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wodim(1)                                                              wodim(1)

NAME
       wodim - write data to optical disk media

SYNOPSIS
       wodim [options] track1...trackn

NOTE
       There  may  be  similarities  and  differences between this program and
       other disk recording application(s). See the CREDITS and  AUTHORS  sec-
       tions below to learn about the origin of wodim.

DESCRIPTION
       wodim  is  used to record data or audio Compact Discs on an Orange Book
       CD-Recorder or to write DVD media on a DVD-Recorder.

       The device is the device file or label offered by the operating  system
       to access the recorder with SCSI GENERIC (sg) interface. Note that some
       operating systems may provide separate device nodes for  block-oriented
       and  sg  access. For example, on older Linux systems, the sg access was
       available through /dev/sg...  files while the block oriented access was
       done  through associated (but not identical) /dev/hd...  and /dev/sr...
       (or /dev/scd...  ) files.

       In any case, the user running wodim needs read and write access to  the
       particular  device file on a Linux system. It is recommended to be root
       or install the application as suid-root, because  certain  versions  of
       Linux  (kernel)  limit  the  set  of SCSI commands allowed for non-root
       users. Even if usage without root identity is possible in  many  cases,
       some  device  drivers  still  may fail, show unexplainable problems and
       generally the problems become harder to debug.  The  risk  for  buffer-
       underruns  is  also increased. See the PROCESS SCHEDULING PRIORITY sec-
       tion below for more details.

       There is an alternative way of specifying the device, using the  tradi-
       tional  SCSI descriptions in form of devicetype:bus/target/lun specifi-
       cation. However, the success of this method is not guaranteed since  it
       requires  an  adaptation  scheme for your architecture, and the numbers
       may vary depending on the hardware-internal numbering or on  the  order
       of hot-plug device detection. If your operating system does not provide
       a sufficient framework for keeping this numbers persistent, don't  rely
       on them. See -scanbus and --devices options below for details.

       There  are emulated SCSI compatible device systems, using the SCSI pro-
       tocols transported over various hardware/media types.  The  most  known
       examples is ATAPI ("IDE burners") or USB storage ("external USB case").
       If the pseudo-SCSI b/t/l device address specification is  used  instead
       of the native one, you need to prepend the "devicetype:" description to
       the emulated "bus/target/lun" device address.

       If a file /etc/wodim.conf exists, the parameter to the dev= option  may
       also be a drive name label in that file (see FILES section).

       As  a  special  exception,  the  device specification can be -1 or just
       omitted, which invokes automatic guessing of an appropriate device  for
       the  selected operation. However, this guessing is not available every-
       where and is not reliable; it is only available for the  user's  conve-
       nience in simple environments.

       In  Track  At  Once  mode, each track corresponds to a single file that
       contains the prepared data for that track.  If  the  argument  is  `-',
       standard  input  is  used  for that track.  Only one track may be taken
       from stdin.  In the other write modes, the direct file to  track  rela-
       tion  may  not  be implemented.  In -clone mode, a single file contains
       all data for the whole disk.  To allow DVD writing on platforms that do
       not implement large file support, wodim concatenates all file arguments
       to a single track when writing to DVD media.

PROCESS SCHEDULING PRIORITY
       Wodim tries to get higher process  priority  using  different  methods.
       This  is important because the burn process is usually a realtime task,
       no long delays should  occur  while  transmitting  fresh  data  to  the
       recorder. This is especially important on systems with insufficient RAM
       where swapping can create delays of many seconds.

       A possible workaround on underpowered systems is the use of  the  burn-
       free or similar feature, allowing the recorder to resume.

       Root  permissions are usually required to get higher process scheduling
       priority.

       On SVr4 compliant systems, wodim uses the real time class  to  get  the
       highest  scheduling  priority  that is possible (higher than all kernel
       processes).  On systems with POSIX real time scheduling wodim uses real
       time  scheduling  too,  but  may not be able to gain a priority that is
       higher than all kernel processes.

       In order to be able to use the SCSI transport subsystem of the OS,  run
       at  highest priority and lock itself into core wodim either needs to be
       run as root, needs to be installed suid root  or  must  be  called  via
       RBACs pfexec mechanism.

GENERAL OPTIONS
       General options must be before any track file name or track option.

       -version
              Print version information and exit.

       -v     Increment  the  level of general verbosity by one.  This is used
              e.g. to display the progress of the writing process.

       -V     Increment the verbose level in respect of SCSI command transport
              by  one.   This  helps to debug problems during the writing pro-
              cess, that occur in the CD/DVD-Recorder.  If you  get  incompre-
              hensible  error  messages  you  should use this flag to get more
              detailed output.  -VV will show data buffer content in addition.
              Using -V or -VV slows down the process and may be the reason for
              a buffer underrun.

       debug=#, -d
              Set the misc debug value to # (with debug=#)  or  increment  the
              misc  debug  level  by  one  (with -d). If you specify -dd, this
              equals to debug=2.  This may help to find problems while opening
              a  driver  for  libusal  as well as with sector sizes and sector
              types.  Using -debug slows down the process and may be the  rea-
              son for a buffer underrun.

       kdebug=#, kd=#
              Tell the usal-driver to modify the kernel debug value while SCSI
              commands are running.

       -silent, -s
              Do not print out a status report for failed SCSI commands.

       -force Force to continue on some errors. Be  careful  when  using  this
              option.   wodim  implements several checks that prevent you from
              doing unwanted things like  damaging  CD-RW  media  by  improper
              drives.  Many  of the sanity checks are disabled when the -force
              option is used.

              This option also implements some tricks that will allow  you  to
              blank bad CD-RW disks.

       -immed Tell  wodim  to  set  the  SCSI  IMMED  flag in certain commands
              (load/eject/blank/close_track/close_session).  This can be  use-
              ful  on  broken systems with ATAPI harddisk and CD/DVD writer on
              the same bus  or  with  SCSI  systems  that  don't  use  discon-
              nect/reconnect.   These  systems  will  freeze while blanking or
              fixating a CD/DVD or while a DVD writer is filling up a  session
              to the minimum amount (approx. 800 MB).  Setting the -immed flag
              will request the command to return immediately while the  opera-
              tion proceeds in background, making the bus usable for the other
              devices and avoiding the system freeze.  This is an experimental
              feature  which  may  work  or not, depending on the model of the
              CD/DVD writer.  A correct solution would be to set up a  correct
              cabling but there seem to be notebooks around that have been set
              up the wrong way by the manufacturer.  As it  is  impossible  to
              fix this problem in notebooks, the -immed option has been added.

              A second experimental feature of the  -immed  flag  is  to  tell
              wodim  to  try  to  wait short times while writing to the media.
              This is expected to free the IDE bus if the  CD/DVD  writer  and
              the  data  source  are  connected to the same IDE cable. In this
              case, the CD/DVD writer would otherwise usually  block  the  IDE
              bus  for  nearly all the time making it impossible to fetch data
              from the source drive. See also minbuf= and -v option.

              Use both features at your own risk.  If it  turns  out  that  it
              would make sense to have a separate option for the wait feature,
              write to the author and convince him.

       minbuf=value
              The # minbuf= option allows to define the minimum  drive  buffer
              fill ratio for the experimental ATAPI wait mode that is intended
              to free the IDE bus to allow hard disk and CD/DVD writer  to  be
              on  the  same  IDE cable.  As the wait mode currently only works
              when the verbose option -v has been specified, wodim implies the
              verbose  option  in  case the -immed or minbuf= option have been
              specified.  Valid values for minbuf= are between 25 and  95  for
              25%...95% minimum drive buffer fill ratio.

       -dummy The  CD/DVD-Recorder  will go through all steps of the recording
              process, but the laser is turned off during this procedure.   It
              is recommended to run several tests before actually writing to a
              Compact Disk or Digital Versatile Disk, if the timing  and  load
              response of the system is not known.

       -clone Tells  wodim  to  handle  images  created by readom -clone.  The
              -clone may only be used in conjunction with with the -raw96r  or
              with  the  -raw16 option.  Using -clone together with -raw96r is
              preferred as it allows to write all subchannel data.  The option
              -raw16  should  only  be used with drives that do not support to
              write in -raw96r mode.

       -dao

       -sao   Set SAO (Session At Once) mode which is usually called  Disk  At
              Once  mode.  This currently only works with MMC drives that sup-
              port Session At Once mode.  Note that wodim needs  to  know  the
              size of each track in advance for this mode (see the genisoimage
              -print-size option and the EXAMPLES section  for  more  informa-
              tion).

       -tao   Set TAO (Track At Once) writing mode.  This is the default write
              mode in previous wodim versions.  With most drives,  this  write
              mode is required for multi session recording.

