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FORT77(1P)                 POSIX Programmer's Manual                FORT77(1P)

       This  manual  page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux
       implementation of this interface may differ (consult the  corresponding
       Linux  manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface may
       not be implemented on Linux.

       fort77 - FORTRAN compiler (FORTRAN)

       fort77 [-c][-g][-L directory]... [-O optlevel][-o outfile][-s][-w]

       The fort77 utility is the interface to the FORTRAN compilation  system;
       it   shall   accept   the  full  FORTRAN-77  language  defined  by  the
       ANSI X3.9-1978 standard. The system conceptually consists of a compiler
       and  link  editor.  The  files  referenced by operands are compiled and
       linked to produce an executable file. It  is  unspecified  whether  the
       linking  occurs entirely within the operation of fort77; some implemen-
       tations may produce objects that are not fully resolved until the  file
       is executed.

       If the -c option is present, for all pathname operands of the form file
       .f, the files:

              $(basename pathname.f).o

       shall be created or overwritten as the result  of  successful  compila-
       tion.   If  the  -c  option is not specified, it is unspecified whether
       such .o files are created or deleted for the file .f operands.

       If there are no options that prevent link editing (such as -c) and  all
       operands  compile and link without error, the resulting executable file
       shall be written into the file named by the -o option (if  present)  or
       to  the  file a.out.  The executable file shall be created as specified
       in the System Interfaces volume of  IEEE Std 1003.1-2001,  except  that
       the file permissions shall be set to:

              S_IRWXO | S_IRWXG | S_IRWXU

       and  that  the  bits  specified  by  the  umask of the process shall be

       The fort77 utility shall conform to  the  Base  Definitions  volume  of
       IEEE Std 1003.1-2001,  Section  12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines, except

        * The -l library operands have the format of options, but their  posi-
          tion  within a list of operands affects the order in which libraries
          are searched.

        * The order of specifying the multiple -L options is significant.

        * Conforming applications shall specify each option  separately;  that
          is,  grouping  option  letters (for example, -cg) need not be recog-
          nized by all implementations.

       The following options shall be supported:

       -c     Suppress the link-edit phase of  the  compilation,  and  do  not
              remove any object files that are produced.

       -g     Produce  symbolic information in the object or executable files;
              the nature of this information is unspecified, and may be  modi-
              fied  by implementation-defined interactions with other options.

       -s     Produce object or executable files, or both, from which symbolic
              and  other  information  not required for proper execution using
              the exec family of functions defined in  the  System  Interfaces
              volume  of  IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 has been removed (stripped). If
              both -g and -s options are present, the action taken is unspeci-

       -o  outfile
              Use  the pathname outfile, instead of the default a.out, for the
              executable file produced. If the -o option is present  with  -c,
              the result is unspecified.

       -L  directory
              Change  the algorithm of searching for the libraries named in -l
              operands to look in the directory named by the  directory  path-
              name before looking in the usual places. Directories named in -L
              options shall be searched in the specified order. At  least  ten
              instances  of  this option shall be supported in a single fort77
              command invocation. If a directory specified by a -L option con-
              tains a file named libf.a, the results are unspecified.

       -O  optlevel
              Specify  the level of code optimization. If the optlevel option-
              argument is the digit '0', all special code optimizations  shall
              be disabled. If it is the digit '1', the nature of the optimiza-
              tion is unspecified. If the -O option is omitted, the nature  of
              the system's default optimization is unspecified. It is unspeci-
              fied whether code generated in the presence of the -O  0  option
              is the same as that generated when -O is omitted. Other optlevel
              values may be supported.

       -w     Suppress warnings.

       Multiple instances of -L options can be specified.

       An operand is either in the form of a pathname or the form -l  library.
       At  least one operand of the pathname form shall be specified. The fol-
       lowing operands shall be supported:

       file.f The pathname of a FORTRAN source file to be compiled and option-
              ally passed to the link editor. The filename operand shall be of
              this form if the -c option is used.

       file.a A library of object files typically produced by ar,  and  passed
              directly  to  the  link  editor.  Implementations  may recognize
              implementation-defined suffixes other than .a as denoting object
              file libraries.

       file.o An  object file produced by fort77 -c and passed directly to the
              link  editor.  Implementations  may  recognize   implementation-
              defined suffixes other than .o as denoting object files.

       The processing of other files is implementation-defined.

       -l  library
              (The letter ell.) Search the library named:


       A library is searched when its name is encountered, so the placement of
       a -l operand is significant. Several standard libraries can  be  speci-
       fied  in this manner, as described in the EXTENDED DESCRIPTION section.
       Implementations may  recognize  implementation-defined  suffixes  other
       than .a as denoting libraries.

       Not used.

