
           0040; 0061 0074;

       idn.conf  or  ~/.idnrc doesn't have an entry to specify the local code-
       set, since it is  determined  from  the  application's  current  locale
       information.  So each application can use different local codeset.

       Although  idnkit tries hard to find out the local codeset, sometimes it
       fails.  For example, there are applications which use non-ASCII codeset
       but  work in C locale.  In this case, you can specify the application's
       local codeset by an environment variable  ``IDN_LOCAL_CODESET''.   Just
       set  the  codeset  name (or its alias name) to the variable, and idnkit
       will use the codeset as the local one, regardless of  the  locale  set-

       Encoding  alias  file specifies codeset name aliases.  It is located on
       /etc/idnalias.conf and always  loaded  automatically  as  idn.conf  and
       .idnrc.  The aliases in this file can be used just as the real names.

       The alias file is a simple text file, consisting of lines of the form:

           alias-name name

       alias-name  is  the alias name to be defined, and name is the real name
       or another alias name.

       The following shows a sample configuration file.

           # a sample configuration.

           # Use Punycode as the IDN encoding.
           idn-encoding Punycode

           # Use RFC3491 as NAMEPREP.
           nameprep RFC3491

           # Perform Japanese-specific mapping for .jp domain.
           # assuming /usr/local/lib/idnkit/jp-map contains the mapping.
           local-map .jp filemap:/usr/local/lib/idnkit/jp-map

       /etc/idn.conf.sample - sample configuration with comments
       /etc/idnalias.conf.sample - sample alias file


                                  Mar 8, 2002                      idn.conf(5)

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