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GROFF_CHAR(7)                                                    GROFF_CHAR(7)

NAME
       groff_char - groff character names

DESCRIPTION
       This manual page lists the standard groff input characters.  The output
       characters in this document will look different depending on which out-
       put  device  was  chosen  (with option -T for the man(1) program or the
       roff formatter).  Only the characters that are available for the device
       that  is being used to print or view this manual page will be displayed
       (the device currently used is `ascii').

       In the actual version, groff provides only 8-bit characters for  direct
       input  and  named  characters  for further glyphs.  On ASCII platforms,
       character codes in the range 0 to 127  (decimal)  represent  the  usual
       7-bit ASCII characters, while codes between 127 and 255 are interpreted
       as the corresponding characters in the Latin-1 (ISO-8859-1)  code  set.
       On EBCDIC platforms, only the code page cp1047 is supported (which con-
       tains the same characters as Latin-1).  It  is  rather  straightforward
       (for the experienced user) to set up other 8bit encodings like Latin-2;
       since groff will use Unicode in the next major version,  no  additional
       encodings are provided.

       All  roff  systems  provide the concept of named characters.  In tradi-
       tional roff systems, only names of length 2 were used, while groff also
       provides  support for longer names.  It is strongly suggested that only
       named characters are used for all characters outside of the 7-bit ASCII
       range.

       Some  of the predefined groff escape sequences (with names of length 1)
       also produce single characters; these exist for historical  reasons  or
       are printable versions of syntactical characters.  They include \\, \',
       \`, \-, \., and \e; see groff(7).

       In groff, all of these different types of characters can be tested pos-
       itively with the .if c conditional.

REFERENCE
       In this section, the characters in groff are specified in tabular form.
       The meaning of the columns is as follows.

       Output shows how the character  is  printed  for  the  current  device;
              although this can have quite a different shape on other devices,
              it always represents the same glyph.

       Input name
              specifies how the character is input either directly by a key on
              the keyboard, or by a groff escape sequence.

       Input code
              applies  to  characters which can be input with a single charac-
              ter, and gives the ISO Latin-1 decimal code of that input  char-
              acter.  Note that this code is equivalent to the lowest 256 Uni-
              code characters; (including 7-bit ASCII in the range 0  to 127).

       PostScript name
              gives the usual PostScript name of the output character.

   ASCII Characters
       These  are  the basic characters having 7-bit ASCII code values.  These
       are identical to the first 127 characters of  the  character  standards
       ISO-8859-1  (Latin-1)  and Unicode (range C0 Controls and Basic Latin).
       To save space, not every code has an entry in the following because the
       following code ranges are well known.

       0-32   Control characters (print as themselves).

       48-57  Decimal digits 0 to 9 (print as themselves).

       65-90  Upper case letters A-Z (print as themselves).

       97-122 Lower case letters a-z (print as themselves).

       127    Control character (prints as itself).

       The  remaining  ranges constitute the printable, non-alphanumeric ASCII
       characters; only these are listed below.  As can be seen in  the  table
       below,  most  of  these characters print as themselves; the only excep-
       tions are the following characters:

       `      the ISO Latin-1 `Grave Accent' (code 96) prints  as  `,  a  left
              single quotation mark,

       '      the ISO Latin-1 `Apostrophe' (code 39) prints as ', a right sin-
              gle quotation mark; the corresponding ISO Latin-1 characters can
              be obtained with \` and \(aq.

       -      the  ISO  Latin-1  `Hyphen,  Minus  Sign'  (code 45) prints as a
              hyphen; a minus sign can be obtained with \-.

       ~      the ISO Latin-1  `Tilde'  (code 126);  a  larger  glyph  can  be
              obtained with \(ti.

       ^      the  ISO  Latin-1  `Circumflex Accent' (code 94); a larger glyph
              can be obtained with \(ha.