       -raw   Set  RAW  writing  mode.  Using this option defaults to -raw96r.
              Note that wodim needs to know the size of each track in  advance
              for  this  mode  (see the genisoimage -print-size option and the
              EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw96r
              Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes
              of  raw  P-W  subchannel data resulting in a sector size of 2448
              bytes.  This is the preferred raw writing mode as it gives  best
              control  over  the CD writing process.  If you find any problems
              with the layout of a disk or  with  sub  channel  content  (e.g.
              wrong  times  on the display when playing the CD) and your drive
              supports to write in -raw96r or -raw16 mode, you should give  it
              a  try.  There  are  several  CD  writers with bad firmware that
              result in broken disks when writing in TAO or SAO mode.  Writing
              data  disks  in  raw mode needs significantly more CPU time than
              other write modes. If your CPU is too slow, this may  result  in
              buffer  underruns.   Note  that  wodim needs to know the size of
              each track in advance for this mode (see the genisoimage -print-
              size option and the EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw96p
              Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 96 bytes
              of packed P-W subchannel data resulting in a sector size of 2448
              bytes.   This  is  the less preferred raw writing mode as only a
              few recorders support it and some of these recorders  have  bugs
              in  the  firmware  implementation.   Don't use this mode if your
              recorder supports -raw96r or -raw16.  Writing data disks in  raw
              mode  needs  significantly more CPU time than other write modes.
              If your CPU is too slow, this may result  in  buffer  underruns.
              Note  that wodim needs to know the size of each track in advance
              for this mode (see the genisoimage -print-size  option  and  the
              EXAMPLES section for more information).

       -raw16 Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors plus 16 bytes
              of P-Q subchannel data resulting in a sector size of 2368 bytes.
              If  a  recorder  does not support -raw96r, this is the preferred
              raw writing mode.   It  does  not  allow  to  write  CD-Text  or
              CD+Graphics  but  it  is  the  only raw writing mode in cheap CD
              writers.  As these cheap writers in most cases  do  not  support
              -dao  mode.   Don't  use  this  mode  if  your recorder supports
              -raw96r.  Writing data disks in  raw  mode  needs  significantly
              more  CPU  time than other write modes. If your CPU is too slow,
              this may result in buffer underruns.  Note that wodim  needs  to
              know  the  size  of each track in advance for this mode (see the
              genisoimage -print-size option and the EXAMPLES section for more
              information).

       -multi Allow  multi  session  CDs  to  be  made.  This flag needs to be
              present on all sessions of a multi session disk, except you want
              to  create a session that will be the last session on the media.
              The fixation will be done in  a  way  that  allows  the  CD/DVD-
              Recorder  to  append  additional sessions later. This is done by
              generation a TOC with a link to the next program  area.  The  so
              generated  media  is  not  100%  compatible  to manufactured CDs
              (except for CDplus).  Use only for recording  of  multi  session
              CDs.   If  this option is present, the default track type is CD-
              ROM XA mode 2 form 1 and the sector size is 2048 bytes.  The  XA
              sector subheaders will be created by the drive.  The Sony drives
              have no hardware support for CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1.  You  have
              to  specify  the  -data  option in order to create multi session
              disks on these drives.  As long as wodim does not have  a  coder
              for  converting data sectors to audio sectors, you need to force
              CD-ROM sectors by including the -data  option  if  you  like  to
              record  a  multisession  disk in SAO mode.  Not all drives allow
              multisession CDs in SAO mode.

       -msinfo
              Retrieve multi session info in a form suitable  for  genisoimage
              and print it to standard output. See msifile= option for another
              version.

              This option makes only sense with a CD that  contains  at  least
              one  closed  session and is appendable (not finally closed yet).
              Some drives create error messages if you try to  get  the  multi
              session info for a disk that is not suitable for this operation.

       msifile=filename
              Like -msinfo option but also stores the multi session info in  a
              file.

       -toc   Retrieve  and  print  out  the  table of content or PMA of a CD.
              With this option, wodim will work with CD-R drives and with  CD-
              ROM drives.

       -atip  Retrieve  and  print  out the ATIP (absolute Time in Pre-groove)
              info of a CD/DVD recordable or CD/DVD re-writable  media.   With
              this  option,  wodim  will try to retrieve the ATIP info. If the
              actual drive does not support to read the ATIP info, it  may  be
              that  only  a reduced set of information records or even nothing
              is displayed. Only a limited number of MMC compliant drives sup-
              port to read the ATIP info.

              If  wodim  is  able  to  retrieve the lead-in start time for the
              first session, it will try to decode and print the  manufacturer
              info  from  the media.  DVD media does not have ATIP information
              but there is equivalent prerecorded information that is read out
              and printed.

       -fix   The  disk  will only be fixated (i.e. a TOC for a CD-Reader will
              be written).  This may be used, if for some reason the disk  has
              been  written  but  not  fixated. This option currently does not
              work with old TEAC drives (CD-R50S and CD-R55S).

       -nofix Do not fixate the disk after writing the  tracks.  This  may  be
              used  to  create  an audio disk in steps. An un-fixated disk can
              usually not be used on a non CD-writer type drive but there  are
              audio CD players that will be able to play such a disk.

       -waiti Wait for input to become available on standard input before try-
              ing to open the SCSI driver. This allows wodim to read its input
              from  a  pipe  even  when writing additional sessions to a multi
              session disk.  When writing another session to a  multi  session
              disk,  genisoimage needs to read the old session from the device
              before writing output.  This cannot be done if wodim  opens  the
              SCSI driver at the same time.

       -load  Load  the  media  and  exit. This only works with a tray loading
              mechanism but seems to be  useful  when  using  the  Kodak  disk
              transporter.

       -lock  Load  the  media, lock the door and exit. This only works with a
              tray loading mechanism but seems to be  useful  when  using  the
              Kodak disk transporter.

       -eject Eject  disk  after  doing the work.  Some devices (e.g. Philips)
              need to eject the medium before creating a  new  disk.  Doing  a
              -dummy  test and immediately creating a real disk would not work
              on these devices.

       speed=#
              Set the speed factor of the writing process to #.  # is an inte-
              ger,  representing a multiple of the audio speed.  This is about
              150 KB/s for CD-ROM,  about  172 KB/s  for  CD-Audio  and  about
              1385 kB/s  for  DVD media.  If no speed option is present, wodim
              will try to get a drive  specific  speed  value  from  the  file
              /etc/wodim.conf  and  if  it cannot find one, it will try to get
              the speed value from the CDR_SPEED environment  and  later  from
              the  CDR_SPEED=  entry  in  /etc/wodim.conf.   If no speed value
              could be found, wodim uses a drive specific default speed.   The
              default for all new (MMC compliant) drives is to use the maximum
              supported by the drive.  If you use speed=0 with a MMC compliant
              drive,  wodim will switch to the lowest possible speed for drive
              and medium.  If you are using an old (non MMC)  drive  that  has
              problems with speed=2 or speed=4, you should try speed=0.

       blank=type
              Blank  a  CD-RW  and  exit  or blank a CD-RW before writing. The
              blanking type may be one of:

              help        Display a list of possible blanking types.

              all         Blank the entire disk. This may take a long time.

              fast        Minimally blank the disk. This  results  in  erasing
                          the PMA, the TOC and the pregap.

              track       Blank a track.

              unreserve   Unreserve a reserved track.

              trtail      Blank the tail of a track.

              unclose     Unclose last session.

              session     Blank the last session.
       Not  all  drives support all blanking types. It may be necessary to use
       blank=all if a drive reports a specified command as being invalid.   If
       used  together  with  the -force flag, this option may be used to blank
       CD-RW disks that otherwise cannot be blanked. Note that you may need to
       specify  blank=all  because  some drives will not continue with certain
       types of bad CD-RW disks. Note also that wodim does  its  best  if  the
       -force  flag  is  used  but  it finally depends on the drive's firmware
       whether the blanking operation will succeed or not.

       -format
              Format a CD-RW/DVD-RW/DVD+RW disc.  Formatting is currently only
              implemented  for DVD+RW media.  A 'maiden' DVD+RW media needs to
              be formatted before you may write  to  it.   However,  as  wodim
              autodetects  the  need for formatting in this case and auto for-
              mats the medium before it starts writing, the -format option  is
              only needed if you like to forcibly reformat a DVD+RW medium.

       fs=#   Set the FIFO (ring buffer) size to #.  You may use the same syn-
              tax as in dd(1), sdd(1) or star(1).  The number representing the
              size  is taken in bytes unless otherwise specified.  If a number
              is followed directly by the letter `b', `k', `m',  `s'  or  `f',
              the  size  is  multiplied by 512, 1024, 1024*1024, 2048 or 2352.
              If the size consists of numbers separated by `x' or `*',  multi-
              plication  of the two numbers is performed.  Thus fs=10x63k will
              specify a FIFO size of 630 kBytes.