       The  input  file  shall be one of the following: a text file containing
       FORTRAN source code; an object file in the format  produced  by  fort77
       -c;  or  a library of object files, in the format produced by archiving
       zero or more object files, using ar. Implementations may  supply  addi-
       tional utilities that produce files in these formats.  Additional input
       files are implementation-defined.

       A <tab> encountered within the first six characters on a line of source
       code  shall  cause the compiler to interpret the following character as
       if it were the seventh character on the line (that is, in column 7).

       The following environment  variables  shall  affect  the  execution  of

       LANG   Provide  a  default value for the internationalization variables
              that are unset or null. (See  the  Base  Definitions  volume  of
              IEEE Std 1003.1-2001,  Section  8.2,  Internationalization Vari-
              ables for the precedence of internationalization variables  used
              to determine the values of locale categories.)

       LC_ALL If  set  to a non-empty string value, override the values of all
              the other internationalization variables.

              Determine the locale for  the  interpretation  of  sequences  of
              bytes  of  text  data as characters (for example, single-byte as
              opposed to multi-byte characters in arguments and input  files).

              Determine  the  locale  that should be used to affect the format
              and contents of diagnostic messages written to standard error.

              Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of
              LC_MESSAGES .

       TMPDIR Determine  the  pathname that should override the default direc-
              tory for temporary files, if any.


       Not used.

       The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages. If  more
       than  one file operand ending in .f (or possibly other unspecified suf-
       fixes) is given, for each such file:

              "%s:\n", <file>

       may be written to allow identification of the diagnostic  message  with
       the appropriate input file.

       This utility may produce warning messages about certain conditions that
       do not warrant returning an error (non-zero) exit value.

       Object files, listing files, and executable files shall be produced  in
       unspecified formats.

   Standard Libraries
       The  fort77  utility  shall  recognize the following -l operand for the
       standard library:

       -l f   This  library  contains  all   functions   referenced   in   the
              ANSI X3.9-1978  standard.  This operand shall not be required to
              be present to cause a search of this library.

       In the absence of options that inhibit invocation of the  link  editor,
       such  as  -c,  the  fort77 utility shall cause the equivalent of a -l f
       operand to be passed to the link editor as the last -l operand, causing
       it  to  be  searched  after  all  other  object files and libraries are

       It is unspecified whether the library libf.a exists as a regular  file.
       The  implementation  may accept as -l operands names of objects that do
       not exist as regular files.

   External Symbols
       The FORTRAN compiler and link editor shall support the significance  of
       external  symbols  up to a length of at least 31 bytes; case folding is
       permitted. The action taken upon  encountering  symbols  exceeding  the
       implementation-defined maximum symbol length is unspecified.

       The  compiler  and  link editor shall support a minimum of 511 external
       symbols per source or object file, and a minimum of 4095 external  sym-
       bols  total.  A diagnostic message is written to standard output if the
       implementation-defined limit is exceeded; other  actions  are  unspeci-

       The following exit values shall be returned:

        0     Successful compilation or link edit.

       >0     An error occurred.

       When fort77 encounters a compilation error, it shall write a diagnostic
       to standard error and continue to compile other source  code  operands.
       It  shall  return  a  non-zero  exit  status, but it is implementation-
       defined whether an object module is  created.   If  the  link  edit  is
       unsuccessful,  a diagnostic message shall be written to standard error,
       and fort77 shall exit with a non-zero status.

       The following sections are informative.


       The following usage example compiles xyz.f and creates  the  executable
       file foo:

              fort77 -o foo xyz.f

       The following example compiles xyz.f and creates the object file xyz.o:

              fort77 -c xyz.f

       The following example compiles xyz.f and creates  the  executable  file

              fort77 xyz.f

       The  following  example  compiles xyz.f, links it with b.o, and creates
       the executable a.out:

              fort77 xyz.f b.o

       The name of this utility was chosen as fort77 to parallel the  renaming
       of  the  C compiler. The name f77 was not chosen to avoid problems with
       historical implementations. The ANSI X3.9-1978 standard was selected as
       a  normative  reference  because  the ISO/IEC version of FORTRAN-77 has
       been superseded by the ISO/IEC 1539:1990 standard (Fortran-90).

       The file inclusion and symbol definition #define mechanisms used by the
       c99    utility    were    not    included    in    this    volume    of
       IEEE Std 1003.1-2001-even though they  are  commonly  implemented-since
       there  is no requirement that the FORTRAN compiler use the C preproces-

       The  -onetrip   option   was   not   included   in   this   volume   of
       IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, even though many historical compilers support it,
       because it is derived from FORTRAN-66; it is an anachronism that should
       not be perpetuated.