       Output   Input   Input   PostScript       Notes
                name    code    name

       !        !       33      exclam
       "        "       34      quotedbl
       #        #       35      numbersign
       $        $       36      dollar
       %        %       37      percent
       &        &       38      ampersand
       '        '       39      quoteright
       (        (       40      parenleft
       )        )       41      parenright
       *        *       42      asterisk
       +        +       43      plus
       ,        ,       44      comma
       -        -       45      hyphen
       .        .       46      period
       /        /       47      slash
       :        :       58      colon
       ;        ;       59      semicolon
       <        <       60      less
       =        =       61      equal
       >        >       62      greater
       ?        ?       63      question
       @        @       64      at
       [        [       91      bracketleft
       \        \       92      backslash
       ]        ]       93      bracketright
       ^        ^       94      circumflex       circumflex accent
       _        _       95      underscore
       `        `       96      quoteleft
       {        {       123     braceleft
       |        |       124     bar
       }        }       125     braceright
       ~        ~       126     tilde            tilde accent

   Latin-1 Special Characters
       These characters have character codes between 128  and 255.   They  are
       interpreted  as  characters  according to the Latin-1 (iso-8859-1) code
       set, being identical to the Unicode range C1 Controls and Latin-1  Sup-
       plement.

       128-159
              the  C1  Controls;  they  print as themselves, but the effect is
              mostly undefined.

       160    the ISO Latin-1 no-break space is mapped to  `\ ',  the  escaped
              space character.

       173    the  soft  hyphen  control  character (prints as itself).  groff
              never use this character for output (thus it is omitted  in  the
              table below); the input character 173 is mapped onto \%.

       The  remaining ranges (161-172, 174-255), called the Latin-1 Supplement
       in  Unicode,  are  printable  characters  that  print  as   themselves.
       Although  they  can  be specified directly with the keyboard on systems
       with a Latin-1 code page, it is better to  use  their  named  character
       equivalent; see next section.

       Output   Input   Input   PostScript       Notes
                name    code    name

       i        i       161     exclamdown       inverted exclamation mark
       c        c       162     cent
       L        L       163     sterling
       x        x       164     currency
       Y        Y       165     yen
       |        |       166     brokenbar
       S        S       167     section
       "        "       168     dieresis
       (C)      (C)     169     copyright
       a        a       170     ordfeminine
       <<       <<      171     guillemotleft
       ~        ~       172     logicalnot
       _R)      _R)     174     registered
                        175     macron
       o        o       176     degree
       +-       +-      177     plusminus
       2        2       178     twosuperior
       3        3       179     threesuperior
       '        '       180     acute            acute accent
       u        u       181     mu               micro sign
       9|       9|      182     paragraph
       .        .       183     periodcentered
       ,        ,       184     cedilla
       1        1       185     onesuperior
       o        o       186     ordmasculine
       >>       >>      187     guillemotright
       1/4      1/4     188     onequarter
       1/2      1/2     189     onehalf
       3/4      3/4     190     threequarters
       c        c       191     questiondown
       A        A       192     Agrave
       A        A       193     Aacute
       A        A       194     Acircumflex
       A        A       195     Atilde
       A        A       196     Adieresis
       A        A       197     Aring
       AE       AE      198     AE
       C        C       199     Ccedilla
       E        E       200     Egrave
       E        E       201     Eacute
       E        E       202     Ecircumflex
       E        E       203     Edieresis
       I        I       204     Igrave
       I        I       205     Iacute
       I        I       206     Icircumflex
       I        I       207     Idieresis
       D        D       208     Eth
       N        N       209     Ntilde
       O        O       210     Ograve
       O        O       211     Oacute
       O        O       212     Ocircumflex
       O        O       213     Otilde
       O        O       214     Odieresis
       x        x       215     multiply
       O        O       216     Oslash
       U        U       217     Ugrave
       U        U       218     Uacute
       U        U       219     Ucircumflex
       U        U       220     Udieresis
       Y        Y       221     Yacute
       b        b       222     Thorn
       B        B       223     germandbls
       a        a       224     agrave
       a        a       225     aacute
       a        a       226     acircumflex
       a        a       227     atilde
       a        a       228     adieresis
       a        a       229     aring
       ae       ae      230     ae
       c        c       231     ccedilla
       e        e       232     egrave
       e        e       233     eacute
       e        e       234     ecircumflex
       e        e       235     edieresis
       i        i       236     igrave
       i        i       237     iacute
       i        i       238     icircumflex
       i        i       239     idieresis
       o        o       240     eth
       n        n       241     ntilde
       o        o       242     ograve
       o        o       243     oacute
       o        o       244     ocircumflex
       o        o       245     otilde
       o        o       246     odieresis
       -:-      -:-     247     divide
       o        o       248     oslash
       u        u       249     ugrave
       u        u       250     uacute
       u        u       251     ucircumflex
       u        u       252     udieresis
       y        y       253     yacute
       b        b       254     thorn
       y        y       255     ydieresis

   Named Characters
       The  named character idiom is the standard way to specify special char-
       acters in roff systems.  They can be embedded into the document text by
       using  escape sequences.  groff(7) describes how these escape sequences
       look.  The character names can consist of  quite  arbitrary  characters
       from  the  ASCII or Latin-1 code set, not only alphanumeric characters.
       Here some examples:

       \c     named character having the name c, which consists  of  a  single
              character (length 1).

