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GPG2(1)                        GNU Privacy Guard                       GPG2(1)

NAME
       gpg2 - OpenPGP encryption and signing tool

SYNOPSIS
       gpg2 [--homedir dir] [--options file] [options] command [args]

DESCRIPTION
       gpg2 is the OpenPGP part of the GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG). It is a tool
       to provide digital encryption and signing services  using  the  OpenPGP
       standard. gpg2 features complete key management and all bells and whis-
       tles you can expect from a decent OpenPGP implementation.

       In contrast to the standalone version gpg, which  is  more  suited  for
       server and embedded platforms, this version is installed under the name
       gpg2 and more targeted to the desktop as it requires several other mod-
       ules  to  be installed.  The standalone version will be kept maintained
       and it is possible to install both versions on the same system.  If you
       need to use different configuration files, you should make use of some-
       thing like `gpg.conf-2' instead of just `gpg.conf'.

RETURN VALUE
       The program returns 0 if everything was fine, 1 if at least a signature
       was bad, and other error codes for fatal errors.

WARNINGS
       Use  a *good* password for your user account and a *good* passphrase to
       protect your secret key. This passphrase is the  weakest  part  of  the
       whole  system. Programs to do dictionary attacks on your secret keyring
       are very easy to write and  so  you  should  protect  your  "~/.gnupg/"
       directory very well.

       Keep  in mind that, if this program is used over a network (telnet), it
       is *very* easy to spy out your passphrase!

       If you are going to verify detached signatures, make sure that the pro-
       gram  knows about it; either give both filenames on the command line or
       use '-' to specify STDIN.

INTEROPERABILITY
       GnuPG tries to be a very flexible implementation of the  OpenPGP  stan-
       dard. In particular, GnuPG implements many of the optional parts of the
       standard, such as the SHA-512 hash, and the ZLIB and BZIP2  compression
       algorithms.  It  is important to be aware that not all OpenPGP programs
       implement these optional algorithms and that by forcing their  use  via
       the  --cipher-algo,  --digest-algo,  --cert-digest-algo, or --compress-
       algo options in GnuPG, it is  possible  to  create  a  perfectly  valid
       OpenPGP message, but one that cannot be read by the intended recipient.

       There are dozens of variations of OpenPGP programs available, and  each
       supports a slightly different subset of these optional algorithms.  For
       example, until recently, no (unhacked) version  of  PGP  supported  the
       BLOWFISH cipher algorithm. A message using BLOWFISH simply could not be
       read by a PGP user. By default, GnuPG uses the standard OpenPGP prefer-
       ences  system  that  will always do the right thing and create messages
       that are usable by all recipients, regardless of which OpenPGP  program
       they  use.  Only override this safe default if you really know what you
       are doing.

       If you absolutely must override the safe default, or if the preferences
       on  a  given  key  are  invalid for some reason, you are far better off
       using the --pgp6, --pgp7, or --pgp8 options. These options are safe  as
       they  do  not  force any particular algorithms in violation of OpenPGP,
       but rather reduce the available algorithms to a "PGP-safe" list.

COMMANDS
       Commands are not distinguished from options except for  the  fact  that
       only one command is allowed.

       gpg2  may be run with no commands, in which case it will perform a rea-
       sonable action depending on the type of file it is given as  input  (an
       encrypted  message  is  decrypted, a signature is verified, a file con-
       taining keys is listed).

       Please remember that option as well as command parsing stops as soon as
       a  non-option  is encountered, you can explicitly stop parsing by using
       the special option --.

   Commands not specific to the function

       --version
              Print the program version and licensing information.  Note  that
              you cannot abbreviate this command.

       --help

       -h     Print  a  usage message summarizing the most useful command line
              options.  Note that you cannot abbreviate this command.

       --warranty
              Print warranty information.

       --dump-options
              Print a list of all available options and commands.   Note  that
              you cannot abbreviate this command.

   Commands to select the type of operation

       --sign

       -s     Make  a  signature.  This command may be combined with --encrypt
              (for a signed and encrypted message), --symmetric (for a  signed
              and symmetrically encrypted message), or --encrypt and --symmet-
              ric together (for a signed message that may be decrypted  via  a
              secret  key or a passphrase).  The key to be used for signing is
              chosen by default or  can  be  set  with  the  --local-user  and
              --default-key options.

       --clearsign
              Make a clear text signature.  The content in a clear text signa-
              ture is readable without any special software. OpenPGP  software
              is  only  needed to verify the signature.  Clear text signatures
              may modify end-of-line whitespace for platform independence  and
              are not intended to be reversible.  The key to be used for sign-
              ing is chosen by default or can be set with the --local-user and
              --default-key options.

       --detach-sign

       -b     Make a detached signature.

       --encrypt

       -e     Encrypt  data.  This  option  may be combined with --sign (for a
              signed and encrypted message), --symmetric (for a  message  that
              may  be  decrypted  via a secret key or a passphrase), or --sign
              and --symmetric together (for  a  signed  message  that  may  be
              decrypted via a secret key or a passphrase).

       --symmetric

       -c     Encrypt  with a symmetric cipher using a passphrase. The default
              symmetric cipher used is CAST5,  but  may  be  chosen  with  the
              --cipher-algo  option.  This  option may be combined with --sign
              (for a signed and symmetrically  encrypted  message),  --encrypt
              (for  a  message  that  may  be  decrypted via a secret key or a
              passphrase), or --sign and --encrypt together (for a signed mes-
              sage that may be decrypted via a secret key or a passphrase).

       --store
              Store only (make a simple RFC1991 literal data packet).

       --decrypt

       -d     Decrypt  the file given on the command line (or STDIN if no file
              is specified) and write it to STDOUT (or the file specified with
              --output).  If  the  decrypted  file is signed, the signature is
              also verified. This command differs from the default  operation,
              as it never writes to the filename which is included in the file
              and it rejects files which don't begin with  an  encrypted  mes-
              sage.

       --verify
              Assume  that  the  first argument is a signed file or a detached
              signature and verify it without generating any output.  With  no
              arguments,  the  signature  packet is read from STDIN. If only a
              sigfile is given, it may be a complete signature or  a  detached
              signature,  in which case the signed stuff is expected in a file
              without the ".sig" or ".asc" extension.  With more than 1  argu-
              ment, the first should be a detached signature and the remaining
              files are the signed stuff. To read the signed stuff from STDIN,
              use '-' as the second filename.  For security reasons a detached
              signature cannot read the signed  material  from  STDIN  without
              denoting it in the above way.

       --multifile
              This  modifies  certain  other commands to accept multiple files
              for processing on the command line or read from STDIN with  each
              filename  on  a  separate line. This allows for many files to be
              processed at once. --multifile may currently be used along  with
              --verify, --encrypt, and --decrypt. Note that --multifile --ver-
              ify may not be used with detached signatures.

       --verify-files
              Identical to --multifile --verify.

       --encrypt-files
              Identical to --multifile --encrypt.

       --decrypt-files
              Identical to --multifile --decrypt.

       --list-keys

       -k

       --list-public-keys
              List all keys from the public keyrings, or just the  keys  given
              on the command line.

              Avoid  using the output of this command in scripts or other pro-
              grams as it is likely to change as GnuPG  changes.  See  --with-
              colons  for  a  machine-parseable  key  listing  command that is
              appropriate for use in scripts and other programs.

       --list-secret-keys

       -K     List all keys from the secret keyrings, or just the  ones  given
              on  the  command  line. A # after the letters sec means that the
              secret key is not usable (for example, if  it  was  created  via
              --export-secret-subkeys).

       --list-sigs
              Same  as  --list-keys,  but the signatures are listed too.  This
              command has the same effect as using  --list-keys  with  --with-
              sig-list.

              For  each  signature  listed, there are several flags in between
              the "sig" tag and keyid. These flags give additional information
              about  each  signature. From left to right, they are the numbers
              1-3 for certificate check level (see --ask-cert-level), "L"  for
              a local or non-exportable signature (see --lsign-key), "R" for a
              nonRevocable signature (see the  --edit-key  command  "nrsign"),
              "P"  for a signature that contains a policy URL (see --cert-pol-
              icy-url), "N" for a signature  that  contains  a  notation  (see
              --cert-notation),  "X" for an eXpired signature (see --ask-cert-
              expire), and the numbers 1-9 or "T" for 10 and above to indicate
              trust signature levels (see the --edit-key command "tsign").

       --check-sigs
              Same as --list-sigs, but the signatures are verified.  Note that
              for performance reasons the revocation status of a  signing  key
              is not shown.  This command has the same effect as using --list-
              keys with --with-sig-check.

              The status of the verification is indicated by a  flag  directly
              following  the  "sig"  tag  (and thus before the flags described
              above for --list-sigs).  A "!" indicates that the signature  has
              been  successfully verified, a "-" denotes a bad signature and a
              "%" is used if an error occurred while  checking  the  signature
              (e.g. a non supported algorithm).

       --locate-keys
              Locate the keys given as arguments.  This command basically uses
              the same algorithm as used when locating keys for encryption  or
              signing  and  may  thus be used to see what keys gpg2 might use.
              In particular external methods as defined  by  --auto-key-locate
              may be used to locate a key.  Only public keys are listed.

       --fingerprint
              List  all  keys (or the specified ones) along with their finger-
              prints. This is the same output  as  --list-keys  but  with  the
              additional  output  of  a line with the fingerprint. May also be
              combined with --list-sigs or --check-sigs.  If this  command  is
              given  twice,  the fingerprints of all secondary keys are listed
              too.

       --list-packets
              List only the sequence of packets. This  is  mainly  useful  for
              debugging.

       --card-edit
              Present  a  menu to work with a smartcard. The subcommand "help"
              provides an overview  on  available  commands.  For  a  detailed
              description,     please     see     the     Card     HOWTO    at
              http://www.gnupg.org/documentation/howtos.html#GnuPG-cardHOWTO .

       --card-status
              Show the content of the smart card.

       --change-pin
              Present  a  menu  to allow changing the PIN of a smartcard. This
              functionality is also available as the subcommand "passwd"  with
              the --card-edit command.

       --delete-key name
              Remove  key  from the public keyring. In batch mode either --yes
              is required or the key must be specified by fingerprint. This is
              a safeguard against accidental deletion of multiple keys.

       --delete-secret-key name
              Remove key from the secret and public keyring. In batch mode the
              key must be specified by fingerprint.

       --delete-secret-and-public-key name
              Same as --delete-key, but if a secret key  exists,  it  will  be
              removed  first.  In batch mode the key must be specified by fin-
              gerprint.

       --export
              Either export all keys from all keyrings (default  keyrings  and
              those  registered via option --keyring), or if at least one name
              is given, those of the given name. The new keyring is written to
              STDOUT  or  to the file given with option --output. Use together
              with --armor to mail those keys.

       --send-keys key IDs
              Similar to --export but sends the keys to a keyserver.   Finger-
              prints  may  be used instead of key IDs. Option --keyserver must
              be used to give the name of this keyserver. Don't send your com-
              plete  keyring  to  a keyserver --- select only those keys which
              are new or changed by you.  If no key IDs are  given,  gpg  does
              nothing.

       --export-secret-keys

       --export-secret-subkeys
              Same  as --export, but exports the secret keys instead.  This is
              normally not very useful and a security risk.  The  second  form
              of  the  command  has  the special property to render the secret
              part of the primary key useless; this  is  a  GNU  extension  to
              OpenPGP  and  other  implementations can not be expected to suc-
              cessfully import such a key.  See the option  --simple-sk-check-
              sum  if  you  want  to import such an exported key with an older
              OpenPGP implementation.