              The size specified by  the  fs=  argument  includes  the  shared
              memory  that  is needed for administration. This is at least one
              page of memory.  If no fs= option is present, wodim will try  to
              get  the FIFO size value from the CDR_FIFOSIZE environment.  The
              default FIFO size is currently 4 MB.

              The FIFO is used to increase buffering for the real time writing
              process.  It allows to run a pipe from genisoimage directly into
              wodim.  If the FIFO is active and a pipe from  genisoimage  into
              wodim  is  used to create a CD, wodim will abort prior to do any
              modifications on the disk if genisoimage dies before  it  starts
              writing.  The recommended FIFO size is between 4 and 128 MBytes.
              As a rule of thumb, the FIFO size should be at  least  equal  to
              the  size  of  the internal buffer of the CD/DVD-Recorder and no
              more than half of the physical amount of RAM  available  in  the
              machine.   If  the  FIFO size is big enough, the FIFO statistics
              will print a FIFO empty count of zero and the FIFO min  fill  is
              not  below  20%.   It  is not wise to use too much space for the
              FIFO. If you need more than 8 MB to write a CD at a  speed  less
              than  20x  from  an  image  on  a  local  file system on an idle
              machine, your machine is either underpowered, has hardware prob-
              lems  or is mis-configured.  If you like to write DVDs or CDs at
              higher speed, it makes sense to use at least 16 MB for the FIFO.

              On  old and small machines, you need to be more careful with the
              FIFO size.  If your machine has less  than  256 MB  of  physical
              RAM,  you should not set up a FIFO size that is more than 32 MB.
              The sun4c architecture (e.g. a Sparcstation-2) has only MMU page
              table  entries  for  16 MBytes  per  process.  Using  more  than
              14 MBytes for the FIFO may cause the operating  system  in  this
              case  to  spend  much  time to constantly reload the MMU tables.
              Newer machines from Sun do not have this MMU hardware problem. I
              have no information on PC-hardware reflecting this problem.

              Old  Linux systems for non x86 platforms have broken definitions
              for the shared memory size. You need to fix them and rebuild the
              kernel or manually tell wodim to use a smaller FIFO.

              If  you  have  buffer underruns or similar problems (like a con-
              stantly empty drive buffer) and observe a zero fifo empty count,
              you  have  hardware problems that prevents the data from flowing
              fast enough from the kernel memory to the drive. The  FIFO  size
              in  this  case is sufficient, but you should check for a working
              DMA setup.

       ts=#   Set the maximum transfer size for a single SCSI  command  to  #.
              The  syntax  for the ts= option is the same as for wodim fs=# or
              sdd bs=#.

              If no ts= option has been specified, wodim defaults to a  trans-
              fer size of 63 kB. If libusal gets lower values from the operat-
              ing system, the value is reduced to the maximum  value  that  is
              possible  with  the current operating system.  Sometimes, it may
              help to further reduce the transfer size or to enhance  it,  but
              note  that  it  may  take  a long time to find a better value by
              experimenting with the ts= option.

       dev=target
              Sets the SCSI target for the CD/DVD-Recorder, see  notes  above.
              A  typical device specification is dev=6,0 .  A filename or vir-
              tual device name can be passed instead of the symbolic SCSI num-
              bers.   The correct device/filename in this case can be found in
              the system specific manuals of the target operating system.   On
              a  FreeBSD  system without CAM support, you need to use the con-
              trol device (e.g.  /dev/rcd0.ctl).  A correct device  specifica-
              tion in this case may be dev=/dev/rcd0.ctl:@ .

              On  Linux  and Windows 2000/XP, drives are accessible with their
              device (or drive) names or with the symbolic SCSI  numbers  (not
              recommended,  mapping  is  not  stable  and  could be completely
              removed in the future).

              If no dev option is present, wodim will try to  get  the  device
              from the CDR_DEVICE environment.

              If  the argument to the dev= option does not contain the charac-
              ters ',', '/', '@' or ':', it is interpreted as  an  label  name
              that  may  be  found in the file /etc/wodim.conf (see FILES sec-
              tion).

       gracetime=#
              Set the grace time before starting to write to # seconds.   Val-
              ues  below  2  seconds are not recommended to give the kernel or
              volume management a chance to learn the new state.

       timeout=#
              Set the default SCSI command timeout value to  #  seconds.   The
              default  SCSI  command  timeout  is the minimum timeout used for
              sending SCSI commands.  If a SCSI command fails due to  a  time-
              out, you may try to raise the default SCSI command timeout above
              the timeout value of the failed command.  If  the  command  runs
              correctly  with a raised command timeout, please report the bet-
              ter timeout value and the corresponding command to the author of
              the program.  If no timeout option is present, a default timeout
              of 40 seconds is used.

       driver=name
              Allows the user to manually select a driver for the device.  The
              reason  for  the existence of the driver=name option is to allow
              users to use wodim with drives that  are  similar  to  supported
              drives  but  not known directly by wodim.  All drives made after
              1997 should be MMC standard compliant and thus supported by  one
              of the MMC drivers.  It is most unlikely that wodim is unable to
              find the right  driver  automatically.   Use  this  option  with
              extreme care. If a wrong driver is used for a device, the possi-
              bility of creating corrupted disks is high.  The minimum problem
              related  to a wrong driver is that the speed= or -dummy will not
              work.

              The following driver names are supported:

              help   To get a list of possible drivers together with  a  short
                     description.

              mmc_cd The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc  CD-ROM  driver is auto-selected
                     whenever wodim finds a MMC compliant drive that does  not
                     identify  itself  to support writing at all, or that only
                     identifies to support media or  write  modes  not  imple-
                     mented in wodim.

              mmc_cd_dvd
                     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc  CD/DVD  driver is auto-selected
                     whenever wodim finds a MMC-2  or  MMC-3  compliant  drive
                     that  seems  to support more than one medium type and the
                     tray is open or no medium could be found  to  select  the
                     right  driver.   This  driver  tries  to  close the tray,
                     checks the medium found in the tray and then branches  to
                     the driver that matches the current medium.

              mmc_cdr
                     The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-R/CD-RW driver is auto-selected
                     whenever wodim find a MMC compliant drive that only  sup-
                     ports  to write CDs or a multi system drive that contains
                     a CD as the current medium.

              mmc_cdr_sony
                     The generic SCSI-3/mmc CD-R/CD-RW driver is auto-selected
                     whenever  wodim would otherwise select the mmc_cdr driver
                     but  the  device  seems  to  be  made   by   Sony.    The
                     mmc_cdr_sony is definitely needed for the Sony CDU 928 as
                     this drive does not completely implement the MMC standard
                     and  some of the MMC SCSI commands have to be replaced by
                     Sony proprietary commands. It seems that all Sony  drives
                     (even  newer  ones)  still implement the Sony proprietary
                     SCSI commands so it has not yet become a problem  to  use
                     this driver for all Sony drives. If you find a newer Sony
                     drive that does not work with this driver, please report.

              mmc_dvd
                     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc-2  DVD-R/DVD-RW  driver is auto-
                     selected whenever wodim finds a MMC-2 or MMC-3  compliant
                     drive  that  supports  to  write  DVDs and an appropriate
                     medium is loaded.  There is no Track At Once mode for DVD
                     writers.

              mmc_dvdplus
                     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc-3  DVD+R/DVD+RW  driver is auto-
                     selected whenever one of the DVD+ media  types  that  are
                     incompatible to each other is found.  It checks media and
                     then branches to the  driver  that  matches  the  current
                     medium.

              mmc_dvdplusr
                     The  generic  SCSI-3/mmc-3  DVD+R driver is auto-selected
                     whenever a  DVD+R  medium  is  found  in  an  appropriate
                     writer.   Note  that  for  unknown  reason,  the DVD-Plus
                     alliance does not like that there is  a  simulation  mode
                     for  DVD+R  media.  The author of wodim tries to convince
                     manufacturers to implement a simulation  mode  for  DVD+R
                     and  implement  support.   DVD+R  only supports one write
                     mode that is somewhere between Track At Once  and  Packet
                     writing;  this  mode  is  selected  in  wodim  via  a the
                     -dao/-sao option.

              mmc_dvdplusrw
                     The generic SCSI-3/mmc-3 DVD+RW driver  is  auto-selected
                     whenever  a  DVD+RW  medium  is  found  in an appropriate
                     writer.  As DVD+RW media needs to be formatted before its
                     first  use,  wodim auto-detects this media state and per-
                     forms a format before it starts to write.  Note that  for
                     unknown  reason, the DVD-Plus alliance does not like that
                     there is a simulation mode nor  a  way  to  erase  DVD+RW
                     media.  DVD+RW only supports one write mode that is close
                     to Packet writing; this mode is selected in wodim  via  a
                     the -dao/-sao option.