       \(ch   named character having the 2-character name ch.

       \[char_name]
              named  character  having the name char_name (having length 1, 2,
              3, ...).

       In groff, each 8bit input character can also referred to  by  the  con-
       struct \n[charn] where n is the decimal code of the character, a number
       between 0 and 255 without leading zeros.  They are  mapped  onto  glyph
       entities using the .trin request.  Moreover, new character names can be
       created by the .char request; see groff(7).

       Output   Input   PostScript       Notes
                name    name

       D        \[-D]   Eth              Icelandic uppercase eth
       o        \[Sd]   eth              Icelandic lowercase eth
       b        \[TP]   Thorn            Icelandic uppercase thorn
       b        \[Tp]   thorn            Icelandic lowercase thorn
       B        \[ss]   germandbls       German sharp s

       Ligatures
       ff       \[ff]   ff               ff ligature
       fi       \[fi]   fi               fi ligature
       fl       \[fl]   fl               fl ligature
       ffi      \[Fi]   ffi              ffi ligature
       ffl      \[Fl]   ffl              ffl ligature
       AE       \[AE]   AE
       ae       \[ae]   ae
       OE       \[OE]   OE
       oe       \[oe]   oe
       i        \[.i]   dotlessi         i without a dot (Turkish)

       Accented Characters
       A        \['A]   Aacute
       E        \['E]   Eacute
       I        \['I]   Iacute
       O        \['O]   Oacute
       U        \['U]   Uacute
       Y        \['Y]   Yacute
       a        \['a]   aacute
       e        \['e]   eacute
       i        \['i]   iacute
       o        \['o]   oacute
       u        \['u]   uacute
       y        \['y]   yacute
       A        \[:A]   Adieresis        A with umlaut
       E        \[:E]   Edieresis
       I        \[:I]   Idieresis
       O        \[:O]   Odieresis
       U        \[:U]   Udieresis
       a        \[:a]   adieresis
       e        \[:e]   edieresis
       i        \[:i]   idieresis
       o        \[:o]   odieresis
       u        \[:u]   udieresis
       y        \[:y]   ydieresis
       A        \[^A]   Acircumflex
       E        \[^E]   Ecircumflex
       I        \[^I]   Icircumflex
       O        \[^O]   Ocircumflex
       U        \[^U]   Ucircumflex
       a        \[^a]   acircumflex
       e        \[^e]   ecircumflex
       i        \[^i]   icircumflex
       o        \[^o]   ocircumflex
       u        \[^u]   ucircumflex
       A        \[`A]   Agrave
       E        \[`E]   Egrave
       I        \[`I]   Igrave
       O        \[`O]   Ograve
       U        \[`U]   Ugrave
       a        \[`a]   agrave
       e        \[`e]   egrave
       i        \[`i]   igrave
       o        \[`o]   ograve
       u        \[`u]   ugrave
       A        \[~A]   Atilde
       N        \[~N]   Ntilde
       O        \[~O]   Otilde
       a        \[~a]   atilde
       n        \[~n]   ntilde
       o        \[~o]   otilde
       C        \[,C]   Ccedilla
       c        \[,c]   ccedilla
       L        \[/L]   Lslash           Polish L with a slash
       l        \[/l]   lslash           Polish l with a slash
       O        \[/O]   Oslash           Scandinavic slashed O
       o        \[/o]   oslash           Scandinavic slashed o
       A        \[oA]   Aring
       a        \[oa]   aring

       Accents
       _        \[a"]   hungarumlaut     Hungarian umlaut
                \[a-]   macron           macron or bar accent
       ^        \[a^]   circumflex       circumflex accent
       '        \[aa]   acute            acute accent
       `        \[ga]   grave            grave accent
       `        \[ab]   breve            breve accent
       ,        \[ac]   cedilla          cedilla accent
       "        \[ad]   dieresis         umlaut or dieresis
       v        \[ah]   caron            havek accent
       o        \[ao]   ring             ring or circle accent
       ~        \[a~]   tilde            tilde accent
       ,        \[ho]   ogonek           hook or ogonek accent
       ^        \[ha]   asciicircum      ASCII circumflex, hat, caret
       ~        \[ti]   asciitilde       ASCII tilde, large tilde