       --import

       --fast-import
              Import/merge keys. This adds the given keys to the keyring.  The
              fast version is currently just a synonym.

              There  are  a  few  other options which control how this command
              works.  Most notable here  is  the  --import-options  merge-only
              option  which does not insert new keys but does only the merging
              of new signatures, user-IDs and subkeys.

       --recv-keys key IDs
              Import the keys with the given key IDs from a keyserver.  Option
              --keyserver must be used to give the name of this keyserver.

       --refresh-keys
              Request  updates from a keyserver for keys that already exist on
              the local keyring. This is useful for updating a  key  with  the
              latest signatures, user IDs, etc. Calling this with no arguments
              will refresh the entire keyring. Option --keyserver must be used
              to  give the name of the keyserver for all keys that do not have
              preferred keyservers  set  (see  --keyserver-options  honor-key-
              server-url).

       --search-keys names
              Search  the  keyserver for the given names. Multiple names given
              here will be joined together to create the search string for the
              keyserver.   Option --keyserver must be used to give the name of
              this keyserver.  Keyservers that support different search  meth-
              ods  allow  using the syntax specified in "How to specify a user
              ID" below. Note that different keyserver types support different
              search methods. Currently only LDAP supports them all.

       --fetch-keys URIs
              Retrieve keys located at the specified URIs. Note that different
              installations of GnuPG may support  different  protocols  (HTTP,
              FTP, LDAP, etc.)

       --update-trustdb
              Do  trust  database  maintenance. This command iterates over all
              keys and builds the Web of Trust. This is an interactive command
              because it may have to ask for the "ownertrust" values for keys.
              The user has to give an estimation of how  far  she  trusts  the
              owner  of  the  displayed  key to correctly certify (sign) other
              keys. GnuPG only asks for the ownertrust value if it has not yet
              been  assigned to a key. Using the --edit-key menu, the assigned
              value can be changed at any time.

       --check-trustdb
              Do trust database maintenance  without  user  interaction.  From
              time  to time the trust database must be updated so that expired
              keys or signatures and the resulting changes in the Web of Trust
              can  be  tracked.  Normally,  GnuPG  will calculate when this is
              required and do it automatically unless  --no-auto-check-trustdb
              is set. This command can be used to force a trust database check
              at any time. The processing is identical to  that  of  --update-
              trustdb but it skips keys with a not yet defined "ownertrust".

              For  use  with cron jobs, this command can be used together with
              --batch in which case the trust database check is done only if a
              check  is  needed.  To  force  a  run even in batch mode add the
              option --yes.

       --export-ownertrust
              Send the ownertrust values to STDOUT. This is useful for  backup
              purposes  as  these  values are the only ones which can't be re-
              created from a corrupted trustdb.  Example:
                  gpg2 --export-ownertrust > otrust.txt

       --import-ownertrust
              Update the trustdb with the ownertrust values  stored  in  files
              (or  STDIN  if  not given); existing values will be overwritten.
              In case of a severely damaged trustdb and if you have  a  recent
              backup  of the ownertrust values (e.g. in the file `otrust.txt',
              you may re-create the trustdb using these commands:
                  cd ~/.gnupg
                  rm trustdb.gpg
                  gpg2 --import-ownertrust < otrust.txt

       --rebuild-keydb-caches
              When updating from version 1.0.6 to 1.0.7 this command should be
              used  to  create  signature  caches  in the keyring. It might be
              handy in other situations too.

       --print-md algo

       --print-mds
              Print message digest of algorithm ALGO for all  given  files  or
              STDIN.   With  the  second  form  (or  a deprecated "*" as algo)
              digests for all available algorithms are printed.

       --gen-random 0|1|2
              Emit count random bytes of the given quality level. If count  is
              not  given  or zero, an endless sequence of random bytes will be
              emitted.  PLEASE, don't use this command unless  you  know  what
              you are doing; it may remove precious entropy from the system!

       --gen-prime mode bits
              Use  the source, Luke :-). The output format is still subject to
              change.

       --enarmor

       --dearmor
              Pack or unpack an arbitrary input  into/from  an  OpenPGP  ASCII
              armor.   This is a GnuPG extension to OpenPGP and in general not
              very useful.

   How to manage your keys

       This section explains the main commands for key management

       --gen-key
              Generate a new key pair. This  command  is  normally  only  used
              interactively.

              There is an experimental feature which allows you to create keys
              in batch mode. See the file `doc/DETAILS' in the source  distri-
              bution on how to use this.

       --gen-revoke name
              Generate  a  revocation  certificate  for  the  complete key. To
              revoke a subkey or a signature, use the --edit command.

       --desig-revoke name
              Generate a designated revocation certificate  for  a  key.  This
              allows  a  user (with the permission of the keyholder) to revoke
              someone else's key.

       --edit-key
              Present a menu which enables you to do most of the  key  manage-
              ment  related  tasks.   It expects the specification of a key on
              the command line.

              uid n  Toggle selection of user ID or photographic user ID  with
                     index n.  Use * to select all and 0 to deselect all.

              key n  Toggle selection of subkey with index n.  Use * to select
                     all and 0 to deselect all.

              sign   Make a signature on key of user name If the  key  is  not
                     yet  signed  by the default user (or the users given with
                     -u), the program displays  the  information  of  the  key
                     again,  together with its fingerprint and asks whether it
                     should be signed. This question is repeated for all users
                     specified with -u.

              lsign  Same  as  "sign"  but  the  signature  is  marked as non-
                     exportable and will therefore never be  used  by  others.
                     This  may  be  used  to make keys valid only in the local
                     environment.

              nrsign Same as "sign" but the signature is marked as non-revoca-
                     ble and can therefore never be revoked.

              tsign  Make a trust signature. This is a signature that combines
                     the notions of certification (like a regular  signature),
                     and  trust  (like  the  "trust" command). It is generally
                     only useful in distinct communities or groups.

              Note that "l" (for local / non-exportable), "nr" (for  non-revo-
              cable,  and  "t" (for trust) may be freely mixed and prefixed to
              "sign" to create a signature of any type desired.

              delsig Delete a signature. Note  that  it  is  not  possible  to
                     retract  a signature, once it has been send to the public
                     (i.e. to a keyserver).   In  that  case  you  better  use
                     revsig.

              revsig Revoke  a  signature.  For every signature which has been
                     generated by one of the secret keys, GnuPG asks whether a
                     revocation certificate should be generated.

              check  Check the signatures on all selected user IDs.

              adduid Create an additional user ID.

              addphoto
                     Create  a  photographic  user  ID. This will prompt for a
                     JPEG file that will be embedded into the  user  ID.  Note
                     that  a  very  large JPEG will make for a very large key.
                     Also note that  some  programs  will  display  your  JPEG
                     unchanged (GnuPG), and some programs will scale it to fit
                     in a dialog box (PGP).

              showphoto
                     Display the selected photographic user ID.

              deluid Delete a user ID or photographic user ID.  Note  that  it
                     is  not  possible  to retract a user id, once it has been
                     send to the public (i.e. to a keyserver).  In  that  case
                     you better use revuid.

              revuid Revoke a user ID or photographic user ID.

              primary
                     Flag  the current user id as the primary one, removes the
                     primary user id flag from all other user ids and sets the
                     timestamp  of  all  affected  self-signatures  one second
                     ahead. Note that setting a photo user ID as primary makes
                     it primary over other photo user IDs, and setting a regu-
                     lar user ID as primary makes it primary over other  regu-
                     lar user IDs.

              keyserver
                     Set  a  preferred keyserver for the specified user ID(s).
                     This allows other users to know where you prefer they get
                     your  key  from. See --keyserver-options honor-keyserver-
                     url for more on how  this  works.   Setting  a  value  of
                     "none" removes an existing preferred keyserver.

              notation
                     Set  a  name=value notation for the specified user ID(s).
                     See --cert-notation for more on how this works. Setting a
                     value of "none" removes all notations, setting a notation
                     prefixed with a minus sign (-) removes that notation, and
                     setting  a  notation  name  (without the =value) prefixed
                     with a minus sign removes all notations with that name.

              pref   List preferences from the selected user  ID.  This  shows
                     the  actual  preferences,  without  including any implied
                     preferences.

              showpref
                     More verbose preferences listing for  the  selected  user
                     ID. This shows the preferences in effect by including the
                     implied preferences of 3DES (cipher), SHA-1 (digest), and
                     Uncompressed   (compression)  if  they  are  not  already
                     included in the preference list. In  addition,  the  pre-
                     ferred  keyserver  and  signature  notations (if any) are
                     shown.

              setpref string
                     Set the list of user ID preferences to string for all (or
                     just  the  selected)  user  IDs.  Calling setpref with no
                     arguments sets the preference list to the default (either
                     built-in or set via --default-preference-list), and call-
                     ing setpref with "none" as the  argument  sets  an  empty
                     preference  list.  Use  gpg2  --version  to get a list of
                     available algorithms. Note that while you can change  the
                     preferences  on  an  attribute  user ID (aka "photo ID"),
                     GnuPG does not select keys  via  attribute  user  IDs  so
                     these preferences will not be used by GnuPG.

                     When  setting preferences, you should list the algorithms
                     in the order which you'd like to see them used by someone
                     else when encrypting a message to your key.  If you don't
                     include 3DES, it will be automatically added at the  end.
                     Note that there are many factors that go into choosing an
                     algorithm (for example, your key  may  not  be  the  only
                     recipient),  and  so the remote OpenPGP application being
                     used to send to you may or may not follow your exact cho-
                     sen  order  for  a given message.  It will, however, only
                     choose an algorithm that is  present  on  the  preference
                     list of every recipient key.  See also the INTEROPERABIL-
                     ITY WITH OTHER OPENPGP PROGRAMS section below.

              addkey Add a subkey to this key.

              addcardkey
                     Generate a subkey on a card and add it to this key.

              keytocard
                     Transfer the selected secret subkey (or the  primary  key
                     if  no  subkey  has  been  selected)  to a smartcard. The
                     secret key in the keyring will be replaced by a  stub  if
                     the  key could be stored successfully on the card and you
                     use the save command later. Only certain key types may be
                     transferred  to the card. A sub menu allows you to select
                     on what card to store the key. Note that it is not possi-
                     ble to get that key back from the card - if the card gets
                     broken your secret key will be lost  unless  you  have  a
                     backup somewhere.

              bkuptocard file
                     Restore  the  given  file  to a card. This command may be
                     used to restore a backup key (as  generated  during  card
                     initialization)  to  a new card. In almost all cases this
                     will be the encryption key. You should use  this  command
                     only with the corresponding public key and make sure that
                     the file given  as  argument  is  indeed  the  backup  to
                     restore.  You  should then select 2 to restore as encryp-
                     tion  key.   You  will  first  be  asked  to  enter   the
                     passphrase  of  the backup key and then for the Admin PIN
                     of the card.

              delkey Remove a subkey (secondart key). Note that it is not pos-
                     sible  to  retract a subkey, once it has been send to the
                     public (i.e. to a keyserver).  In that  case  you  better
                     use revkey.

              revkey Revoke a subkey.

              expire Change  the key or subkey expiration time. If a subkey is
                     selected, the expiration time  of  this  subkey  will  be
                     changed.  With  no  selection,  the key expiration of the
                     primary key is changed.

              trust  Change the owner trust value for the  key.  This  updates
                     the trust-db immediately and no save is required.

              disable

              enable Disable  or  enable an entire key. A disabled key can not
                     normally be used for encryption.

              addrevoker
                     Add a designated revoker  to  the  key.  This  takes  one
                     optional  argument:  "sensitive". If a designated revoker
                     is marked as  sensitive,  it  will  not  be  exported  by
                     default (see export-options).

              passwd Change the passphrase of the secret key.

              toggle Toggle between public and secret key listing.

              clean  Compact  (by  removing all signatures except the selfsig)
                     any user ID that is no longer usable  (e.g.  revoked,  or
                     expired). Then, remove any signatures that are not usable
                     by the trust calculations.   Specifically,  this  removes
                     any  signature that does not validate, any signature that
                     is superseded by a later signature,  revoked  signatures,
                     and signatures issued by keys that are not present on the
                     keyring.

              minimize
                     Make the key as small as possible. This removes all  sig-
                     natures  from  each  user  ID  except for the most recent
                     self-signature.

              cross-certify
                     Add cross-certification  signatures  to  signing  subkeys
                     that  may  not  currently  have them. Cross-certification
                     signatures protect against a subtle attack against  sign-
                     ing  subkeys. See --require-cross-certification.  All new
                     keys generated have this signature by  default,  so  this
                     option is only useful to bring older keys up to date.

              save   Save all changes to the key rings and quit.

              quit   Quit the program without updating the key rings.