              cw_7501
                     The  driver  for  Matsushita/Panasonic  CW-7501  is auto-
                     selected when wodim finds this old pre MMC drive.   wodim
                     supports all write modes for this drive type.

              kodak_pcd_600
                     The  driver for Kodak PCD-600 is auto-selected when wodim
                     finds this old pre MMC drive which  has  been  the  first
                     high  speed  (6x)  CD  writer for a long time. This drive
                     behaves similar to the Philips CDD-521 drive.

              philips_cdd521
                     The driver for  Philips  CDD-521  is  auto-selected  when
                     wodim  finds  a Philips CDD-521 drive (which is the first
                     CD writer ever made) or one of the other drives that  are
                     known  to  behave  similar  to  this  drive.  All Philips
                     CDD-521 or similar drives  (see  other  drivers  in  this
                     list) do not support Session At Once recording.

              philips_cdd521_old
                     The  driver for Philips old CDD-521 is auto-selected when
                     wodim finds a Philips  CDD-521  with  very  old  firmware
                     which has some known limitations.

              philips_cdd522
                     The  driver  for  Philips  CDD-522  is auto-selected when
                     wodim finds a Philips CDD-522 which is the  successor  of
                     the  521  or one of its variants with Kodak label.  wodim
                     does not support Session At  Once  recording  with  these
                     drives.

              philips_dumb
                     The  driver  for Philips CDD-521 with pessimistic assump-
                     tions is never auto-selected.  It may  be  used  by  hand
                     with drives that behave similar to the Philips CDD-521.

              pioneer_dws114x
                     The  driver  for  Pioneer  DW-S114X is auto-selected when
                     wodim finds one of the old non MMC CD writers  from  Pio-
                     neer.

              plasmon_rf4100
                     The  driver  for  Plasmon  RF  4100 is auto-selected when
                     wodim finds this specific variant of the Philips CDD-521.

              ricoh_ro1060c
                     The driver for Ricoh RO-1060C is auto-selected when wodim
                     finds this drive. There is no real support for this drive
                     yet.

              ricoh_ro1420c
                     The driver for Ricoh RO-1420C is auto-selected when wodim
                     finds a drive with this specific variant of  the  Philips
                     CDD-521 command set.

              scsi2_cd
                     The  generic  SCSI-2 CD-ROM driver is auto-selected when-
                     ever wodim finds a pre MMC drive that  does  not  support
                     writing  or  a  pre  MMC  writer that is not supported by
                     wodim.

              sony_cdu924
                     The driver for Sony CDU-924 /  CDU-948  is  auto-selected
                     whenever  wodim  finds  one of the old pre MMC CD writers
                     from Sony.

              teac_cdr50
                     The driver for Teac CD-R50S, Teac CD-R55S, JVC  XR-W2010,
                     Pinnacle  RCD-5020  is  auto-selected whenever one of the
                     drives is found that is known to the non MMC command  set
                     used  by  TEAC  and  JVC.  Note that many drives from JVC
                     will not work because they do not correctly implement the
                     documented  command set and JVC has been unwilling to fix
                     or document the bugs.  There is no support for  the  Ses-
                     sion At Once write mode yet.

              tyuden_ew50
                     The  driver  for  Taiyo Yuden EW-50 is auto-selected when
                     wodim finds a drive with this  specific  variant  of  the
                     Philips CDD-521 command set.

              yamaha_cdr100
                     The  driver for Yamaha CDR-100 / CDR-102 is auto-selected
                     when wodim finds one of the old pre MMC CD  writers  from
                     Yamaha.   There  is  no  support  for the Session At Once
                     write mode yet.

              cdr_simul
                     The simulation CD-R driver allows to run timing and speed
                     tests with parameters that match the behavior of CD writ-
                     ers.

              dvd_simul
                     The simulation DVD-R driver  allows  to  run  timing  and
                     speed  tests  with  parameters that match the behavior of
                     DVD writers.

              There are two special driver entries in the list: cdr_simul  and
              dvd_simul.   These  driver  entries  are designed to make timing
              tests at any speed or timing tests for drives that do  not  sup-
              port  the  -dummy  option.   The  simulation drivers implement a
              drive with a buffer size of 1 MB that can  be  changed  via  the
              CDR_SIMUL_BUFSIZE  environment  variable.  The simulation driver
              correctly simulates even a buffer underrun  condition.   If  the
              -dummy  option is present, the simulation is not aborted in case
              of a buffer underrun.

       driveropts=option list
              Set driver specific options. The options are specified  a  comma
              separated   list.    To   get   a  list  of  valid  options  use
              driveropts=help together with the -checkdrive  option.   If  you
              like to set driver options without running a typical wodim task,
              you need to use the -setdropts option in addition, otherwise the
              command  line  parser  in wodim will complain.  Currently imple-
              mented driver options are:

              burnfree
                     Turn the support for Buffer  Underrun  Free  writing  on.
                     This  only  works for drives that support Buffer Underrun
                     Free technology, which is available on most drives  manu-
                     factured  in  this millennium.  This may be called: Sanyo
                     BURN-Proof, Ricoh Just-Link, Yamaha Lossless-Link or sim-
                     ilar.

                     This option is deprecated and is mentioned here for docu-
                     mentation purposes only. The BURN-Free feature is enabled
                     by  default  if  the  drive supports it.  However, use of
                     BURN-Free may cause decreased burning quality.  Therefore
                     it  can be useful to disable it for certain purposes, eg.
                     when creating a master copy for mass CD production.

              noburnfree
                     Turn the support for Buffer Underrun Free writing off.

              varirec=value
                     Turn on the Plextor VariRec writing mode.  The  mandatory
                     parameter  value  is the laser power offset and currently
                     may be selected from -2, -1, 0, 1, 2.  In  addition,  you
                     need  to  set  the  write  speed  to  4 in order to allow
                     VariRec to work.

              gigarec=value
                     Manage the Plextor GigaRec writing  mode.  The  mandatory
                     parameter  value  is  the disk capacity ratio compared to
                     normal recording and currently may be selected from  0.6,
                     0.7,  0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4.  If values < 1.0 are used,
                     then the effect is similar to the Yamaha Audio Master  Q.
                     R.   feature.  If  values  >  1.0 are used, then the disk
                     capacity is increased.

                     Not all drives support all GigaRec values.  When a  drive
                     uses  the  GigaRec feature, the write speed is limited to
                     8x.

              audiomaster
                     Turn on the Yamaha Audio Master Q. R.  feature which usu-
                     ally  should  result  in  high quality CDs that have less
                     reading problems in Hi-Fi players.   As  this  is  imple-
                     mented as a variant of the Session at Once write mode, it
                     will only work if you select SAO write mode and there  is
                     no  need to turn it off.  The Audio Master mode will work
                     with a limited speed but may also be used with data  CDs.
                     In  Audio Master mode, the pits on the CD will be written
                     larger then usual  so  the  capacity  of  the  medium  is
                     reduced  when  turning  this  feature on.  A 74 minute CD
                     will only have a capacity of 63 minutes if  Audio  Master
                     is  active  and  the  capacity  of a 80 minute CD will be
                     reduced to 68 minutes.

              forcespeed
                     Normally, modern drives know the highest  possible  speed
                     for  different media and may reduce the speed in order to
                     grant best write quality.  This technology may be called:
                     Plextor  PowerRec, Ricoh Just-Speed, Yamaha Optimum Write
                     Speed Control or similar.   Some  drives  (e.g.  Plextor,
                     Ricoh  and  Yamaha)  allow  to force the drive to use the
                     selected speed even if the medium  is  so  bad  that  the
                     write  quality  would  be  poor. This option tells such a
                     drive to force to use the selected  speed  regardless  of
                     the medium quality.

