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E2FSCK(8)                                                            E2FSCK(8)

NAME
       e2fsck - check a Linux ext2/ext3/ext4 file system

SYNOPSIS
       e2fsck  [  -pacnyrdfkvtDFV ] [ -b superblock ] [ -B blocksize ] [ -l|-L
       bad_blocks_file  ]  [  -C  fd  ]  [  -j   external-journal   ]   [   -E
       extended_options ] device

DESCRIPTION
       e2fsck is used to check the ext2/ext3/ext4 family of file systems.  For
       ext3 and ext4 filesystems that use a journal, if the  system  has  been
       shut  down  uncleanly without any errors, normally, after replaying the
       committed transactions  in the  journal,  the  file  system  should  be
       marked  as clean.   Hence, for filesystems that use journalling, e2fsck
       will normally replay the journal and exit, unless its superblock  indi-
       cates that further checking is required.

       device  is  the  device  file  where  the  filesystem  is  stored (e.g.
       /dev/hdc1).

       Note that in general it is not safe to run e2fsck on  mounted  filesys-
       tems.  The only exception is if the -n option is specified, and -c, -l,
       or -L options are not specified.   However, even if it is  safe  to  do
       so,  the  results  printed by e2fsck are not valid if the filesystem is
       mounted.   If e2fsck asks whether or not you should check a  filesystem
       which  is mounted, the only correct answer is ``no''.  Only experts who
       really know what they are doing should consider answering this question
       in any other way.

OPTIONS
       -a     This  option  does  the same thing as the -p option.  It is pro-
              vided for backwards compatibility only;  it  is  suggested  that
              people use -p option whenever possible.

       -b superblock
              Instead  of  using  the  normal  superblock,  use an alternative
              superblock specified by superblock.   This  option  is  normally
              used  when the primary superblock has been corrupted.  The loca-
              tion of the backup superblock is dependent on  the  filesystem's
              blocksize.    For  filesystems  with  1k  blocksizes,  a  backup
              superblock can be found at block 8193; for filesystems  with  2k
              blocksizes,  at  block  16384;  and  for 4k blocksizes, at block
              32768.

              Additional backup superblocks can be  determined  by  using  the
              mke2fs  program  using  the  -n  option  to  print out where the
              superblocks were created.   The -b option to mke2fs, which spec-
              ifies blocksize of the filesystem must be specified in order for
              the superblock locations that are printed out to be accurate.

              If an alternative superblock is specified and the filesystem  is
              not  opened  read-only,  e2fsck  will make sure that the primary
              superblock is  updated  appropriately  upon  completion  of  the
              filesystem check.

       -B blocksize
              Normally,  e2fsck will search for the superblock at various dif-
              ferent block sizes in an attempt to find the  appropriate  block
              size.   This  search  can  be fooled in some cases.  This option
              forces e2fsck to only try locating the superblock at a  particu-
              lar blocksize.  If the superblock is not found, e2fsck will ter-
              minate with a fatal error.

       -c     This option causes e2fsck to use badblocks(8) program  to  do  a
              read-only  scan  of  the device in order to find any bad blocks.
              If any bad blocks are found, they are added  to  the  bad  block
              inode  to  prevent them from being allocated to a file or direc-
              tory.  If this option is specified twice,  then  the  bad  block
              scan will be done using a non-destructive read-write test.

       -C fd  This option causes e2fsck to write completion information to the
              specified file descriptor so that the progress of the filesystem
              check  can  be monitored.  This option is typically used by pro-
              grams which are running e2fsck.  If the file  descriptor  number
              is  negative, then absolute value of the file descriptor will be
              used, and the progress information will be suppressed initially.
              It  can later be enabled by sending the e2fsck process a SIGUSR1
              signal.  If the file descriptor  specified  is  0,  e2fsck  will
              print  a  completion  bar  as  it goes about its business.  This
              requires that e2fsck is running on a video console or  terminal.

       -d     Print   debugging  output  (useless  unless  you  are  debugging
              e2fsck).

       -D     Optimize directories in filesystem.  This option  causes  e2fsck
              to try to optimize all directories, either by reindexing them if
              the filesystem supports directory indexing,  or by  sorting  and
              compressing directories for smaller directories, or for filesys-
              tems using traditional linear directories.

              Even without the -D option, e2fsck may sometimes optimize a  few
              directories  ---  for  example, if directory indexing is enabled
              and a directory is not indexed  and  would  benefit  from  being
              indexed, or if the index structures are corrupted and need to be
              rebuilt.  The -D option forces all directories in the filesystem
              to  be optimized.  This can sometimes make them a little smaller
              and slightly faster to  search,  but  in  practice,  you  should
              rarely need to use this option.

              The -D option will detect directory entries with duplicate names
              in a single directory, which e2fsck normally  does  not  enforce
              for performance reasons.

       -E extended_options
              Set  e2fsck  extended options.  Extended options are comma sepa-
              rated, and may take an argument using  the  equals  ('=')  sign.
              The following options are supported:

                   ea_ver=extended_attribute_version
                          Set  the  version  of  the extended attribute blocks
                          which  e2fsck  will  require  while   checking   the
                          filesystem.   The version number may be 1 or 2.  The
                          default extended attribute version format is 2.

                   fragcheck
                          During pass 1, print a detailed report of  any  dis-
                          contiguous blocks for files in the filesystem.