              The  listing  shows  you the key with its secondary keys and all
              user ids. Selected keys or user ids are indicated by  an  aster-
              isk.  The  trust  value  is  displayed with the primary key: the
              first is the assigned owner trust and the second is  the  calcu-
              lated trust value. Letters are used for the values:

              -      No ownertrust assigned / not yet calculated.

              e      Trust  calculation has failed; probably due to an expired
                     key.

              q      Not enough information for calculation.

              n      Never trust this key.

              m      Marginally trusted.

              f      Fully trusted.

              u      Ultimately trusted.

       --sign-key name
              Signs a public key with your secret key. This is a shortcut ver-
              sion of the subcommand "sign" from --edit.

       --lsign-key name
              Signs  a  public  key  with your secret key but marks it as non-
              exportable. This is a shortcut version of the subcommand "lsign"
              from --edit-key.

       --passwd user_id
              Change  the  passphrase  of the secret key belonging to the cer-
              tificate specified as user_id.  This is a shortcut for the  sub-
              command passwd of the edit key menu.

OPTIONS
       gpg2  features a bunch of options to control the exact behaviour and to
       change the default configuration.

       Long   options   can   be   put   in   an   options    file    (default
       "~/.gnupg/gpg.conf").  Short  option names will not work - for example,
       "armor" is a valid option for the options file, while "a"  is  not.  Do
       not  write  the  2  dashes,  but  simply the name of the option and any
       required arguments. Lines with a hash ('#')  as  the  first  non-white-
       space  character are ignored. Commands may be put in this file too, but
       that is not generally useful as the command will execute  automatically
       with every execution of gpg.

       Please  remember  that  option parsing stops as soon as a non-option is
       encountered, you can explicitly  stop  parsing  by  using  the  special
       option --.

   How to change the configuration

       These  options  are  used  to  change the configuration and are usually
       found in the option file.

       --default-key name
              Use name as the default key to sign with. If this option is  not
              used,  the  default  key  is  the  first key found in the secret
              keyring.  Note that -u or --local-user overrides this option.

       --default-recipient name
              Use name as default recipient if option --recipient is not  used
              and don't ask if this is a valid one. name must be non-empty.

       --default-recipient-self
              Use  the  default key as default recipient if option --recipient
              is not used and don't ask if this is a valid  one.  The  default
              key is the first one from the secret keyring or the one set with
              --default-key.

       --no-default-recipient
              Reset --default-recipient and --default-recipient-self.

       -v, --verbose
              Give more information during  processing.  If  used  twice,  the
              input data is listed in detail.

       --no-verbose
              Reset verbose level to 0.

       -q, --quiet
              Try to be as quiet as possible.

       --batch

       --no-batch
              Use  batch  mode.  Never ask, do not allow interactive commands.
              --no-batch disables this option.  Note that even with a filename
              given  on  the  command  line, gpg might still need to read from
              STDIN (in particular if gpg figures that the input is a detached
              signature  and no data file has been specified).  Thus if you do
              not want to feed data via STDIN, you  should  connect  STDIN  to
              `/dev/null'.

       --no-tty
              Make  sure that the TTY (terminal) is never used for any output.
              This option is needed in  some  cases  because  GnuPG  sometimes
              prints warnings to the TTY even if --batch is used.

       --yes  Assume "yes" on most questions.

       --no   Assume "no" on most questions.

       --list-options parameters
              This  is  a  space  or comma delimited string that gives options
              used when listing keys and  signatures  (that  is,  --list-keys,
              --list-sigs,  --list-public-keys,  --list-secret-keys,  and  the
              --edit-key functions).  Options can  be  prepended  with  a  no-
              (after  the  two  dashes)  to  give  the  opposite meaning.  The
              options are:

              show-photos
                     Causes --list-keys, --list-sigs, --list-public-keys,  and
                     --list-secret-keys  to  display any photo IDs attached to
                     the key.  Defaults to no. See also --photo-viewer.

              show-policy-urls
                     Show policy URLs in the --list-sigs or --check-sigs list-
                     ings.  Defaults to no.

              show-notations

              show-std-notations

              show-user-notations
                     Show  all, IETF standard, or user-defined signature nota-
                     tions  in  the  --list-sigs  or  --check-sigs   listings.
                     Defaults to no.

              show-keyserver-urls

                     Show  any  preferred  keyserver URL in the --list-sigs or
                     --check-sigs listings. Defaults to no.

              show-uid-validity
                     Display the calculated validity of user IDs during public
                     key listings.  Defaults to no.

              show-unusable-uids
                     Show  revoked  and  expired  user  IDs  in  key listings.
                     Defaults to no.

              show-unusable-subkeys
                     Show  revoked  and  expired  subkeys  in  key   listings.
                     Defaults to no.

              show-keyring
                     Display  the  keyring name at the head of key listings to
                     show which keyring a given key resides  on.  Defaults  to
                     no.

              show-sig-expire
                     Show  signature  expiration dates (if any) during --list-
                     sigs or --check-sigs listings. Defaults to no.

              show-sig-subpackets
                     Include signature subpackets in  the  key  listing.  This
                     option   can  take  an  optional  argument  list  of  the
                     subpackets to list. If no argument is  passed,  list  all
                     subpackets.  Defaults to no. This option is only meaning-
                     ful when using --with-colons along  with  --list-sigs  or
                     --check-sigs.

       --verify-options parameters
              This  is  a  space  or comma delimited string that gives options
              used when verifying signatures. Options can be prepended with  a
              `no-' to give the opposite meaning. The options are:

              show-photos
                     Display  any photo IDs present on the key that issued the
                     signature.  Defaults to no. See also --photo-viewer.

              show-policy-urls
                     Show  policy  URLs  in  the  signature  being   verified.
                     Defaults to no.

              show-notations

              show-std-notations

              show-user-notations
                     Show  all, IETF standard, or user-defined signature nota-
                     tions in the signature being verified. Defaults  to  IETF
                     standard.

              show-keyserver-urls
                     Show  any  preferred keyserver URL in the signature being
                     verified.  Defaults to no.

              show-uid-validity
                     Display the calculated validity of the user  IDs  on  the
                     key that issued the signature. Defaults to no.

              show-unusable-uids
                     Show  revoked and expired user IDs during signature veri-
                     fication.  Defaults to no.

              show-primary-uid-only
                     Show only the primary user ID during signature  verifica-
                     tion.  That is all the AKA lines as well as photo Ids are
                     not shown with the signature verification status.

              pka-lookups
                     Enable PKA lookups to verify sender addresses. Note  that
                     PKA is based on DNS, and so enabling this option may dis-
                     close information on when and what signatures  are  veri-
                     fied or to whom data is encrypted. This is similar to the
                     "web bug" described for the auto-key-retrieve feature.

              pka-trust-increase
                     Raise the trust in a signature to full if  the  signature
                     passes  PKA validation. This option is only meaningful if
                     pka-lookups is set.

       --enable-dsa2

       --disable-dsa2
              Enable hash truncation for all DSA keys even for old DSA Keys up
              to  1024  bit.   This  is also the default with --openpgp.  Note
              that older versions of GnuPG also required this  flag  to  allow
              the generation of DSA larger than 1024 bit.

       --photo-viewer string
              This  is the command line that should be run to view a photo ID.
              "%i" will be expanded to a filename containing the  photo.  "%I"
              does  the  same,  except  the  file will not be deleted once the
              viewer exits.  Other flags are "%k" for the key ID, "%K" for the
              long  key  ID, "%f" for the key fingerprint, "%t" for the exten-
              sion of the image type (e.g. "jpg"), "%T" for the MIME  type  of
              the  image  (e.g.  "image/jpeg"), and "%%" for an actual percent
              sign. If neither %i or %I are present, then the  photo  will  be
              supplied to the viewer on standard input.

              The  default  viewer  is  "xloadimage -fork -quiet -title 'KeyID
              0x%k' STDIN". Note that if your  image  viewer  program  is  not
              secure, then executing it from GnuPG does not make it secure.

       --exec-path string
              Sets  a list of directories to search for photo viewers and key-
              server helpers. If not provided, keyserver helpers use the  com-
              piled-in  default  directory,  and  photo  viewers use the $PATH
              environment variable.  Note, that on W32 system  this  value  is
              ignored when searching for keyserver helpers.

       --keyring file
              Add  file to the current list of keyrings. If file begins with a
              tilde and a slash, these are replaced by the $HOME directory. If
              the  filename  does  not contain a slash, it is assumed to be in
              the GnuPG home directory ("~/.gnupg" if --homedir or  $GNUPGHOME
              is not used).

              Note that this adds a keyring to the current list. If the intent
              is to use the specified keyring alone, use --keyring along  with
              --no-default-keyring.

       --secret-keyring file
              Same as --keyring but for the secret keyrings.

       --primary-keyring file
              Designate  file  as  the primary public keyring. This means that
              newly imported keys (via --import or keyserver --recv-from) will
              go to this keyring.

       --trustdb-name file
              Use  file  instead of the default trustdb. If file begins with a
              tilde and a slash, these are replaced by the $HOME directory. If
              the  filename  does  not contain a slash, it is assumed to be in
              the GnuPG home directory (`~/.gnupg' if --homedir or  $GNUPGHOME
              is not used).

       --homedir dir
              Set the name of the home directory to dir. If this option is not
              used, the home directory defaults to  `~/.gnupg'.   It  is  only
              recognized  when  given  on the command line.  It also overrides
              any home  directory  stated  through  the  environment  variable
              `GNUPGHOME'  or  (on W32 systems) by means of the Registry entry
              HKCU\Software\GNU\GnuPG:HomeDir.

       --display-charset name
              Set the name of the native character set. This is used  to  con-
              vert  some  informational  strings  like  user IDs to the proper
              UTF-8 encoding.  Note that this has nothing to do with the char-
              acter  set  of  data  to  be encrypted or signed; GnuPG does not
              recode user-supplied data. If  this  option  is  not  used,  the
              default  character  set is determined from the current locale. A
              verbosity level of 3 shows the chosen  set.   Valid  values  for
              name are:

              iso-8859-1
                     This is the Latin 1 set.

              iso-8859-2
                     The Latin 2 set.

              iso-8859-15
                     This is currently an alias for the Latin 1 set.

              koi8-r The usual Russian set (rfc1489).

              utf-8  Bypass  all  translations  and  assume  that  the OS uses
                     native UTF-8 encoding.

       --utf8-strings

       --no-utf8-strings
              Assume that command line arguments are given  as  UTF8  strings.
              The  default (--no-utf8-strings) is to assume that arguments are
              encoded in the character set as specified by  --display-charset.
              These  options  affect all following arguments. Both options may
              be used multiple times.