                     Use this option with extreme care and note that the drive
                     should know better which medium will work at full  speed.
                     The  default is to turn forcespeed off, regardless of the
                     defaults of the drive.

              noforcespeed
                     Turn off the force speed feature.

              speedread
                     Some ultra high speed  drives  such  as  48x  and  faster
                     drives  from  Plextor  limit  the  read speed for unknown
                     media to e.g. 40x in order to  avoid  damaged  disks  and
                     drives.   Using  this  option tells the drive to read any
                     media as fast as possible.  Be very careful as  this  may
                     cause  the  media  to  break  in the drive while reading,
                     resulting in a damaged media and drive!

              nospeedread
                     Turn off unlimited read speed.

              singlesession
                     Turn the drive into a single session  only  drive.   This
                     allows to read defective or non-compliant (illegal) media
                     with extremely non-standard  additional  (broken/illegal)
                     TOC entries in the TOC from the second or higher session.
                     Some of these disks become usable if only the information
                     from  the first session is used.  You need to enable Sin-
                     gle Session mode before you insert the defective disk!

              nosinglesession
                     Turn off single session mode. The drive will again behave
                     as usual.

              hidecdr
                     Hide the fact that a medium might be a recordable medium.
                     This allows to make CD-Rs look like CD-ROMs and  applica-
                     tions  believe that the media in the drive is not a CD-R.

              nohidecdr
                     Turn off hiding CD-R media.

              tattooinfo
                     Use this option together with -checkdrive to retrieve the
                     image  size  information  for the Yamaha DiskT@2 feature.
                     The images always have a line length of 3744 pixel.  Line
                     number  0 (radius 0) is mapped to the center of the disk.
                     If you know the inner and outer radius you will  be  able
                     to  create  a  pre  distorted image that later may appear
                     undistorted on the disk.

              tattoofile=name
                     Use this option together with  -checkdrive  to  write  an
                     image  prepared  for  the  Yamaha  DiskT@2 feature to the
                     medium.  The file must be a file with raw image B&W  data
                     (one byte per pixel) in a size as retrieved by a previous
                     call to tattoofile=name .   If  the  size  of  the  image
                     equals  the  maximum  possible  size  (3744 x 320 pixel),
                     wodim will use the first part of  the  file.  This  first
                     part  then  will  be written to the leftover space on the
                     CD.

                     Note that the image must be mirrored to be readable  from
                     the pick up side of the CD.

       -setdropts
              Set  the  driveropts  specified  by  driveropts=option list, the
              speed of the drive and the dummy flag  and  exit.   This  allows
              wodim  to  set  drive  specific parameters that are not directly
              used by wodim like e.g.  single session mode, hide cdr and simi-
              lar.  It is needed in case that driveropts=option list should be
              called without planning to run a typical wodim task.

       -checkdrive
              Checks if a driver for the current drive is  present  and  exit.
              If the drive is a known drive, wodim uses exit code 0.

       -prcap Print  the drive capabilities for SCSI-3/mmc compliant drives as
              obtained from mode page 0x2A. Values marked  with  kB  use  1000
              bytes  as  kilo-byte,  values  marked  with KB use 1024 bytes as
              Kilo-byte.

       -inq   Do an inquiry for the drive, print the inquiry info and exit.

       -scanbus
              Scan all SCSI devices on all SCSI busses and print  the  inquiry
              strings.  This  option  may  be used to find SCSI address of the
              CD/DVD-Recorder on a system. If some device types are invisible,
              try  using  dev=ATA:  or similar option to give a hint about the
              device type you are looking for.  The  numbers  printed  out  as
              labels  are  computed  by: bus * 100 + target.  On platforms and
              device systems without persistent  SCSI  number  management  the
              results are not reliable. Use the .B --devices option instead.

       --devices
              Look  for  useable  devices using the system specific functions,
              eg. probing with usual device nodes in /dev/*, and  display  the
              detections using symbolic device names in OS specific syntax.

       -reset Try to reset the SCSI bus where the CD recorder is located. This
              works not on all operating systems.

       -abort Try to send an abort sequence to the drive.  If  you  use  wodim
              only,  this should never be needed; but other software may leave
              a drive in an unusable condition.  Calling wodim -reset  may  be
              needed if a previous write has been interrupted and the software
              did not tell the drive that it will not continue to write.

       -overburn
              Allow wodim to write more than the official size  of  a  medium.
              This  feature  is  usually called overburning and depends on the
              fact that most blank media may hold more space than the official
              size.  As  the official size of the lead-out area on the disk is
              90 seconds (6750 sectors) and a disk usually works if there  are
              at least 150 sectors of lead out, all media may be overburned by
              at least 88 seconds (6600 sectors).  Most CD recorders  only  do
              overburning  in  SAO  or RAW mode. Known exceptions are TEAC CD-
              R50S, TEAC CD-R55S and the Panasonic CW-7502.   Some  drives  do
              not  allow  to  overburn as much as you might like and limit the
              size of a CD to e.g. 76 minutes. This  problem  may  be  circum-
              vented  by writing the CD in RAW mode because this way the drive
              has no chance to find the size before starting to  burn.   There
              is  no  guarantee  that  your drive supports overburning at all.
              Make a test to check if your drive implements the feature.

       -ignsize
              Ignore the known size of the medium. This option should be  used
              with  extreme  care, it exists only for debugging purposes don't
              use it for other reasons.  It is not needed to write disks  with
              more  than the nominal capacity.  This option implies -overburn.

       -useinfo
              Use *.inf files to overwrite audio options.  If this  option  is
              used,  the  pregap  size information is read from the *.inf file
              that is associated with the file that contains  the  audio  data
              for a track.

              If  used  together  with the -audio option, wodim may be used to
              write audio CDs from a pipe from icedax if you call  wodim  with
              the  *.inf  files as track parameter list instead of using audio
              files.  The audio data is read from stdin  in  this  case.   See
              EXAMPLES  section below.  wodim first verifies that stdin is not
              connected to a terminal  and  runs  some  heuristic  consistency
              checks  on  the *.inf files and then sets the track lengths from
              the information in the *.inf files.

              If you like to write from stdin, make sure that wodim is  called
              with a large enough FIFO size, reduce the write speed to a value
              below the read speed of the source drive and  switch  the  burn-
              free option for the recording drive on.

       defpregap=#
              Set  the default pre-gap size for all tracks except track number
              1.  This option currently only makes sense with the  TEAC  drive
              when  creating  track-at-once disks without the 2 second silence
              before each track.
              This option may go away in future.

       -packet
              Set Packet writing mode.  This is an experimental interface.

       pktsize=#
              Set the packet size to #, forces fixed packet mode.  This is  an
              experimental interface.

       -noclose
              Do not close the current track, useful only when in packet writ-
              ing mode.  This is an experimental interface.

       mcn=med_cat_nr
              Set the Media Catalog Number of the CD to med_cat_nr.

       -text  Write CD-Text information based on information taken from a file
              that  contains  ascii  information  for the text strings.  wodim
              supports CD-Text information based on the content of  the  *.inf
              files  created  by  icedax  and CD-Text information based on the
              content from a CUE sheet file.  If a  CUE  sheet  file  contains
              both (binary CDTEXTFILE and text based SONGWRITER) entries, then
              the information based on the CDTEXTFILE entry will win.

              You need to use the -useinfo option in addition in order to tell
              wodim  to  read  the *.inf files or cuefile=filename in order to
              tell wodim to read a CUE sheet file in addition.  If you like to
              write  your own CD-Text information, edit the *.inf files or the
              CUE sheet file with a text editor and change the fields that are
              relevant for CD-Text.

       textfile=filename
              Write  CD-Text  based  on  information  found in the binary file
              filename.  This file must contain information in a  data  format
              defined  in  the  SCSI-3 MMC-2 standard and in the Red Book. The
              four byte size header that is defined in the  SCSI  standard  is
              optional and allows to make the recognition of correct data less
              ambiguous.  This is the best option to be used to  copy  CD-Text
              data  from  existing CDs that already carry CD-Text information.
              To get data in a format suitable for this option use  wodim  -vv
              -toc   to   extract   the   information  from  disk.   If  both,
              textfile=filename and CD-Text information from  *.inf  or  *.cue
              files  are  present,  textfile=filename will overwrite the other
              information.

       cuefile=filename
              Take all recording related information from a  CDRWIN  compliant
              CUE  sheet file.  No track files are allowed when this option is
              present and the option -dao is currently needed in addition.

TRACK OPTIONS
       Track options may be mixed with track file names.

       isrc=ISRC_number
              Set the International Standard Recording  Number  for  the  next
              track to ISRC_number.

       index=list
              Sets an index list for the next track.  In index list is a comma
              separated list of numbers that are counting from  index  1.  The
              first entry in this list must contain a 0, the following numbers
              must be an ascending list of numbers (counting in 1/75  seconds)
              that  represent  the  start of the indices. An index list in the
              form: 0,7500,15000 sets index 1 to the start of the track, index
              2  100  seconds from the start of the track and index 3 200 sec-
              onds from the start of the track.

       -audio If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are  written  in
              CD-DA  (similar  to  Red Book) audio format.  The file with data
              for this tracks should contain stereo, 16-bit digital audio with
              44100  samples/s.   The  byte order should be the following: MSB
              left, LSB left, MSB right, LSB right, MSB left and  so  on.  The
              track  should be a multiple of 2352 bytes. It is not possible to
              put the master image of an audio track on  a  raw  disk  because
              data will be read in multiple of 2352 bytes during the recording
              process.