       -f     Force checking even if the file system seems clean.

       -F     Flush  the  filesystem  device's buffer caches before beginning.
              Only really useful for doing e2fsck time trials.

       -j external-journal
              Set the pathname where the external-journal for this  filesystem
              can be found.

       -k     When combined with the -c option, any existing bad blocks in the
              bad blocks list are preserved, and any new bad blocks  found  by
              running  badblocks(8)  will  be added to the existing bad blocks
              list.

       -l filename
              Add the block numbers listed in the file specified  by  filename
              to  the list of bad blocks.  The format of this file is the same
              as the one generated by the badblocks(8) program.  Note that the
              block  numbers  are  based  on  the blocksize of the filesystem.
              Hence, badblocks(8) must be given the blocksize of the  filesys-
              tem in order to obtain correct results.  As a result, it is much
              simpler and safer to use the -c option to e2fsck, since it  will
              assure  that  the correct parameters are passed to the badblocks
              program.

       -L filename
              Set the bad blocks list to be the list of  blocks  specified  by
              filename.  (This option is the same as the -l option, except the
              bad blocks list is cleared before the blocks listed in the  file
              are added to the bad blocks list.)

       -n     Open  the  filesystem read-only, and assume an answer of `no' to
              all questions.  Allows  e2fsck  to  be  used  non-interactively.
              This  option  may not be specified at the same time as the -p or
              -y options.

       -p     Automatically repair ("preen") the  file  system.   This  option
              will  cause  e2fsck to automatically fix any filesystem problems
              that can be safely fixed without human intervention.  If  e2fsck
              discovers  a  problem which may require the system administrator
              to take  additional  corrective  action,  e2fsck  will  print  a
              description  of the problem and then exit with the value 4 logi-
              cally or'ed into the exit code.  (See the  EXIT  CODE  section.)
              This  option  is normally used by the system's boot scripts.  It
              may not be specified at the same time as the -n or -y options.

       -r     This option does nothing at all; it is provided only  for  back-
              wards compatibility.

       -t     Print  timing  statistics  for  e2fsck.   If this option is used
              twice, additional timing statistics are printed  on  a  pass  by
              pass basis.

       -v     Verbose mode.

       -V     Print version information and exit.

       -y     Assume  an answer of `yes' to all questions; allows e2fsck to be
              used non-interactively.  This option may not be specified at the
              same time as the -n or -p options.

EXIT CODE
       The  exit  code  returned  by e2fsck is the sum of the following condi-
       tions:
            0    - No errors
            1    - File system errors corrected
            2    - File system errors corrected, system should
                   be rebooted
            4    - File system errors left uncorrected
            8    - Operational error
            16   - Usage or syntax error
            32   - E2fsck canceled by user request
            128  - Shared library error

SIGNALS
       The following signals have the following effect when sent to e2fsck.

       SIGUSR1
              This signal causes e2fsck to start displaying a  completion  bar
              or  emitting  progress  information.   (See discussion of the -C
              option.)

       SIGUSR2
              This signal causes e2fsck to stop displaying a completion bar or
              emitting progress information.

REPORTING BUGS
       Almost  any  piece of software will have bugs.  If you manage to find a
       filesystem which causes e2fsck to crash, or which e2fsck is  unable  to
       repair, please report it to the author.

       Please  include  as  much  information  as possible in your bug report.
       Ideally, include a complete transcript of the e2fsck run, so I can  see
       exactly  what  error  messages  are displayed.  (Make sure the messages
       printed by e2fsck are in English; if your system has been configured so
       that  e2fsck's  messages  have  been  translated into another language,
       please set the the LC_ALL environment variable to C so that  the  tran-
       script  of  e2fsck's  output  will  be  useful  to  me.)  If you have a
       writable filesystem where the transcript can be stored,  the  script(1)
       program is a handy way to save the output of e2fsck to a file.

       It  is  also  useful  to send the output of dumpe2fs(8).  If a specific
       inode or inodes seems to be giving  e2fsck  trouble,  try  running  the
       debugfs(8)  command  and send the output of the stat(1u) command run on
       the relevant inode(s).  If the inode is a directory, the  debugfs  dump
       command  will allow you to extract the contents of the directory inode,
       which can sent to me after being first run  through  uuencode(1).   The
       most useful data you can send to help reproduce the bug is a compressed
       raw image dump of the filesystem, generated using e2image(8).  See  the
       e2image(8) man page for more details.

       Always include the full version string which e2fsck displays when it is
       run, so I know which version you are running.

AUTHOR
       This version of e2fsck was written by Theodore Ts'o <tytso@mit.edu>.

SEE ALSO
       e2fsck.conf(5),  badblocks(8),  dumpe2fs(8),  debugfs(8),   e2image(8),
       mke2fs(8), tune2fs(8)

E2fsprogs version 1.41.11         March 2010                         E2FSCK(8)
 

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Gedruckt am: 11.12.2017 23:33 GMT+0100 (2017-12-11T23:33:53+01:00)