       Some  implementations produce compilation listings. This aspect of FOR-
       TRAN has been left unspecified because there was controversy concerning
       the  various  methods  proposed  for implementing it: a -V option over-
       lapped with historical vendor practice and a naming convention of  cre-
       ating  files  with .l suffixes collided with historical lex file naming

       There  is  no  -I  option  in  this   version   of   this   volume   of
       IEEE Std 1003.1-2001  to  specify  a  directory  for file inclusion. An
       INCLUDE directive has been a part of the Fortran-90 discussions, but an
       interface supporting that standard is not in the current scope.

       It  is  noted that many FORTRAN compilers produce an object module even
       when compilation errors occur; during  a  subsequent  compilation,  the
       compiler  may  patch  the object module rather than recompiling all the
       code. Consequently, it is left to the implementor  whether  or  not  an
       object file is created.

       A  reference  to  MIL-STD-1753  was  removed  from an early proposal in
       response to a request from the POSIX FORTRAN-binding standard  develop-
       ers.  It  was  not  the intention of the standard developers to require
       certification of the FORTRAN compiler,  and  IEEE Std 1003.9-1992  does
       not specify the military standard or any special preprocessing require-
       ments. Furthermore, use of that document would have been  inappropriate
       for an international standard.

       The  specification  of optimization has been subject to changes through
       early proposals. At one time, -O and -N were Booleans: optimize and  do
       not  optimize  (with an unspecified default).  Some historical practice
       led this to be changed to:

       -O 0   No optimization.

       -O 1   Some level of optimization.

       -O  n  Other, unspecified levels of optimization.

       It is not always clear whether "good code generation" is the same thing
       as  optimization.  Simple optimizations of local actions do not usually
       affect the semantics of a program. The -O 0 option has been included to
       accommodate  the very particular nature of scientific calculations in a
       highly optimized environment; compilers make  errors.  Some  degree  of
       optimization  is  expected,  even if it is not documented here, and the
       ability to shut it off completely could be important  when  porting  an
       application.  An implementation may treat -O 0 as "do less than normal"
       if it wishes, but this is only meaningful if any of the  operations  it
       performs can affect the semantics of a program.  It is highly dependent
       on the implementation whether doing less than normal is logical. It  is
       not  the  intent of the -O 0 option to ask for inefficient code genera-
       tion, but rather to assure that any semantically  visible  optimization
       is suppressed.

       The  specification  of standard library access is consistent with the C
       compiler  specification.  Implementations  are  not  required  to  have
       /usr/lib/libf.a, as many historical implementations do, but if not they
       are required to recognize f as a token.

       External symbol size limits are in normative text; conforming  applica-
       tions  need  to  know these limits. However, the minimum maximum symbol
       length should be taken as a constraint on a conforming application, not
       on  an  implementation,  and consequently the action taken for a symbol
       exceeding the limit is unspecified. The minimum size for  the  external
       symbol table was added for similar reasons.

       The  CONSEQUENCES  OF  ERRORS section clearly specifies the behavior of
       the compiler when compilation or link-edit errors occur.  The  behavior
       of  several historical implementations was examined, and the choice was
       made to be silent on the status of the executable, or  a.out,  file  in
       the  face  of  compiler  or  linker errors. If a linker writes the exe-
       cutable file, then links it on disk with  lseek()s  and  write()s,  the
       partially  linked  executable  file can be left on disk and its execute
       bits turned off if the link edit fails. However, if  the  linker  links
       the  image in memory before writing the file to disk, it need not touch
       the executable file (if it already exists) because the link edit fails.
       Since both approaches are historical practice, a conforming application
       shall rely on the exit status of fort77, rather than on  the  existence
       or mode of the executable file.

       The -g and -s options are not specified as mutually-exclusive.  Histor-
       ically these two options have been mutually-exclusive, but because both
       are so loosely specified, it seemed appropriate to leave their interac-
       tion unspecified.

       The requirement that conforming applications specify  compiler  options
       separately is to reserve the multi-character option name space for ven-
       dor-specific compiler options, which are known to exist in many histor-
       ical  implementations.  Implementations  are not required to recognize,
       for example, -gc as if it were -g -c; nor are they forbidden from doing
       so.  The SYNOPSIS shows all of the options separately to highlight this
       requirement on applications.

       Echoing filenames to standard error is considered a diagnostic  message
       because  it  would otherwise be difficult to associate an error message
       with the erring file. They are described with "may" to allow  implemen-
       tations  to  use other methods of identifying files and to parallel the
       description in c99.

       A compilation system based  on  the  ISO/IEC 1539:1990  standard  (For-
       tran-90)  may be considered for a future version; it may have a differ-
       ent utility name from fort77.

       ar,   asa,   c99,   umask(),   the   System   Interfaces   volume    of
       IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, exec

       Portions  of  this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form
       from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technology
       --  Portable  Operating  System  Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base
       Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003  by  the  Institute  of
       Electrical  and  Electronics  Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the
       event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and
       The  Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard
       is the referee document. The original Standard can be  obtained  online
       at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .

IEEE/The Open Group                  2003                           FORT77(1P)

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