              If a filename ends in .au or .wav the file is considered to be a
              structured audio data file.  wodim assumes that the file in this
              case is a Sun audio file or a Microsoft .WAV file  and  extracts
              the  audio  data  from  the files by skipping over the non-audio
              header information.  In all other cases, wodim  will  only  work
              correctly  if  the  audio  data stream does not have any header.
              Because many structured audio files do not have an integral num-
              ber  of  blocks (1/75th second) in length, it is often necessary
              to specify the -pad option as well.  wodim recognizes that audio
              data  in  a  .WAV  file  is stored in Intel (little-endian) byte
              order, and will automatically  byte-swap  the  data  if  the  CD
              recorder  requires big-endian data.  wodim will reject any audio
              file that does not match the Red  Book  requirements  of  16-bit
              stereo samples in PCM coding at 44100 samples/second.

              Using other structured audio data formats as input to wodim will
              usually work if the structure  of  the  data  is  the  structure
              described  above  (raw pcm data in big-endian byte order).  How-
              ever, if the data format includes a  header,  you  will  hear  a
              click at the start of a track.

              If  neither -data nor -audio have been specified, wodim defaults
              to -audio for all filenames that end in .au or .wav and to -data
              for all other files.

       -swab  If  this  flag  is present, audio data is assumed to be in byte-
              swapped (little-endian) order.  Some types  of  CD-Writers  e.g.
              Yamaha, Sony and the new SCSI-3/mmc drives require audio data to
              be presented in little-endian order, while other writers require
              audio  data  to  be  presented  in the big-endian (network) byte
              order normally used by the SCSI protocol.  wodim knows if a  CD-
              Recorder  needs  audio  data in big- or little-endian order, and
              corrects the byte order of the data stream to match the needs of
              the  recorder.  You only need the -swab flag if your data stream
              is in Intel (little-endian) byte order.

              Note that the verbose output of wodim will show you if  swapping
              is  necessary  to  make the byte order of the input data fit the
              required byte order of the recorder.  wodim will not show you if
              the -swab flag was actually present for a track.

       -data  If  this  flag  is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
              CD-ROM mode 1 (Yellow Book) format. The data size is a  multiple
              of  2048  bytes.   The  file  with  track data should contain an
              ISO-9660 or Rock Ridge filesystem  image  (see  genisoimage  for
              more  details).  If  the  track data is an ufs filesystem image,
              fragment size should be set to 2 KB or more to  allow  CD-drives
              with 2 KB sector size to be used for reading.

              -data  is  the default, if no other flag is present and the file
              does not appear to be of one of the well known audio file types.

              If  neither -data nor -audio have been specified, wodim defaults
              to -audio for all filenames that end in .au or .wav and to -data
              for all other files.

       -mode2 If  this  flag  is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
              CD-ROM mode 2 format. The data size is a multiple of 2336 bytes.

       -xa    If  this  flag  is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
              CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1 format. The data size is a  multiple  of
              2048  bytes.   The  XA sector sub headers will be created by the
              drive.  With this option, the write mode is the same as with the
              -multi option.

       -xa1   If  this  flag  is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
              CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1 format. The data size is a  multiple  of
              2056 bytes.  The XA sector sub headers are part of the user data
              and have to be supplied by the  application  that  prepares  the
              data to be written.

       -xa2   If  this  flag  is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
              CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 2 format. The data is a multiple  of  2324
              bytes.   The XA sector sub headers will be created by the drive.

       -xamix If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are written in  a
              way  that  allows a mix of CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1/2 format. The
              data size is a multiple of 2332 bytes.  The XA sector sub  head-
              ers  are  part  of  the user data and have to be supplied by the
              application that prepares the data to be written.  The  CRC  and
              the  P/Q  parity  ECC/EDC  information  (depending on the sector
              type) have to be supplied by the application that  prepares  the
              data to be written.

       -cdi   If  this  flag  is  present, the TOC type for the disk is set to
              CDI.  This only makes sense with XA disks.

       -isosize
              Use the ISO-9660 file system size as the size of the next track.
              This  option  is  needed  if you want wodim to directly read the
              image of a track from a raw disk partition or from a TAO  master
              CD. In the first case the option -isosize is needed to limit the
              size of the CD to the size of the ISO filesystem.  In the second
              case the option -isosize is needed to prevent wodim from reading
              the two run out blocks that are appended by each CD-recorder  in
              track  at once mode. These two run out blocks cannot be read and
              would cause a buffer underrun that would cause a defective copy.
              Do  not  use  this option on files created by genisoimage and in
              case wodim reads the track data from stdin.  In the first  case,
              you  would prevent wodim from writing the amount of padding that
              has been appended by genisoimage and in the latter case, it will
              not work because stdin is not seekable.

              If  -isosize  is  used for a track, wodim will automatically add
              padding for this track as if the -pad option has been  used  but
              the  amount  of  padding may be less than the padding written by
              genisoimage.  Note that if you use -isosize on a track that con-
              tains Sparc boot information, the boot information will be lost.

              Note also that this option cannot be used to determine the  size
              of a file system if the multi session option is present.

       -pad   If  the track is a data track, 15 sectors of zeroed data will be
              added to the end of this and each  subsequent  data  track.   In
              this case, the -pad option is superseded by the padsize= option.
              It will remain however as a shorthand for padsize=15s.   If  the
              -pad  option  refers to an audio track, wodim will pad the audio
              data to be a multiple of 2352 bytes.  The audio data padding  is
              done with binary zeroes which is equal to absolute silence.

              -pad remains valid until disabled by -nopad.

       padsize=#
              Set  the  amount  of  data to be appended as padding to the next
              track to #.  Opposed to the behavior of  the  -pad  option,  the
              value  for  padsize= is reset to zero for each new track.  wodim
              assumes a sector size of 2048 bytes  for  the  padsize=  option,
              independent  from  the real sector size and independent from the
              write mode.  The megabytes mentioned in the verbose mode  output
              however  are  counting the output sector size which is e.g. 2448
              bytes when writing in RAW/RAW96 mode.  See fs= option for possi-
              ble arguments.  To pad the equivalent of 20 minutes on a CD, you
              may write padsize=20x60x75s.  Use this option if  your  CD-drive
              is  not  able to read the last sectors of a track or if you want
              to be able to read the CD on a Linux system  with  the  ISO-9660
              filesystem  read  ahead bug.  If an empty file is used for track
              data, this option may be used to create a disk that is  entirely
              made  of  padding.   This  may e.g. be used to find out how much
              overburning is possible with a specific media.

       -nopad Do not pad the following tracks - the default.

       -shorttrack
              Allow all subsequent tracks to violate the Red Book track length
              standard  which  requires  a  minimum track length of 4 seconds.
              This option is only useful when used in SAO or  RAW  mode.   Not
              all  drives  support  this  feature.  The  drive must accept the
              resulting CUE sheet or support RAW writing.

       -noshorttrack
              Re-enforce the Red Book track length standard. Tracks must be at
              least 4 seconds.

       pregap=#
              Set the  pre-gap size for the next track.  This option currently
              only makes sense with the TEAC drive when creating track-at-once
              disks without the 2 second silence before each track.
              This option may go away in future.

       -preemp
              If  this  flag  is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
              tracks will indicate that the audio data has been  sampled  with
              50/15  microsec pre-emphasis.  The data, however is not modified
              during the process of transferring  from  file  to  disk.   This
              option has no effect on data tracks.

       -nopreemp
              If  this  flag  is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
              tracks will indicate that the audio data has been mastered  with
              linear data - this is the default.

       -copy  If  this  flag  is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
              tracks of the resulting CD will indicate that the audio data has
              permission  to  be  copied  without  limit.   This option has no
              effect on data tracks.

       -nocopy
              If this flag is present, all TOC entries  for  subsequent  audio
              tracks of the resulting CD will indicate that the audio data has
              permission to be copied only once for personal use - this is the
              default.

       -scms  If  this  flag  is present, all TOC entries for subsequent audio
              tracks of the resulting CD will indicate that the audio data has
              no permission to be copied anymore.

       tsize=#
              If  the master image for the next track has been stored on a raw
              disk, use this option to specify the valid  amount  of  data  on
              this disk. If the image of the next track is stored in a regular
              file, the size of that file is taken to determine the length  of
              this  track.  If the track contains an ISO 9660 filesystem image
              use the -isosize option to determine the length of that filesys-
              tem image.
              In Disk at Once mode and with some drives that use the TEAC pro-
              gramming interface, even in Track at Once mode, wodim  needs  to
              know  the  size of each track before starting to write the disk.
              wodim now checks this and aborts before starting to  write.   If
              this happens you will need to run genisoimage -print-size before
              and use the output (with `s' appended) as  an  argument  to  the
              tsize= option of wodim (e.g. tsize=250000s).
              See fs= option for possible arguments.