       --options file
              Read options from file and do not try  to  read  them  from  the
              default options file in the homedir (see --homedir). This option
              is ignored if used in an options file.

       --no-options
              Shortcut for --options /dev/null. This option is detected before
              an  attempt to open an option file.  Using this option will also
              prevent the creation of a `~/.gnupg' homedir.

       -z n

       --compress-level n

       --bzip2-compress-level n
              Set compression level to n for  the  ZIP  and  ZLIB  compression
              algorithms.  The default is to use the default compression level
              of zlib (normally 6). --bzip2-compress-level sets  the  compres-
              sion  level for the BZIP2 compression algorithm (defaulting to 6
              as well). This is a different option from --compress-level since
              BZIP2  uses  a  significant amount of memory for each additional
              compression level.  -z sets both. A value of 0  for  n  disables
              compression.

       --bzip2-decompress-lowmem
              Use a different decompression method for BZIP2 compressed files.
              This alternate method uses a bit more than half the memory,  but
              also  runs  at  half the speed. This is useful under extreme low
              memory circumstances when the file was originally compressed  at
              a high --bzip2-compress-level.

       --mangle-dos-filenames

       --no-mangle-dos-filenames
              Older  version of Windows cannot handle filenames with more than
              one dot. --mangle-dos-filenames causes GnuPG to replace  (rather
              than  add  to) the extension of an output filename to avoid this
              problem. This option is off by default and has no effect on non-
              Windows platforms.

       --ask-cert-level

       --no-ask-cert-level
              When  making  a key signature, prompt for a certification level.
              If this option is not specified, the certification level used is
              set   via  --default-cert-level.  See  --default-cert-level  for
              information on the specific levels and how they are used.  --no-
              ask-cert-level disables this option. This option defaults to no.

       --default-cert-level n
              The default to use for the check level when signing a key.

              0 means you make no particular claim as  to  how  carefully  you
              verified the key.

              1 means you believe the key is owned by the person who claims to
              own it but you could not, or did not verify the key at all. This
              is  useful  for a "persona" verification, where you sign the key
              of a pseudonymous user.

              2 means you did casual verification of  the  key.  For  example,
              this  could  mean that you verified that the key fingerprint and
              checked the user ID on the key against a photo ID.

              3 means you did extensive verification of the key. For  example,
              this  could  mean that you verified the key fingerprint with the
              owner of the key in person, and that you checked, by means of  a
              hard to forge document with a photo ID (such as a passport) that
              the name of the key owner matches the name in the user ID on the
              key,  and  finally that you verified (by exchange of email) that
              the email address on the key belongs to the key owner.

              Note that the examples given above for levels 2 and 3  are  just
              that:  examples. In the end, it is up to you to decide just what
              "casual" and "extensive" mean to you.

              This option defaults to 0 (no particular claim).

       --min-cert-level
              When building the trust database, treat any  signatures  with  a
              certification  level below this as invalid. Defaults to 2, which
              disregards level 1 signatures. Note that level 0 "no  particular
              claim" signatures are always accepted.

       --trusted-key long key ID
              Assume  that  the specified key (which must be given as a full 8
              byte key ID) is as trustworthy as one of your own  secret  keys.
              This option is useful if you don't want to keep your secret keys
              (or one of them) online but still want to be able to  check  the
              validity of a given recipient's or signator's key.

       --trust-model pgp|classic|direct|always|auto
              Set what trust model GnuPG should follow. The models are:

              pgp    This  is  the Web of Trust combined with trust signatures
                     as used in PGP 5.x and later. This is the  default  trust
                     model when creating a new trust database.

              classic
                     This  is the standard Web of Trust as used in PGP 2.x and
                     earlier.

              direct Key validity is set directly by the user and  not  calcu-
                     lated via the Web of Trust.

              always Skip  key validation and assume that used keys are always
                     fully trusted. You generally won't use  this  unless  you
                     are  using  some  external validation scheme. This option
                     also suppresses the "[uncertain]" tag printed with signa-
                     ture checks when there is no evidence that the user ID is
                     bound to the key.

              auto   Select the trust model depending on whatever the internal
                     trust  database says. This is the default model if such a
                     database already exists.

       --auto-key-locate parameters

       --no-auto-key-locate
              GnuPG can automatically locate and retrieve keys as needed using
              this  option.  This  happens when encrypting to an email address
              (in the "user@example.com" form), and there  are  no  user@exam-
              ple.com keys on the local keyring.  This option takes any number
              of the following mechanisms, in the order they are to be tried:

              cert   Locate a key using DNS CERT, as specified in rfc4398.

              pka    Locate a key using DNS PKA.

              ldap   Using DNS Service Discovery, check the domain in question
                     for  any  LDAP keyservers to use.  If this fails, attempt
                     to locate the key  using  the  PGP  Universal  method  of
                     checking 'ldap://keys.(thedomain)'.

              keyserver
                     Locate  a  key  using whatever keyserver is defined using
                     the --keyserver option.

              keyserver-URL
                     In addition, a keyserver URL as used in  the  --keyserver
                     option  may  be  used  here to query that particular key-
                     server.

              local  Locate the key using the local keyrings.  This  mechanism
                     allows  to  select  the order a local key lookup is done.
                     Thus using  '--auto-key-locate  local'  is  identical  to
                     --no-auto-key-locate.

              nodefault
                     This  flag  disables  the standard local key lookup, done
                     before any of the mechanisms defined by  the  --auto-key-
                     locate  are tried.  The position of this mechanism in the
                     list does not matter.  It is not  required  if  local  is
                     also used.

       --keyid-format short|0xshort|long|0xlong
              Select  how  to  display  key  IDs.  "short"  is the traditional
              8-character key ID. "long" is the more accurate (but less conve-
              nient)  16-character key ID. Add an "0x" to either to include an
              "0x" at the beginning of the key ID, as in 0x99242560.

       --keyserver name
              Use name as your keyserver. This is the server that --recv-keys,
              --send-keys,  and --search-keys will communicate with to receive
              keys from, send keys to, and search for keys on. The  format  of
              the  name is a URI: `scheme:[//]keyservername[:port]' The scheme
              is the type of keyserver: "hkp" for  the  HTTP  (or  compatible)
              keyservers,  "ldap" for the LDAP keyservers, or "mailto" for the
              Graff email keyserver. Note that your particular installation of
              GnuPG  may  have  other  keyserver types available as well. Key-
              server schemes are case-insensitive. After the  keyserver  name,
              optional  keyserver configuration options may be provided. These
              are the same as the global --keyserver-options from  below,  but
              apply only to this particular keyserver.

              Most  keyservers synchronize with each other, so there is gener-
              ally no need to send keys to more than one server. The keyserver
              hkp://keys.gnupg.net  uses  round  robin DNS to give a different
              keyserver each time you use it.

       --keyserver-options name=value1
              This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for
              the  keyserver. Options can be prefixed with a `no-' to give the
              opposite meaning. Valid import-options or export-options may  be
              used  here as well to apply to importing (--recv-key) or export-
              ing (--send-key) a key from a keyserver. While not  all  options
              are available for all keyserver types, some common options are:

              include-revoked
                     When searching for a key with --search-keys, include keys
                     that are marked on the keyserver as  revoked.  Note  that
                     not  all  keyservers  differentiate  between  revoked and
                     unrevoked keys, and for such keyservers  this  option  is
                     meaningless.  Note  also that most keyservers do not have
                     cryptographic verification of  key  revocations,  and  so
                     turning  this option off may result in skipping keys that
                     are incorrectly marked as revoked.

              include-disabled
                     When searching for a key with --search-keys, include keys
                     that  are  marked on the keyserver as disabled. Note that
                     this option is not used with HKP keyservers.

              auto-key-retrieve
                     This option enables the automatic retrieving of keys from
                     a  keyserver  when verifying signatures made by keys that
                     are not on the local keyring.

                     Note that this option makes a  "web  bug"  like  behavior
                     possible.   Keyserver  operators  can  see which keys you
                     request, so by sending you a message signed  by  a  brand
                     new  key (which you naturally will not have on your local
                     keyring), the operator can tell both your IP address  and
                     the time when you verified the signature.

              honor-keyserver-url
                     When  using  --refresh-keys, if the key in question has a
                     preferred keyserver URL, then  use  that  preferred  key-
                     server to refresh the key from. In addition, if auto-key-
                     retrieve is set, and the signature being verified  has  a
                     preferred  keyserver  URL,  then  use that preferred key-
                     server to fetch the key from. Defaults to yes.

              honor-pka-record
                     If auto-key-retrieve is set, and the signature being ver-
                     ified  has  a PKA record, then use the PKA information to
                     fetch the key. Defaults to yes.

              include-subkeys
                     When receiving a key, include subkeys as  potential  tar-
                     gets.  Note  that  this  option is not used with HKP key-
                     servers, as they do not support retrieving keys by subkey
                     id.

              use-temp-files
                     On  most Unix-like platforms, GnuPG communicates with the
                     keyserver helper program via pipes,  which  is  the  most
                     efficient  method. This option forces GnuPG to use tempo-
                     rary files to communicate. On  some  platforms  (such  as
                     Win32 and RISC OS), this option is always enabled.

              keep-temp-files
                     If  using  `use-temp-files', do not delete the temp files
                     after using them. This option is useful to learn the key-
                     server  communication  protocol  by reading the temporary
                     files.

              verbose
                     Tell the keyserver helper program  to  be  more  verbose.
                     This  option  can  be repeated multiple times to increase
                     the verbosity level.

              timeout
                     Tell the keyserver helper program how long  (in  seconds)
                     to  try  and perform a keyserver action before giving up.
                     Note that performing multiple actions at  the  same  time
                     uses  this  timeout  value per action.  For example, when
                     retrieving multiple keys  via  --recv-keys,  the  timeout
                     applies  separately to each key retrieval, and not to the
                     --recv-keys command as a whole. Defaults to 30 seconds.

              http-proxy=value
                     Set the proxy to use for HTTP and HKP  keyservers.   This
                     overrides  the "http_proxy" environment variable, if any.

              max-cert-size
                     When retrieving a key via DNS CERT, only accept  keys  up
                     to this size.  Defaults to 16384 bytes.

              debug  Turn  on  debug  output  in the keyserver helper program.
                     Note that the details of debug output  depends  on  which
                     keyserver  helper  program is being used, and in turn, on
                     any libraries that  the  keyserver  helper  program  uses
                     internally (libcurl, openldap, etc).

              check-cert
                     Enable certificate checking if the keyserver presents one
                     (for hkps or ldaps).  Defaults to on.

              ca-cert-file
                     Provide  a  certificate  store  to  override  the  system
                     default.   Only  necessary  if check-cert is enabled, and
                     the keyserver is using a certificate that is not  present
                     in a system default certificate list.

                     Note that depending on the SSL library that the keyserver
                     helper is built with, this may actually be a directory or
                     a file.

       --completes-needed n
              Number of completely trusted users to introduce a new key signer
              (defaults to 1).

       --marginals-needed n
              Number of marginally trusted users to introduce a new key signer
              (defaults to 3)

       --max-cert-depth n
              Maximum depth of a certification chain (default is 5).

       --simple-sk-checksum
              Secret  keys  are integrity protected by using a SHA-1 checksum.
              This method is part of the upcoming enhanced OpenPGP  specifica-
              tion  but  GnuPG  already  uses  it  as a countermeasure against
              certain attacks.  Old applications  don't  understand  this  new
              format,  so  this  option  may be used to switch back to the old
              behaviour. Using this option bears a security  risk.  Note  that
              using  this  option  only  takes  effect  when the secret key is
              encrypted - the simplest way to make this happen  is  to  change
              the passphrase on the key (even changing it to the same value is
              acceptable).