       Quotes
       ,,       \[Bq]   quotedblbase     low double comma quote
       ,        \[bq]   quotesinglbase   low single comma quote
       "        \[lq]   quotedblleft
       "        \[rq]   quotedblright
       `        \[oq]   quoteleft        single open quote
       '        \[cq]   quoteright       single closing quote (ASCII 39)
       '        \[aq]   quotesingle      apostrophe quote
       "        \[dq]   quotedbl         double quote (ASCII 34)
       <<       \[Fo]   guillemotleft
       >>       \[Fc]   guillemotright
       <        \[fo]   guilsinglleft
       >        \[fc]   guilsinglright

       Punctuation
       i        \[r!]   exclamdown
       c        \[r?]   questiondown
       --       \[em]   emdash           em dash
       -        \[en]   endash           en dash
       -        \[hy]   hyphen

       Brackets
       [        \[lB]   bracketleft
       ]        \[rB]   bracketright
       {        \[lC]   braceleft
       }        \[rC]   braceright
       <        \[la]   angleleft        left angle bracket
       >        \[ra]   angleright       right angle bracket

       Arrows
       <-       \[<-]   arrowleft
       ->       \[->]   arrowright
       <->      \[<>]   arrowboth        horizontal double-headed arrow
       v        \[da]   arrowdown
       ^        \[ua]   arrowup
       <=       \[lA]   arrowdblleft
       =>       \[rA]   arrowdblright
       <=>      \[hA]   arrowdblboth     horizontal double-headed double arrow
       v        \[dA]   arrowdbldown
       ^        \[uA]   arrowdblup
       -        \[an]   arrowhorizex     horizontal arrow extension

       Lines
       |        \[or]   bar
       |        \[ba]   bar
       |        \[br]   br               box rule with traditional troff metrics
       _        \[ru]   ru               baseline rule
       _        \[ul]   ul               underline with traditional troff metrics
       |        \[bv]   bv               bar vertical
       |        \[bb]   brokenbar
       /        \[sl]   slash
       \        \[rs]   backslash

       Text markers
       O        \[ci]   circle
       o        \[bu]   bullet
       =        \[dd]   daggerdbl        double dagger sign
       -        \[dg]   dagger
       <>       \[lz]   lozenge
       []       \[sq]   square
       9|       \[ps]   paragraph
       S        \[sc]   section
       <=       \[lh]   handleft
       =>       \[rh]   handright
       @        \[at]   at
       #        \[sh]   numbersign
       _|       \[CR]   carriagereturn   carriage return symbol

       Legalize
       (C)      \[co]   copyright
       (R)      \[rg]   registered
       tm       \[tm]   trademark

       Currency symbols
       $        \[Do]   dollar
       c        \[ct]   cent
       EUR      \[eu]                    official Euro symbol
       EUR      \[Eu]   Euro             font-specific Euro glyph variant
       Y        \[Ye]   yen
       L        \[Po]   sterling         British currency sign
       x        \[Cs]   currency         Scandinavian currency sign
       f        \[Fn]   florin           Dutch currency sign

       Units
       o        \[de]   degree
       %o       \[%0]   perthousand      per thousand, per mille sign
       '        \[fm]   minute           footmark, prime
       ''       \[sd]   second
       u        \[mc]   mu               micro sign
       a        \[Of]   ordfeminine
       o        \[Om]   ordmasculine

       Logical Symbols
       ^        \[AN]   logicaland
       v        \[OR]   logicalor
       ~        \[no]   logicalnot
       3        \[te]   existential      there exists, existential quantifier
       V        \[fa]   universal        for all, universal quantifier
       -)       \[st]   suchthat
       .:.      \[tf]   therefore