EXAMPLES
       For  all examples below, it will be assumed that the CD/DVD-Recorder is
       connected to the primary SCSI bus of the machine. The SCSI target id is
       set to 2.

       To record a pure CD-ROM at double speed, using data from the file cdim-
       age.raw:

           wodim -v speed=2 dev=2,0 cdimage.raw

       To create an image for a ISO 9660 filesystem  with  Rock  Ridge  exten-
       sions:

           genisoimage -R -o cdimage.raw /home/joerg/master/tree

       To check the resulting file before writing to CD on Solaris:

           mount -r -F fbk -o type=hsfs /dev/fbk0:cdimage.raw /mnt

       On Linux:

           mount cdimage.raw -r -t iso9660 -o loop /mnt

       Go on with:
           ls -lR /mnt
           umount /mnt

       If  the  overall speed of the system is sufficient and the structure of
       the filesystem is not too complex, wodim will run without  creating  an
       image of the ISO 9660 filesystem. Simply run the pipeline:

           genisoimage -R /master/tree | wodim -v fs=6m speed=2 dev=2,0 -

       The  recommended  minimum  FIFO  size  for  running  this pipeline is 4
       MBytes.  As the default FIFO size is 4 MB, the fs= option needs only be
       present  if  you  want to use a different FIFO size.  If your system is
       loaded, you should run genisoimage in the  real  time  class  too.   To
       raise the priority of genisoimage replace the command

           genisoimage -R /master/tree
       by
           priocntl -e -c RT -p 59 genisoimage -R /master/tree

       on Solaris and by

           nice --18 genisoimage -R /master/tree

       on  systems  that  don't  have  UNIX  International compliant real-time
       scheduling.

       wodim runs at priority 59 on Solaris, you should run genisoimage at  no
       more  than priority 58. On other systems, you should run genisoimage at
       no less than nice --18.

       Creating a CD-ROM without file system image on disk has been tested  on
       a  Sparcstation-2  with  a Yamaha CDR-400. It did work up to quad speed
       when the machine was not loaded.  A faster machine may be able to  han-
       dle quad speed also in the loaded case.

       To  record  a  pure CD-DA (audio) at single speed, with each track con-
       tained in a file named track01.cdaudio, track02.cdaudio, etc:

           wodim -v speed=1 dev=/dev/cdrw -audio track*.cdaudio

       To check if it will be ok to use double speed for  the  example  above.
       Use the dummy write option:

           wodim -v -dummy speed=2 dev=/dev/cdrw -audio track*.cdaudio

       To  record a mixed-mode CD with an ISO 9660 filesystem from cdimage.raw
       on the first track, the other tracks being audio tracks from the  files
       track01.cdaudio, track02.cdaudio, etc:

           wodim -v dev=2,0 cdimage.raw -audio track*.cdaudio

       To  handle drives that need to know the size of a track before starting
       to write, first run

           genisoimage -R -q -print-size /master/tree

       and then run

           genisoimage -R /master/tree | wodim speed=2 dev=2,0 tsize=XXXs -

       where XXX is replaced by the output of the previous run of genisoimage.

       To copy an audio CD in the most accurate way, first run

           icedax dev=/dev/cdrom -vall cddb=0 -B -Owav

       and then run

           wodim dev=/dev/cdrw -v -dao -useinfo -text  *.wav

       This  will  try  to  copy track indices and to read CD-Text information
       from disk.  If there is no CD-Text information, icedax will try to  get
       the information from freedb.org instead.

       To copy an audio CD from a pipe (without intermediate files), first run

           icedax dev=1,0 -vall cddb=0 -info-only

       and then run

           icedax dev=1,0 -no-infofile -B -Oraw - | \
           wodim dev=2,0 -v -dao -audio -useinfo -text *.inf

       This will get all information (including  track  size  info)  from  the
       *.inf files and then read the audio data from stdin.

       If  you like to write from stdin, make sure that wodim is called with a
       large enough FIFO size (e.g.  fs=128m), reduce the  write  speed  to  a
       value  below  the  read speed of the source drive (e.g.  speed=12), and
       get a CD/DVD drive with BURN-Free feature if it is not available yet.

       To set drive options without writing a CD (e.g. to switch  a  drive  to
       single session mode), run

           wodim dev=1,0 -setdropts driveropts=singlesession

       If you like to do this when no CD is in the drive, call

           wodim dev=1,0 -force -setdropts driveropts=singlesession

       To copy a CD in clone mode, first read the master CD using:

           readom dev=b,t,l -clone f=somefile

       or  (in case the CD contains many sectors that are unreadable by inten-
       tion) by calling:

           readom dev=1,0 -clone -nocorr f=somefile

       will create the files somefile and somefile.toc.   Then  write  the  CD
       using:

           wodim dev=1,0 -raw96r -clone -v somefile

ENVIRONMENT
       CDR_DEVICE
              This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable to the
              open call of the SCSI transport library or a label in  the  file
              /etc/wodim.conf.

       CDR_SPEED
              Sets  the  default  speed  value  for  writing  (see also speed=
              option).

       CDR_FIFOSIZE
              Sets the default size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

       CDR_FORCERAWSPEED
              If this environment variable is set, wodim  will  allow  you  to
              write  at  the  full  RAW  encoding speed a single CPU supports.
              This will create high potential of buffer  underruns.  Use  with
              care.

       CDR_FORCESPEED
              If  this  environment  variable  is set, wodim will allow you to
              write at the full DMA speed the system supports.   There  is  no
              DMA  reserve  for  reading  the  data that is to be written from
              disk.  This will create high potential of buffer underruns.  Use
              with care.

       RSH    If  the  RSH  environment is present, the remote connection will
              not be created via rcmd(3) but by calling the program pointed to
              by  RSH.   Use  e.g.   RSH=/usr/bin/ssh to create a secure shell
              connection.

              Note that this forces wodim to create a pipe to the rsh(1)  pro-
              gram  and  disallows wodim to directly access the network socket
              to the remote server.  This makes it impossible to set  up  per-
              formance  parameters and slows down the connection compared to a
              root initiated rcmd(3) connection.

       RSCSI  If the RSCSI environment is present, the remote SCSI server will
              not  be  the  program  /opt/schily/sbin/rscsi  but  the  program
              pointed to by RSCSI.  Note that the remote SCSI  server  program
              name  will  be  ignored  if you log in using an account that has
              been created with a remote SCSI server program as login shell.

FILES
       /etc/wodim.conf
              Default  values  can  be  set  for  the  following  options   in
              /etc/wodim.conf.  For example: CDR_FIFOSIZE=8m or CDR_SPEED=2

              CDR_DEVICE
                     This may either hold a device identifier that is suitable
                     to the open call of the SCSI transport library or a label
                     in  the  file  /etc/wodim.conf  that allows to identify a
                     specific drive on the system.

              CDR_SPEED
                     Sets the default speed value for writing (see also speed=
                     option).

              CDR_FIFOSIZE
                     Sets the default size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

              CDR_MAXFIFOSIZE
                     Sets the maximum size of the FIFO (see also fs=# option).

              Any other keyword (label) is an identifier (symbolic name) for a
              specific drive
                     on  the  system.   Such an identifier may not contain the
                     characters ',', '/', '@' or ':'.

                     Each line that follows a label contains a whitespace sep-
                     arated  list  of items.  Currently, four items are recog-
                     nized: the  drive's  target  specification,  the  default
                     speed  that  should  be  used for this drive, the default
                     FIFO size that should be used for this  drive  and  drive
                     specific  options.  The values for speed and fifosize may
                     be set to -1 to tell wodim to use  the  global  defaults.
                     target  can  be  -1 to use the auto-guessing of the drive
                     (see above).

                     The value for driveropts may be omitted or set to  ""  if
                     no  driveropts  are  used.   A typical line may look this
                     way:

                     plex760= 0,5,0 12   50m  varirec=1

                     pioneer= /dev/hdd   -1   -1

                     This tells wodim that a drive named plex760 is at scsibus
                     0, target 5, lun 0 and should be used with speed 12 and a
                     FIFO size of 50 MB. It also  uses  some  device  specific
                     parameter.   A  second  drive  may  is accessible via the
                     device file /dev/hdd and uses the default speed  and  the
                     default FIFO size.

SEE ALSO
       icedax(1), readom(1), genisoimage(1), ssh(1).

NOTES
       On  Solaris  you  need to stop the volume management if you like to use
       the USCSI fallback SCSI transport code. Even things like wodim -scanbus
       will not work if the volume management is running.

       Disks  made  in  Track  At  Once  mode are not suitable as a master for
       direct mass production by CD manufacturers.  You will need the disk  at
       once option to record such disks.  Nevertheless the disks made in Track
       At Once will normally be read in all CD  players.  Some  old  audio  CD
       players  however  may  produce  a  two  second  click between two audio
       tracks.