       --no-sig-cache
              Do not cache the verification status of key signatures.  Caching
              gives a much better performance in key listings. However, if you
              suspect that your public keyring is not save against write modi-
              fications,  you  can  use this option to disable the caching. It
              probably does not make sense to disable it because all  kind  of
              damage can be done if someone else has write access to your pub-
              lic keyring.

       --no-sig-create-check
              GnuPG normally verifies each signature right after  creation  to
              protect  against bugs and hardware malfunctions which could leak
              out bits from the secret key. This extra verification needs some
              time  (about  115% for DSA keys), and so this option can be used
              to disable it.  However, due to the fact that the signature cre-
              ation  needs  manual  interaction, this performance penalty does
              not matter in most settings.

       --auto-check-trustdb

       --no-auto-check-trustdb
              If GnuPG feels that its information about the Web of  Trust  has
              to be updated, it automatically runs the --check-trustdb command
              internally.  This may be a time  consuming  process.  --no-auto-
              check-trustdb disables this option.

       --use-agent

       --no-use-agent
              This is dummy option. gpg2 always requires the agent.

       --gpg-agent-info
              This is dummy option. It has no effect when used with gpg2.

       --lock-once
              Lock the databases the first time a lock is requested and do not
              release the lock until the process terminates.

       --lock-multiple
              Release the locks every time a lock is  no  longer  needed.  Use
              this to override a previous --lock-once from a config file.

       --lock-never
              Disable  locking  entirely.  This  option should be used only in
              very special environments, where it can be assured that only one
              process  is  accessing  those  files.  A  bootable floppy with a
              stand-alone encryption system will probably use  this.  Improper
              usage of this option may lead to data and key corruption.

       --exit-on-status-write-error
              This  option will cause write errors on the status FD to immedi-
              ately terminate the process. That should in fact be the  default
              but  it  never  worked  this  way  and thus we need an option to
              enable this, so that the change won't break  applications  which
              close  their  end of a status fd connected pipe too early. Using
              this option along with --enable-progress-filter may be  used  to
              cleanly cancel long running gpg operations.

       --limit-card-insert-tries n
              With  n  greater than 0 the number of prompts asking to insert a
              smartcard gets limited to N-1. Thus with a value of 1 gpg  won't
              at  all  ask  to  insert  a  card  if  none has been inserted at
              startup. This option is useful in the configuration file in case
              an  application  does  not  know about the smartcard support and
              waits ad infinitum for an inserted card.

       --no-random-seed-file
              GnuPG uses a file to store its internal random pool over invoca-
              tions.   This  makes random generation faster; however sometimes
              write operations are not desired. This option  can  be  used  to
              achieve that with the cost of slower random generation.

       --no-greeting
              Suppress the initial copyright message.

       --no-secmem-warning
              Suppress the warning about "using insecure memory".

       --no-permission-warning
              Suppress  the  warning  about  unsafe  file  and  home directory
              (--homedir) permissions. Note that the  permission  checks  that
              GnuPG  performs are not intended to be authoritative, but rather
              they simply warn about certain common  permission  problems.  Do
              not  assume that the lack of a warning means that your system is
              secure.

              Note that the warning for unsafe --homedir permissions cannot be
              suppressed in the gpg.conf file, as this would allow an attacker
              to place an unsafe gpg.conf file in place, and use this file  to
              suppress  warnings about itself. The --homedir permissions warn-
              ing may only be suppressed on the command line.

       --no-mdc-warning
              Suppress the warning about missing MDC integrity protection.

       --require-secmem

       --no-require-secmem
              Refuse to run if GnuPG cannot get secure memory. Defaults to  no
              (i.e. run, but give a warning).

       --require-cross-certification

       --no-require-cross-certification
              When  verifying  a signature made from a subkey, ensure that the
              cross certification "back signature" on the  subkey  is  present
              and  valid.   This protects against a subtle attack against sub-
              keys that can sign.  Defaults  to  --require-cross-certification
              for gpg2.

       --expert

       --no-expert
              Allow  the user to do certain nonsensical or "silly" things like
              signing an expired or revoked key, or certain potentially incom-
              patible things like generating unusual key types. This also dis-
              ables certain warning messages  about  potentially  incompatible
              actions.  As  the name implies, this option is for experts only.
              If you don't fully understand the implications of what it allows
              you to do, leave this off. --no-expert disables this option.

   Key related options

       --recipient name

       -r     Encrypt  for  user id name. If this option or --hidden-recipient
              is not specified, GnuPG asks for the user-id  unless  --default-
              recipient is given.

       --hidden-recipient name

       -R     Encrypt  for  user  ID  name, but hide the key ID of this user's
              key. This option helps to hide the receiver of the  message  and
              is  a  limited  countermeasure against traffic analysis. If this
              option or --recipient is not specified, GnuPG asks for the  user
              ID unless --default-recipient is given.

       --encrypt-to name
              Same  as  --recipient  but  this  one is intended for use in the
              options file and may  be  used  with  your  own  user-id  as  an
              "encrypt-to-self". These keys are only used when there are other
              recipients given either by use of --recipient or  by  the  asked
              user  id.  No trust checking is performed for these user ids and
              even disabled keys can be used.

       --hidden-encrypt-to name
              Same as --hidden-recipient but this one is intended for  use  in
              the options file and may be used with your own user-id as a hid-
              den "encrypt-to-self". These keys are only used when  there  are
              other  recipients  given  either by use of --recipient or by the
              asked user id.  No trust checking is performed  for  these  user
              ids and even disabled keys can be used.

       --no-encrypt-to
              Disable  the  use  of  all  --encrypt-to and --hidden-encrypt-to
              keys.

       --group name=value1
              Sets up a named group, which is similar to aliases in email pro-
              grams.   Any time the group name is a recipient (-r or --recipi-
              ent), it will be expanded  to  the  values  specified.  Multiple
              groups with the same name are automatically merged into a single
              group.

              The values are key IDs or fingerprints, but any key  description
              is accepted. Note that a value with spaces in it will be treated
              as two different values. Note also there is only  one  level  of
              expansion  ---  you  cannot make an group that points to another
              group. When used from the command line, it may be  necessary  to
              quote  the  argument  to  this  option to prevent the shell from
              treating it as multiple arguments.

       --ungroup name
              Remove a given entry from the --group list.

       --no-groups
              Remove all entries from the --group list.

       --local-user name

       -u     Use name as the key to sign with. Note that  this  option  over-
              rides --default-key.

       --try-all-secrets
              Don't  look  at  the key ID as stored in the message but try all
              secret keys in turn to  find  the  right  decryption  key.  This
              option  forces  the  behaviour  as  used by anonymous recipients
              (created by using --throw-keyids) and might come handy  in  case
              where an encrypted message contains a bogus key ID.

       --skip-hidden-recipients

       --no-skip-hidden-recipients
              During  decryption  skip  all anonymous recipients.  This option
              helps in the case that people use the hidden recipients  feature
              to  hide  there  own encrypt-to key from others.  If oneself has
              many secret keys this may lead to a major annoyance because  all
              keys are tried in turn to decrypt soemthing which was not really
              intended for it.  The drawback of this option is that it is cur-
              rently  not  possible  to  decrypt a message which includes real
              anonymous recipients.

   Input and Output

       --armor

       -a     Create ASCII armored output.   The  default  is  to  create  the
              binary OpenPGP format.

       --no-armor
              Assume the input data is not in ASCII armored format.

       --output file

       -o file
              Write output to file.

       --max-output n
              This  option  sets  a  limit on the number of bytes that will be
              generated when processing a file. Since OpenPGP supports various
              levels  of  compression,  it is possible that the plaintext of a
              given message may be  significantly  larger  than  the  original
              OpenPGP  message. While GnuPG works properly with such messages,
              there is often a desire to set a maximum file size that will  be
              generated  before processing is forced to stop by the OS limits.
              Defaults to 0, which means "no limit".

       --import-options parameters
              This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for
              importing  keys.  Options  can be prepended with a `no-' to give
              the opposite meaning. The options are:

              import-local-sigs
                     Allow importing key signatures marked as "local". This is
                     not  generally  useful  unless a shared keyring scheme is
                     being used.  Defaults to no.

              repair-pks-subkey-bug
                     During import, attempt to repair the damage caused by the
                     PKS  keyserver  bug (pre version 0.9.6) that mangles keys
                     with multiple subkeys. Note that this  cannot  completely
                     repair the damaged key as some crucial data is removed by
                     the keyserver, but it does at least  give  you  back  one
                     subkey.  Defaults  to  no for regular --import and to yes
                     for keyserver --recv-keys.

              merge-only
                     During import, allow key updates to existing keys, but do
                     not allow any new keys to be imported. Defaults to no.

              import-clean
                     After  import,  compact (remove all signatures except the
                     self-signature) any user IDs from the new  key  that  are
                     not usable.  Then, remove any signatures from the new key
                     that are not usable.  This includes signatures that  were
                     issued  by keys that are not present on the keyring. This
                     option is the same  as  running  the  --edit-key  command
                     "clean" after import. Defaults to no.

              import-minimal
                     Import the smallest key possible. This removes all signa-
                     tures except the most recent self-signature on each  user
                     ID.  This  option  is  the same as running the --edit-key
                     command "minimize" after import.  Defaults to no.

       --export-options parameters
              This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for
              exporting  keys.  Options  can be prepended with a `no-' to give
              the opposite meaning. The options are:

              export-local-sigs
                     Allow exporting key signatures marked as "local". This is
                     not  generally  useful  unless a shared keyring scheme is
                     being used.  Defaults to no.

              export-attributes
                     Include attribute user IDs (photo IDs)  while  exporting.
                     This  is  useful  to  export keys if they are going to be
                     used by an OpenPGP program that does not accept attribute
                     user IDs. Defaults to yes.

              export-sensitive-revkeys
                     Include designated revoker information that was marked as
                     "sensitive". Defaults to no.

              export-reset-subkey-passwd
                     When  using  the  --export-secret-subkeys  command,  this
                     option resets the passphrases for all exported subkeys to
                     empty. This is useful when the exported subkey is  to  be
                     used  on an unattended machine where a passphrase doesn't
                     necessarily make sense. Defaults to no.

              export-clean
                     Compact (remove all signatures from) user IDs on the  key
                     being  exported  if the user IDs are not usable. Also, do
                     not export any  signatures  that  are  not  usable.  This
                     includes signatures that were issued by keys that are not
                     present on the keyring. This option is the same  as  run-
                     ning  the --edit-key command "clean" before export except
                     that the local copy of the key is not modified.  Defaults
                     to no.

              export-minimal
                     Export the smallest key possible. This removes all signa-
                     tures except the most recent self-signature on each  user
                     ID.  This  option  is  the same as running the --edit-key
                     command "minimize" before export except  that  the  local
                     copy of the key is not modified. Defaults to no.

       --with-colons
              Print  key  listings  delimited  by colons. Note that the output
              will be encoded in UTF-8  regardless  of  any  --display-charset
              setting. This format is useful when GnuPG is called from scripts
              and other programs as it is easily machine parsed.  The  details
              of  this  format are documented in the file `doc/DETAILS', which
              is included in the GnuPG source distribution.

       --fixed-list-mode
              Do not merge primary user ID and  primary  key  in  --with-colon
              listing   mode   and  print  all  timestamps  as  seconds  since
              1970-01-01.  Since GnuPG 2.0.10, this mode is  always  used  and
              thus this option is obsolete; it does not harm to use it though.