       Mathematical Symbols
       1/2      \[12]   onehalf
       1/4      \[14]   onequarter
       3/4      \[34]   threequarters
       1        \[S1]   onesuperior
       2        \[S2]   twosuperior
       3        \[S3]   threesuperior
       +        \[pl]   plusmath         plus sign in special font
       -        \-      minus            minus sign from current font
       +-       \[+-]   plusminus
       +-       \[t+-]  plusminus        text variant of `+-'
       .        \[pc]   periodcentered   multiplication dot
       .        \[md]   dotmath
       x        \[mu]   multiply
       x        \[tmu]  multiply         text variant of `mu'
       x        \[c*]   circlemultiply   multiply sign in a circle
       +        \[c+]   circleplus       plus sign in a circle
       -:-      \[di]   divide           division sign
       -:-      \[tdi]  divide           text variant of `di'
       /        \[f/]   fraction         bar for fractions
       *        \[**]   asteriskmath
       <=       \[<=]   lessequal
       >=       \[>=]   greaterequal
       !=       \[!=]   notequal
       =        \[eq]   equalmath        equals sign in special font
       ==       \[==]   equivalence
       =~       \[=~]   congruent
       ~        \[ap]   similar
       ~~       \[~~]   approxequal
       ~=       \[~=]   approxequal
       oc       \[pt]   proportional
       {}       \[es]   emptyset
       E        \[mo]   element
       E        \[nm]   notelement
       (=       \[sb]   propersubset
       =)       \[sp]   propersuperset
       (_       \[ib]   reflexsubset
       _)       \[ip]   reflexsuperset
       (^)      \[ca]   intersection     intersection, cap
       U        \[cu]   union            union, cup
       /        \[/_]   angle
       |        \[pp]   perpendicular
       _        \[is]   integral
       V        \[gr]   gradient
       _/       \[sr]   radical          square root
                \[rn]                    overline
       oo       \[if]   infinity
       N        \[Ah]   aleph
       I        \[Im]   Ifraktur         Gothic I, imaginary
       R        \[Re]   Rfraktur         Gothic R, real
       p        \[wp]   weierstrass      Weierstrass p
       a        \[pd]   partialdiff      partial differentiation sign

       Greek characters
       A        \[*A]   Alpha
       B        \[*B]   Beta
       H        \[*C]   Xi
       /\       \[*D]   Delta
       E        \[*E]   Epsilon
       O_       \[*F]   Phi
       |        \[*G]   Gamma
       O        \[*H]   Theta
       I        \[*I]   Iota
       K        \[*K]   Kappa
       /\       \[*L]   Lambda
       M        \[*M]   Mu
       N        \[*N]   Nu
       O        \[*O]   Omicron
       TT       \[*P]   Pi
       Y        \[*Q]   Psi
       _        \[*R]   Rho
       >        \[*S]   Sigma
       T        \[*T]   Tau
       Y        \[*U]   Upsilon
       O        \[*W]   Omega
       X        \[*X]   Chi
       H        \[*Y]   Eta
       Z        \[*Z]   Zeta
       a        \[*a]   alpha
       B        \[*b]   beta
       E        \[*c]   xi
       d        \[*d]   delta
       e        \[*e]   epsilon
       o        \[*f]   phi
       o        \[+f]   phi1             variant phi
       y        \[*g]   gamma
       0        \[*h]   theta
       0        \[+h]   theta1           variant theta
       i        \[*i]   iota
       k        \[*k]   kappa
       \        \[*l]   lambda
       u        \[*m]   mu
       v        \[*n]   nu
       o        \[*o]   omicron
       n        \[*p]   pi
       w        \[+p]   omega1           variant pi, looking like omega
       u        \[*q]   psi
       p        \[*r]   rho
       o        \[*s]   sigma
       t        \[*t]   tau
       u        \[*u]   upsilon
       w        \[*w]   omega
       x        \[*x]   chi
       n        \[*y]   eta
       C        \[*z]   zeta
       s        \[ts]   sigma1           terminal sigma

       Card symbols

AUTHOR
       Copyright (C) 1989-2000, 2001, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Docu-
       mentation  License)  version  1.1 or later.  You should have received a
       copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the GNU
       copyleft site <http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html>.

       This  document  is  part  of  groff, the GNU roff distribution.  It was
       written by James Clark <jjc@jclark.com> with additions by  Werner  Lem-
       berg <wl@gnu.org> and Bernd Warken <bwarken@mayn.de>.

SEE ALSO
       groff(1)
              the GNU roff formatter.

       groff(7)
              a short reference of the groff formatting language.

       An  extension  to the troff character set for Europe, E.G. Keizer, K.J.
       Simonsen, J. Akkerhuis; EUUG Newsletter, Volume 9, No. 2, Summer 1989

       The Unicode Standard <http://www.unicode.org>

Groff Version 1.18.1             20 July 2002                    GROFF_CHAR(7)
 

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