       --with-fingerprint
              Same as the command --fingerprint but changes only the format of
              the output and may be used together with another command.

   OpenPGP protocol specific options.

       -t, --textmode

       --no-textmode
              Treat  input files as text and store them in the OpenPGP canoni-
              cal text form with standard "CRLF" line endings. This also  sets
              the  necessary  flags to inform the recipient that the encrypted
              or signed data is text and may need its line  endings  converted
              back  to  whatever  the local system uses. This option is useful
              when communicating between two  platforms  that  have  different
              line ending conventions (UNIX-like to Mac, Mac to Windows, etc).
              --no-textmode disables this option, and is the default.

       --force-v3-sigs

       --no-force-v3-sigs
              OpenPGP states that an implementation should generate v4  signa-
              tures  but PGP versions 5 through 7 only recognize v4 signatures
              on key material. This option forces v3 signatures for signatures
              on data.  Note that this option implies --ask-sig-expire, --sig-
              policy-url, --sig-notation, and  --sig-keyserver-url,  as  these
              features  cannot be used with v3 signatures.  --no-force-v3-sigs
              disables this option.

       --force-v4-certs

       --no-force-v4-certs
              Always use v4 key signatures even on v3 keys. This  option  also
              changes  the  default hash algorithm for v3 RSA keys from MD5 to
              SHA-1.  --no-force-v4-certs disables this option.

       --force-mdc
              Force the use of encryption with a modification detection  code.
              This  is always used with the newer ciphers (those with a block-
              size greater than 64 bits), or if  all  of  the  recipient  keys
              indicate MDC support in their feature flags.

       --disable-mdc
              Disable the use of the modification detection code. Note that by
              using this option, the encrypted message becomes vulnerable to a
              message modification attack.

       --personal-cipher-preferences string
              Set the list of personal cipher preferences to string.  Use gpg2
              --version to get a list of available algorithms, and use none to
              set  no preference at all.  This allows the user to safely over-
              ride the algorithm chosen by the recipient key  preferences,  as
              GPG  will only select an algorithm that is usable by all recipi-
              ents.  The most highly ranked cipher in this list is  also  used
              for the --symmetric encryption command.

       --personal-digest-preferences string
              Set the list of personal digest preferences to string.  Use gpg2
              --version to get a list of available algorithms, and use none to
              set  no preference at all.  This allows the user to safely over-
              ride the algorithm chosen by the recipient key  preferences,  as
              GPG  will  only  select  an  algorithm  that  is  usable  by all
              recipients.  The most highly ranked  digest  algorithm  in  this
              list is also used when signing without encryption (e.g. --clear-
              sign or --sign). The default value is SHA-1.

       --personal-compress-preferences string
              Set the list of personal compression preferences to string.  Use
              gpg2  --version  to  get a list of available algorithms, and use
              none to set no preference at  all.   This  allows  the  user  to
              safely  override the algorithm chosen by the recipient key pref-
              erences, as GPG will only select an algorithm that is usable  by
              all recipients.  The most highly ranked compression algorithm in
              this list is also used when there are no recipient keys to  con-
              sider (e.g. --symmetric).

       --s2k-cipher-algo name
              Use  name  as  the cipher algorithm used to protect secret keys.
              The default cipher is CAST5. This cipher is also used  for  con-
              ventional   encryption   if   --personal-cipher-preferences  and
              --cipher-algo is not given.

       --s2k-digest-algo name
              Use name as the digest algorithm used to mangle the passphrases.
              The default algorithm is SHA-1.

       --s2k-mode n
              Selects  how  passphrases  are  mangled.  If  n  is  0  a  plain
              passphrase (which is not recommended) will be used, a 1  adds  a
              salt  to the passphrase and a 3 (the default) iterates the whole
              process a number of times (see --s2k-count).   Unless  --rfc1991
              is used, this mode is also used for conventional encryption.

       --s2k-count n
              Specify  how  many  times  the  passphrase mangling is repeated.
              This value may range between 1024 and  65011712  inclusive,  and
              the  default  is  65536.   Note  that  not  all  values  in  the
              1024-65011712 range  are  legal  and  if  an  illegal  value  is
              selected,  GnuPG will round up to the nearest legal value.  This
              option is only meaningful if --s2k-mode is 3.

   Compliance options

       These options control what GnuPG is compliant to.  Only  one  of  these
       options  may be active at a time. Note that the default setting of this
       is nearly always the correct one. See the INTEROPERABILITY  WITH  OTHER
       OPENPGP PROGRAMS section below before using one of these options.

       --gnupg
              Use  standard GnuPG behavior. This is essentially OpenPGP behav-
              ior (see --openpgp), but with some  additional  workarounds  for
              common compatibility problems in different versions of PGP. This
              is the default option, so it is not generally needed, but it may
              be  useful  to  override  a  different  compliance option in the
              gpg.conf file.

       --openpgp
              Reset all packet, cipher and digest options  to  strict  OpenPGP
              behavior.  Use  this  option  to reset all previous options like
              --s2k-*, --cipher-algo,  --digest-algo  and  --compress-algo  to
              OpenPGP compliant values. All PGP workarounds are disabled.

       --rfc4880
              Reset  all  packet, cipher and digest options to strict RFC-4880
              behavior.  Note  that  this  is  currently  the  same  thing  as
              --openpgp.

       --rfc2440
              Reset  all  packet, cipher and digest options to strict RFC-2440
              behavior.

       --rfc1991
              Try to be more RFC-1991 (PGP 2.x) compliant.

       --pgp2 Set up all options to be as PGP 2.x compliant as  possible,  and
              warn  if  an  action is taken (e.g. encrypting to a non-RSA key)
              that will create a message that PGP 2.x will not be able to han-
              dle.  Note  that `PGP 2.x' here means `MIT PGP 2.6.2'. There are
              other versions of PGP 2.x available, but the MIT  release  is  a
              good common baseline.

              This  option implies --rfc1991 --disable-mdc --no-force-v4-certs
              --escape-from-lines --force-v3-sigs --cipher-algo IDEA --digest-
              algo  MD5  --compress-algo ZIP. It also disables --textmode when
              encrypting.

       --pgp6 Set up all options to be as PGP 6 compliant  as  possible.  This
              restricts  you  to  the  ciphers  IDEA  (if  the  IDEA plugin is
              installed), 3DES, and CAST5, the hashes MD5, SHA1 and RIPEMD160,
              and  the compression algorithms none and ZIP. This also disables
              --throw-keyids, and making signatures with  signing  subkeys  as
              PGP 6 does not understand signatures made by signing subkeys.

              This  option  implies --disable-mdc --escape-from-lines --force-
              v3-sigs.

       --pgp7 Set up all options to be as PGP 7 compliant as possible. This is
              identical  to  --pgp6 except that MDCs are not disabled, and the
              list of allowable ciphers is expanded  to  add  AES128,  AES192,
              AES256, and TWOFISH.

       --pgp8 Set  up  all options to be as PGP 8 compliant as possible. PGP 8
              is a lot closer to the OpenPGP standard than  previous  versions
              of  PGP,  so  all  this  does  is disable --throw-keyids and set
              --escape-from-lines.  All algorithms are allowed except for  the
              SHA224, SHA384, and SHA512 digests.

   Doing things one usually doesn't want to do.

       -n

       --dry-run
              Don't make any changes (this is not completely implemented).

       --list-only
              Changes  the  behaviour of some commands. This is like --dry-run
              but different in some cases. The semantic of this command may be
              extended  in  the  future.  Currently  it  only skips the actual
              decryption pass and therefore enables  a  fast  listing  of  the
              encryption keys.

       -i

       --interactive
              Prompt before overwriting any files.

       --debug-level level
              Select  the debug level for investigating problems. level may be
              a numeric value or by a keyword:

              none   No debugging at all.  A value of less than 1 may be  used
                     instead of the keyword.

              basic  Some  basic  debug messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may
                     be used instead of the keyword.

              advanced
                     More verbose debug messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may
                     be used instead of the keyword.

              expert Even more detailed messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may
                     be used instead of the keyword.

              guru   All of the debug messages you can get.  A  value  greater
                     than  8 may be used instead of the keyword.  The creation
                     of hash tracing files is only enabled if the  keyword  is
                     used.

       How  these  messages  are  mapped  to the actual debugging flags is not
       specified and may change with newer releases of this program. They  are
       however carefully selected to best aid in debugging.

       --debug flags
              Set  debugging flags. All flags are or-ed and flags may be given
              in C syntax (e.g. 0x0042).

       --debug-all
              Set all useful debugging flags.

       --enable-progress-filter
              Enable certain PROGRESS status outputs. This option allows fron-
              tends  to  display  a progress indicator while gpg is processing
              larger files.  There is a slight performance overhead using  it.

       --status-fd n
              Write  special status strings to the file descriptor n.  See the
              file DETAILS in the documentation for a listing of them.

       --status-file file
              Same as --status-fd, except the status data is written  to  file
              file.

       --logger-fd n
              Write log output to file descriptor n and not to STDERR.

       --log-file file

       --logger-file file
              Same  as  --logger-fd, except the logger data is written to file
              file.  Note that --log-file is only implemented for GnuPG-2.

       --attribute-fd n
              Write attribute subpackets to the file  descriptor  n.  This  is
              most  useful for use with --status-fd, since the status messages
              are needed to separate  out  the  various  subpackets  from  the
              stream delivered to the file descriptor.

       --attribute-file file
              Same  as --attribute-fd, except the attribute data is written to
              file file.

       --comment string

       --no-comments
              Use string as a comment string  in  clear  text  signatures  and
              ASCII armored messages or keys (see --armor). The default behav-
              ior is not to use a comment string. --comment  may  be  repeated
              multiple  times  to  get multiple comment strings. --no-comments
              removes all comments.  It is a good idea to keep the length of a
              single  comment  below 60 characters to avoid problems with mail
              programs wrapping such lines.  Note that comment lines, like all
              other header lines, are not protected by the signature.

       --emit-version

       --no-emit-version
              Force  inclusion  of the version string in ASCII armored output.
              --no-emit-version disables this option.

       --sig-notation name=value

       --cert-notation name=value

       -N, --set-notation name=value
              Put the name value pair into the  signature  as  notation  data.
              name  must  consist  only of printable characters or spaces, and
              must contain a '@' character in  the  form  keyname@domain.exam-
              ple.com  (substituting  the appropriate keyname and domain name,
              of course).  This is to  help  prevent  pollution  of  the  IETF
              reserved notation namespace. The --expert flag overrides the '@'
              check. value may be any printable string; it will be encoded  in
              UTF8,  so  you  should  check that your --display-charset is set
              correctly. If you prefix name with an exclamation mark (!),  the
              notation  data  will  be flagged as critical (rfc2440:5.2.3.15).
              --sig-notation sets a notation for data signatures. --cert-nota-
              tion sets a notation for key signatures (certifications). --set-
              notation sets both.

              There are special codes that may be used in notation names. "%k"
              will  be  expanded into the key ID of the key being signed, "%K"
              into the long key ID of the key being signed, "%f" into the fin-
              gerprint  of  the  key being signed, "%s" into the key ID of the
              key making the signature, "%S" into the long key ID of  the  key
              making  the signature, "%g" into the fingerprint of the key mak-
              ing the signature (which might be a subkey), "%p" into the  fin-
              gerprint  of  the  primary  key of the key making the signature,
              "%c" into the signature count from the  OpenPGP  smartcard,  and
              "%%" results in a single "%". %k, %K, and %f are only meaningful
              when making a key signature  (certification),  and  %c  is  only
              meaningful when using the OpenPGP smartcard.

       --sig-policy-url string

       --cert-policy-url string

       --set-policy-url string
              Use  string  as  a Policy URL for signatures (rfc2440:5.2.3.19).
              If you prefix it with an exclamation mark (!),  the  policy  URL
              packet will be flagged as critical. --sig-policy-url sets a pol-
              icy url for data signatures. --cert-policy-url sets a policy url
              for key signatures (certifications). --set-policy-url sets both.

              The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as
              well.

       --sig-keyserver-url string
              Use  string as a preferred keyserver URL for data signatures. If
              you prefix it with an exclamation mark (!),  the  keyserver  URL
              packet will be flagged as critical.

              The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as
              well.

       --set-filename string
              Use string as the filename  which  is  stored  inside  messages.
              This  overrides the default, which is to use the actual filename
              of the file being encrypted.

       --for-your-eyes-only

       --no-for-your-eyes-only
              Set the `for your eyes only' flag in the  message.  This  causes
              GnuPG  to  refuse to save the file unless the --output option is
              given, and PGP to use a "secure viewer" with a claimed  Tempest-
              resistant  font  to  display  the message. This option overrides
              --set-filename.  --no-for-your-eyes-only disables this option.

       --use-embedded-filename

       --no-use-embedded-filename
              Try to create a file with a name as embedded in the  data.  This
              can  be  a  dangerous  option  as  it allows to overwrite files.
              Defaults to no.

       --cipher-algo name
              Use name as cipher algorithm. Running the program with the  com-
              mand --version yields a list of supported algorithms. If this is
              not used the cipher algorithm is selected from  the  preferences
              stored  with  the  key.  In general, you do not want to use this
              option as it allows you to violate the OpenPGP standard.  --per-
              sonal-cipher-preferences  is the safe way to accomplish the same
              thing.

       --digest-algo name
              Use name as the message digest algorithm.  Running  the  program
              with  the  command  --version  yields  a list of supported algo-
              rithms. In general, you do not want to use  this  option  as  it
              allows  you  to violate the OpenPGP standard. --personal-digest-
              preferences is the safe way to accomplish the same thing.

       --compress-algo name
              Use compression algorithm name. "zlib" is RFC-1950 ZLIB compres-
              sion.  "zip"  is  RFC-1951 ZIP compression which is used by PGP.
              "bzip2" is a more modern compression scheme  that  can  compress
              some  things  better  than  zip or zlib, but at the cost of more
              memory used during compression and decompression. "uncompressed"
              or  "none" disables compression. If this option is not used, the
              default behavior is to examine the recipient key preferences  to
              see  which algorithms the recipient supports. If all else fails,
              ZIP is used for maximum compatibility.

              ZLIB may give better compression results than ZIP, as  the  com-
              pression  window  size is not limited to 8k. BZIP2 may give even
              better compression results than that, but will  use  a  signifi-
              cantly larger amount of memory while compressing and decompress-
              ing. This may be significant in  low  memory  situations.  Note,
              however,  that PGP (all versions) only supports ZIP compression.
              Using any algorithm other than ZIP or "none" will make the  mes-
              sage  unreadable  with  PGP.  In general, you do not want to use
              this option as it allows you to violate  the  OpenPGP  standard.
              --personal-compress-preferences  is  the  safe way to accomplish
              the same thing.

       --cert-digest-algo name
              Use name as the message digest algorithm  used  when  signing  a
              key.  Running  the  program  with the command --version yields a
              list of supported algorithms. Be aware that  if  you  choose  an
              algorithm  that GnuPG supports but other OpenPGP implementations
              do not, then some users will not be able to use the  key  signa-
              tures you make, or quite possibly your entire key.

       --disable-cipher-algo name
              Never allow the use of name as cipher algorithm.  The given name
              will not be checked so that a later loaded algorithm will  still
              get disabled.

       --disable-pubkey-algo name
              Never  allow the use of name as public key algorithm.  The given
              name will not be checked so that a later loaded  algorithm  will
              still get disabled.

       --throw-keyids

       --no-throw-keyids
              Do  not  put the recipient key IDs into encrypted messages. This
              helps to hide the receivers of the  message  and  is  a  limited
              countermeasure against traffic analysis. ([Using a little social
              engineering anyone who is able to decrypt the message can  check
              whether  one  of  the other recipients is the one he suspects.])
              On the receiving side, it may slow down the  decryption  process
              because  all  available  secret keys must be tried.  --no-throw-
              keyids disables this option. This option is essentially the same
              as using --hidden-recipient for all recipients.

       --not-dash-escaped
              This option changes the behavior of cleartext signatures so that
              they can be used for patch files. You should not  send  such  an
              armored  file  via email because all spaces and line endings are
              hashed too. You can not use this option for  data  which  has  5
              dashes  at the beginning of a line, patch files don't have this.
              A special armor header line tells  GnuPG  about  this  cleartext
              signature option.

       --escape-from-lines

       --no-escape-from-lines
              Because  some  mailers  change  lines  starting  with "From " to
              ">From " it is good to handle such lines in a special  way  when
              creating  cleartext  signatures  to prevent the mail system from
              breaking the signature. Note that all other PGP versions  do  it
              this  way  too.  Enabled by default. --no-escape-from-lines dis-
              ables this option.

       --passphrase-repeat n
              Specify how many times gpg2 will request  a  new  passphrase  be
              repeated.   This  is  useful  for helping memorize a passphrase.
              Defaults to 1 repetition.

       --passphrase-fd n
              Read the passphrase from file descriptor n. Only the first  line
              will  be  read  from  file descriptor n. If you use 0 for n, the
              passphrase will be read from STDIN. This can  only  be  used  if
              only  one  passphrase is supplied.  Note that this passphrase is
              only used if the option --batch has also been  given.   This  is
              different from gpg.

       --passphrase-file file
              Read  the passphrase from file file. Only the first line will be
              read from  file  file.  This  can  only  be  used  if  only  one
              passphrase is supplied. Obviously, a passphrase stored in a file
              is of questionable security if other users can read  this  file.
              Don't  use  this  option  if  you  can avoid it.  Note that this
              passphrase is only used if the  option  --batch  has  also  been
              given.  This is different from gpg.

       --passphrase string
              Use  string as the passphrase. This can only be used if only one
              passphrase is supplied. Obviously, this is of very  questionable
              security  on  a  multi-user system. Don't use this option if you
              can avoid it.  Note that this passphrase is  only  used  if  the
              option --batch has also been given.  This is different from gpg.

       --command-fd n
              This is a replacement for the deprecated shared-memory IPC mode.
              If  this  option  is  enabled,  user  input  on questions is not
              expected from the TTY but from the  given  file  descriptor.  It
              should   be   used  together  with  --status-fd.  See  the  file
              doc/DETAILS in the source distribution for details on how to use
              it.

       --command-file file
              Same  as  --command-fd, except the commands are read out of file
              file

       --allow-non-selfsigned-uid

       --no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid
              Allow the import and use of keys with user  IDs  which  are  not
              self-signed.  This is not recommended, as a non self-signed user
              ID is trivial to forge. --no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid  disables.

       --allow-freeform-uid
              Disable all checks on the form of the user ID while generating a
              new one. This option should only be used in very  special  envi-
              ronments  as  it does not ensure the de-facto standard format of
              user IDs.

       --ignore-time-conflict
              GnuPG normally checks that the timestamps associated  with  keys
              and  signatures have plausible values. However, sometimes a sig-
              nature seems to be older than the key  due  to  clock  problems.
              This  option  makes  these  checks  just  a  warning.  See  also
              --ignore-valid-from for timestamp issues on subkeys.

       --ignore-valid-from
              GnuPG normally does not select and use subkeys  created  in  the
              future.   This  option  allows  the  use  of  such keys and thus
              exhibits the pre-1.0.7 behaviour. You should not use this option
              unless  you there is some clock problem. See also --ignore-time-
              conflict for timestamp issues with signatures.

       --ignore-crc-error
              The ASCII armor used by OpenPGP is protected by a  CRC  checksum
              against  transmission  errors. Occasionally the CRC gets mangled
              somewhere on the transmission channel  but  the  actual  content
              (which  is  protected  by  the OpenPGP protocol anyway) is still
              okay. This option allows GnuPG to ignore CRC errors.

       --ignore-mdc-error
              This option changes a MDC integrity protection  failure  into  a
              warning.   This can be useful if a message is partially corrupt,
              but it is necessary to get as much data as possible out  of  the
              corrupt  message.  However, be aware that a MDC protection fail-
              ure may also mean that the message was tampered with  intention-
              ally by an attacker.

       --no-default-keyring
              Do  not  add  the default keyrings to the list of keyrings. Note
              that GnuPG will not operate without any keyrings, so if you  use
              this  option and do not provide alternate keyrings via --keyring
              or --secret-keyring, then GnuPG will still use the default  pub-
              lic or secret keyrings.

       --skip-verify
              Skip  the  signature verification step. This may be used to make
              the decryption faster  if  the  signature  verification  is  not
              needed.

       --with-key-data
              Print  key listings delimited by colons (like --with-colons) and
              print the public key data.

       --fast-list-mode
              Changes the output of the list commands to work faster; this  is
              achieved  by  leaving  some parts empty. Some applications don't
              need the user ID and the trust information given  in  the  list-
              ings.  By  using this options they can get a faster listing. The
              exact behaviour of this option may change  in  future  versions.
              If you are missing some information, don't use this option.

       --no-literal
              This  is  not  for normal use. Use the source to see for what it
              might be useful.

       --set-filesize
              This is not for normal use. Use the source to see  for  what  it
              might be useful.

       --show-session-key
              Display  the  session  key used for one message. See --override-
              session-key for the counterpart of this option.

              We think that Key Escrow is a Bad Thing; however the user should
              have  the freedom to decide whether to go to prison or to reveal
              the content of one specific  message  without  compromising  all
              messages  ever encrypted for one secret key. DON'T USE IT UNLESS
              YOU ARE REALLY FORCED TO DO SO.

       --override-session-key string
              Don't use the public key but the session key string. The  format
              of this string is the same as the one printed by --show-session-
              key. This option is normally not used but comes  handy  in  case
              someone  forces  you  to reveal the content of an encrypted mes-
              sage; using this option you can do this without handing out  the
              secret key.

       --ask-sig-expire

       --no-ask-sig-expire
              When  making a data signature, prompt for an expiration time. If
              this option is  not  specified,  the  expiration  time  set  via
              --default-sig-expire  is used. --no-ask-sig-expire disables this
              option. Note that by default, --force-v3-sigs is set which  also
              disables this option. If you want signature expiration, you must
              set --no-force-v3-sigs as well as turning --ask-sig-expire on.

       --default-sig-expire
              The default expiration time to  use  for  signature  expiration.
              Valid values are "0" for no expiration, a number followed by the
              letter d (for days), w (for weeks), m (for months),  or  y  (for
              years)  (for  example  "2m"  for  two  months,  or "5y" for five
              years), or an absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults  to
              "0".

       --ask-cert-expire

       --no-ask-cert-expire
              When  making  a key signature, prompt for an expiration time. If
              this option is  not  specified,  the  expiration  time  set  via
              --default-cert-expire  is  used.  --no-ask-cert-expire  disables
              this option.

       --default-cert-expire
              The default expiration time to use for key signature expiration.
              Valid values are "0" for no expiration, a number followed by the
              letter d (for days), w (for weeks), m (for months),  or  y  (for
              years)  (for  example  "2m"  for  two  months,  or "5y" for five
              years), or an absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults  to
              "0".

       --allow-secret-key-import
              This is an obsolete option and is not used anywhere.

       --allow-multiple-messages

       --no-allow-multiple-messages
              Allow  processing  of  multiple  OpenPGP messages contained in a
              single file or stream.  Some programs that call GPG are not pre-
              pared  to  deal with multiple messages being processed together,
              so this option defaults to no.  Note that versions of GPG  prior
              to 1.4.7 always allowed multiple messages.

              Warning:  Do  not use this option unless you need it as a tempo-
              rary workaround!

       --enable-special-filenames
              This options enables a mode  in  which  filenames  of  the  form
              `-&n',  where  n  is a non-negative decimal number, refer to the
              file descriptor n and not to a file with that name.

       --no-expensive-trust-checks
              Experimental use only.

       --preserve-permissions
              Don't change the permissions of a secret keyring  back  to  user
              read/write  only.  Use  this option only if you really know what
              you are doing.

       --default-preference-list string
              Set the list of default preferences to string.  This  preference
              list  is used for new keys and becomes the default for "setpref"
              in the edit menu.

       --default-keyserver-url name
              Set the default keyserver URL to name. This  keyserver  will  be
              used as the keyserver URL when writing a new self-signature on a
              key, which includes key generation and changing preferences.

       --list-config
              Display various internal configuration parameters of GnuPG. This
              option is intended for external programs that call GnuPG to per-
              form tasks, and is thus  not  generally  useful.  See  the  file
              `doc/DETAILS'  in  the  source  distribution  for the details of
              which configuration items may be listed. --list-config  is  only
              usable with --with-colons set.

       --gpgconf-list
              This  command  is  similar  to --list-config but in general only
              internally used by the gpgconf tool.

       --gpgconf-test
              This is more or less dummy action.  However it parses  the  con-
              figuration  file  and  returns with failure if the configuration
              file would prevent gpg from startup.  Thus it may be used to run
              a syntax check on the configuration file.

   Deprecated options

       --show-photos

       --no-show-photos
              Causes  --list-keys,  --list-sigs,  --list-public-keys,  --list-
              secret-keys, and verifying a signature to also display the photo
              ID  attached  to the key, if any. See also --photo-viewer. These
              options  are  deprecated.  Use  --list-options  [no-]show-photos
              and/or --verify-options [no-]show-photos instead.

       --show-keyring
              Display  the  keyring  name  at the head of key listings to show
              which keyring a given key resides on. This option is deprecated:
              use --list-options [no-]show-keyring instead.

       --always-trust
              Identical to --trust-model always. This option is deprecated.

       --show-notation

       --no-show-notation
              Show  signature  notations  in  the  --list-sigs or --check-sigs
              listings as well as when verifying a signature with  a  notation
              in   it.   These  options  are  deprecated.  Use  --list-options
              [no-]show-notation  and/or  --verify-options  [no-]show-notation
              instead.

       --show-policy-url

       --no-show-policy-url
              Show  policy URLs in the --list-sigs or --check-sigs listings as
              well as when verifying a signature with  a  policy  URL  in  it.
              These  options are deprecated. Use --list-options [no-]show-pol-
              icy-url and/or --verify-options [no-]show-policy-url instead.

EXAMPLES
       gpg -se -r Bob file
              sign and encrypt for user Bob

       gpg --clearsign file
              make a clear text signature

       gpg -sb file
              make a detached signature

       gpg -u 0x12345678 -sb file
              make a detached signature with the key 0x12345678

       gpg --list-keys user_ID
              show keys

       gpg --fingerprint user_ID
              show fingerprint

       gpg --verify pgpfile

       gpg --verify sigfile
              Verify the signature of the file but do not output the data. The
              second  form  is  used for detached signatures, where sigfile is
              the detached signature (either ASCII armored or binary) and  are
              the  signed  data;  if  this  is not given, the name of the file
              holding the signed data is constructed by cutting off the exten-
              sion (".asc" or ".sig") of sigfile or by asking the user for the
              filename.

HOW TO SPECIFY A USER ID
       There are different ways to specify a user ID to GnuPG.  Some  of  them
       are  only  valid  for  gpg others are only good for gpgsm.  Here is the
       entire list of ways to specify a key:

       By key Id.
              This format is deduced from the length of  the  string  and  its
              content or 0x prefix. The key Id of an X.509 certificate are the
              low 64 bits of its SHA-1 fingerprint.  The use  of  key  Ids  is
              just  a  shortcut,  for all automated processing the fingerprint
              should be used.

              When using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to  force
              using  the specified primary or secondary key and not to try and
              calculate which primary or secondary key to use.

              The last four lines of the example give the key ID in their long
              form as internally used by the OpenPGP protocol. You can see the
              long key ID using the option --with-colons.

         234567C4
         0F34E556E
         01347A56A
         0xAB123456

         234AABBCC34567C4
         0F323456784E56EAB
         01AB3FED1347A5612
         0x234AABBCC34567C4

       By fingerprint.
              This format is deduced from the length of  the  string  and  its
              content  or  the 0x prefix.  Note, that only the 20 byte version
              fingerprint is available with gpgsm (i.e. the SHA-1 hash of  the
              certificate).

              When  using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to force
              using the specified primary or secondary key and not to try  and
              calculate which primary or secondary key to use.

              The  best  way  to specify a key Id is by using the fingerprint.
              This avoids any ambiguities in case that  there  are  duplicated
              key IDs.

         1234343434343434C434343434343434
         123434343434343C3434343434343734349A3434
         0E12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434
         0xE12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434

       (gpgsm  also  accepts  colons  between  each pair of hexadecimal digits
       because this is the de-facto standard on how to present  X.509  finger-
       prints.)

       By exact match on OpenPGP user ID.
              This  is denoted by a leading equal sign. It does not make sense
              for X.509 certificates.

         =Heinrich Heine <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>

       By exact match on an email address.
              This is indicated by enclosing the email address  in  the  usual
              way with left and right angles.

         <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>

       By word match.
              All words must match exactly (not case sensitive) but can appear
              in any order in the user ID or a subjects name.  Words  are  any
              sequences  of letters, digits, the underscore and all characters
              with bit 7 set.

         +Heinrich Heine duesseldorf

       By exact match on the subject's DN.
              This is indicated by a leading slash, directly followed  by  the
              RFC-2253 encoded DN of the subject.  Note that you can't use the
              string printed by "gpgsm --list-keys" because that one  as  been
              reordered and modified for better readability; use --with-colons
              to print the raw (but standard escaped) RFC-2253 string

         /CN=Heinrich Heine,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact match on the issuer's DN.
              This is indicated by a leading hash mark, directly followed by a
              slash  and  then  directly followed by the rfc2253 encoded DN of
              the issuer.  This should return the Root  cert  of  the  issuer.
              See note above.

         #/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact match on serial number and issuer's DN.
              This  is  indicated  by a hash mark, followed by the hexadecimal
              representation of the serial number, then followed  by  a  slash
              and the RFC-2253 encoded DN of the issuer. See note above.

         #4F03/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By keygrip
              This  is indicated by an ampersand followed by the 40 hex digits
              of a keygrip.  gpgsm prints the keygrip when using  the  command
              --dump-cert.  It does not yet work for OpenPGP keys.

         &D75F22C3F86E355877348498CDC92BD21010A480

       By substring match.
              This is the default mode but applications may want to explicitly
              indicate this by putting the asterisk in front.   Match  is  not
              case sensitive.

         Heine
         *Heine

       Please note that we have reused the hash mark identifier which was used
       in old GnuPG versions to indicate the so called local-id.   It  is  not
       anymore  used  and  there  should  be  no conflict when used with X.509
       stuff.

       Using the RFC-2253 format of DNs has the drawback that it is not possi-
       ble to map them back to the original encoding, however we don't have to
       do this because our key database stores this encoding as meta data.

FILES
       There are a few configuration  files  to  control  certain  aspects  of
       gpg2's  operation.  Unless noted, they are expected in the current home
       directory (see: [option --homedir]).

       gpg.conf
              This is the standard configuration file read by gpg2 on startup.
              It may contain any valid long option; the leading two dashes may
              not be entered and the option  may  not  be  abbreviated.   This
              default  name  may  be changed on the command line (see: [option
              --options]).  You should backup this file.

       Note that on larger installations, it is useful to put predefined files
       into  the  directory  `/etc/skel/.gnupg/'  so  that newly created users
       start up with a working configuration.  For existing users the a  small
       helper  script is provided to create these files (see: [addgnupghome]).

       For internal purposes gpg2 creates and maintains  a  few  other  files;
       They  all  live  in in the current home directory (see: [option --home-
       dir]).  Only the gpg2 may modify these files.

       ~/.gnupg/secring.gpg
              The secret keyring.  You should backup this file.

       ~/.gnupg/secring.gpg.lock
              The lock file for the secret keyring.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg
              The public keyring.  You should backup this file.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg.lock
              The lock file for the public keyring.

       ~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg
              The trust database.  There is no need to backup this file; it is
              better  to  backup the ownertrust values (see: [option --export-
              ownertrust]).

       ~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg.lock
              The lock file for the trust database.

       ~/.gnupg/random_seed
              A file used to preserve the state of the internal random pool.

       /usr[/local]/share/gnupg/options.skel
              The skeleton options file.

       /usr[/local]/lib/gnupg/
              Default location for extensions.

       Operation is further controlled by a few environment variables:

       HOME   Used to locate the default home directory.

       GNUPGHOME
              If set directory used instead of "~/.gnupg".

       GPG_AGENT_INFO
              Used to locate the gpg-agent.  The value  consists  of  3  colon
              delimited  fields:  The  first  is  the  path to the Unix Domain
              Socket, the second the PID of the  gpg-agent  and  the  protocol
              version which should be set to 1. When starting the gpg-agent as
              described in its documentation, this variable is set to the cor-
              rect  value. The option --gpg-agent-info can be used to override
              it.

       PINENTRY_USER_DATA
              This value is passed via gpg-agent to pinentry.  It is useful to
              convey extra information to a custom pinentry.

       COLUMNS

       LINES  Used to size some displays to the full size of the screen.

       LANGUAGE
              Apart  from  its  use  by  GNU, it is used in the W32 version to
              override the language selection done through the  Registry.   If
              used  and  set  to a valid and available language name (langid),
              the   file    with    the    translation    is    loaded    from
              gpgdir/gnupg.nls/langid.mo.  Here gpgdir is the directory out of
              which the gpg binary has been loaded.  If it can't be loaded the
              Registry  is  tried and as last resort the native Windows locale
              system is used.

BUGS
       On older systems this program should be installed as setuid(root). This
       is  necessary  to  lock memory pages. Locking memory pages prevents the
       operating  system  from  writing  memory  pages  (which   may   contain
       passphrases or other sensitive material) to disk. If you get no warning
       message about insecure memory your operating  system  supports  locking
       without being root. The program drops root privileges as soon as locked
       memory is allocated.

       Note also that some systems (especially laptops) have  the  ability  to
       ``suspend  to  disk''  (also known as ``safe sleep'' or ``hibernate'').
       This writes all memory to disk before going into a low  power  or  even
       powered off mode.  Unless measures are taken in the operating system to
       protect the saved memory, passphrases or other sensitive  material  may
       be recoverable from it later.

       Before  you  report  a  bug  you  should  first search the mailing list
       archives for similar problems and second check whether such a  bug  has
       already been reported to our bug tracker at http://bugs.gnupg.org .

SEE ALSO
       gpgv(1), gpgsm(1), gpg-agent(1)

       The full documentation for this tool is maintained as a Texinfo manual.
       If GnuPG and the info program are properly installed at your site,  the
       command

         info gnupg

       should  give  you access to the complete manual including a menu struc-
       ture and an index.

GnuPG 2.0.15                      2010-07-28                           GPG2(1)
 

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