       The minimal size of a track is 4 seconds or 300 sectors. If  you  write
       smaller  tracks,  the CD-Recorder will add dummy blocks. This is not an
       error, even though the SCSI-error message looks this way.

       The Yamaha CDR-400 and all new SCSI-3/mmc conforming  drives  are  sup-
       ported in single and multi-session.

       You should run several tests in all supported speeds of your drive with
       the -dummy option turned on if you are using wodim on an  unknown  sys-
       tem.  Writing a CD is a real-time process.  NFS, CIFS and other network
       file systems won't always deliver constantly the needed data rates.  If
       you  want to use wodim with CD-images that are located on a NFS mounted
       filesystem, be sure that the FIFO size is big enough.  If you  want  to
       make sure that buffer underruns are not caused by your source disk, you
       may use the command

           wodim -dummy dev=2,0 padsize=600m /dev/null

       to create a disk that is entirely made of dummy data.

       There are also cases where you either need to be root or install  wodim
       executable with suid-root permissions. First, if you are using a device
       manufactured before 1999 which requires a non-MMC  driver,  you  should
       run  wodim  in  dummy  mode  before writing data. If you find a problem
       doing this, please report it to the cdrkit maintainers (see below).

       Second, certain functionality may be unusable because of  Linux's  SCSI
       command  filtering.  When  using wodim for anything except of pure data
       writing, you should also test the process  in  dummy  mode  and  report
       trouble to the contact address below.

       If  you  still want to run wodim with root permissions, you can set the
       permissions of the executable to suid-root. See the additional notes of
       your  system/program  distribution  or README.suidroot which is part of
       the cdrkit source.

       You should not connect old drives that do not support disconnect/recon-
       nect to either the SCSI bus that is connected to the CD-Recorder or the
       source disk.

       A Compact Disc can have no more than 99 tracks.

       When creating a disc with both audio and data tracks, the  data  should
       be  on  track  1  otherwise  you should create a CDplus disk which is a
       multi session disk with the first session containing the  audio  tracks
       and the following session containing the data track.

       Many  operating  systems  are  not able to read more than a single data
       track, or need special software to do so.

       If you have more information or  SCSI  command  manuals  for  currently
       unsupported CD/DVD/BR/HD-DVD-Recorders, please contact the cdrkit main-
       tainers (see below).

       Many CD recorders have bugs and often require a firmware update to work
       correctly.  If  you  experience  problems  which  cannot  be  solved or
       explained by the notes above, please look for instructions on the home-
       page of the particular manufacturer.

       Some  bugs  will  force  you to power cycle the device or to reboot the
       machine.

       The FIFO percent output is computed just after a block of data has been
       written  to  the  CD/DVD-Recorder. For this reason, there will never be
       100% FIFO fill ratio while the FIFO is in streaming mode.

DIAGNOSTICS
       You have 4 seconds to abort wodim start after you see the message:

       Starting to write CD at speed %d in %s mode for %s  session.   In  most
       shells you can do that by pressing Ctrl-C.

       A typical error message for a SCSI command looks like:

              wodim: I/O error. test unit ready: scsi sendcmd: no error
              CDB:  00 20 00 00 00 00
              status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
              Sense Bytes: 70 00 05 00 00 00 00 0A 00 00 00 00 25 00 00 00 00 00
              Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
              Sense Code: 0x25 Qual 0x00 (logical unit not supported) Fru 0x0
              Sense flags: Blk 0 (not valid)
              cmd finished after 0.002s timeout 40s

       The  first  line  gives information about the transport of the command.
       The text after the first colon gives the error text for the system call
       from  the  view  of  the  kernel. It usually is: I/O error unless other
       problems happen. The next words contain a  short  description  for  the
       SCSI  command  that fails. The rest of the line tells you if there were
       any problems for the transport of the command over the SCSI bus.  fatal
       error  means that it was not possible to transport the command (i.e. no
       device present at the requested SCSI address).

       The second line prints the SCSI command descriptor block for the failed
       command.

       The  third  line  gives information on the SCSI status code returned by
       the command, if the transport of the command succeeds.  This  is  error
       information from the SCSI device.

       The fourth line is a hex dump of the auto request sense information for
       the command.

       The fifth line is the error text for the sense key if  available,  fol-
       lowed  by  the  segment  number that is only valid if the command was a
       copy command. If the error message is not directly related to the  cur-
       rent command, the text deferred error is appended.

       The sixth line is the error text for the sense code and the sense qual-
       ifier if available.  If the type of the device is known, the sense data
       is  decoded  from  tables  in scsierrs.c .  The text is followed by the
       error value for a field replaceable unit.

       The seventh line prints the block number that is related to the  failed
       command  and  text for several error flags. The block number may not be
       valid.

       The eight line reports the timeout set up for this command and the time
       that the command really needed to complete.

       The following message is not an error:

              Track 01: Total bytes read/written: 2048/2048 (1 sectors).
              wodim: I/O error. flush cache: scsi sendcmd: no error
              CDB:  35 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
              status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
              Sense Bytes: F0 00 05 80 00 00 27 0A 00 00 00 00 B5 00 00 00 00 00
              Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
              Sense Code: 0xB5 Qual 0x00 (dummy data blocks added) Fru 0x0
              Sense flags: Blk -2147483609 (valid)
              cmd finished after 0.002s timeout 40s

       It  simply notifies, that a track that is smaller than the minimum size
       has been expanded to 300 sectors.

BUGS
       netscsid does not work properly and is generally  unmaintained.  It  is
       probably  not compatible with rscsi from cdrtools either. Good bugfixes
       are welcome, talk to Cdrkit maintainers.

       cuefile support is very limited, only one file is allowed.  For  volun-
       teers, see TODO file in the source.

       Specifying an audio file multiple times causes corruption of the second
       track (effectively no data plus minimum padding).

       Some of the bugs may be fixed in Joerg Schilling's cdrtools. See  there
       for details, URL attached below.

CREDITS
       Joerg Schilling (schilling@fokus.fhg.de)
                      For writing cdrecord and libscg which represent the most
                      parts of wodim's code.

       Bill Swartz    (Bill_Swartz@twolf.com)
                      For helping me with the TEAC driver support

       Aaron Newsome  (aaron.d.newsome@wdc.com)
                      For letting me develop Sony support on his drive

       Eric Youngdale (eric@andante.jic.com)
                      For supplying mkisofs

       Gadi Oxman     (gadio@netvision.net.il)
                      For tips on the ATAPI standard

       Finn Arne Gangstad  (finnag@guardian.no)
                      For the first FIFO implementation.

       Dave Platt     (dplatt@feghoot.ml.org)
                      For creating the experimental  packet  writing  support,
                      the  first implementation of CD-RW blanking support, the
                      first .wav file decoder and  many  nice  discussions  on
                      cdrecord.

       Chris P. Ross (cross@eng.us.uu.net)
                      For the first implementation of a BSDI SCSI transport.

       Grant R. Guenther   (grant@torque.net)
                      For creating the first parallel port transport implemen-
                      tation for Linux.

       Kenneth D. Merry (ken@kdm.org)
                      for providing the CAM port  for  FreeBSD  together  with
                      Michael Smith (msmith@freebsd.org)

       Heiko Eiszfeldt (heiko@hexco.de)
                      for  making  libedc_ecc  available  (needed to write RAW
                      data sectors).

MAILING LISTS
       If you want to actively take part on the development of wodim, you  may
       join the developer mailing list via this URL:

       https://alioth.debian.org/mail/?group_id=31006

       The mail address of the list is: debburn-devel@lists.alioth.debian.org

AUTHORS
       wodim  is  currently  maintained  as  part of the cdrkit project by its
       developers. Most of the code and this manual page was originally  writ-
       ten by:

       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin
       Germany

       This application is derived from "cdrecord" as included in the cdrtools
       package [1] created by Joerg Schilling, who deserves most of the credit
       for  its  success.  However, he is not involved into the development of
       this spinoff and therefore he shall not be  held  responsible  for  any
       problems  caused by it. Do not refer to this application as "cdrecord",
       do not try to get support for wodim by contacting the original authors.

       Additional information can be found on:
       https://alioth.debian.org/projects/debburn/

       If you have support questions, send them to

       debburn-devel@lists.alioth.debian.org

       If you have definitely found a bug, send a mail to this list or to

       submit@bugs.debian.org

       writing  at  least  a  short description into the Subject and "Package:
       cdrkit" in the first line of the mail body.

SOURCES
       [1] Cdrtools 2.01.01a08 from May 2006, http://cdrecord.berlios.de

                                  Version 2.0                         wodim(1)
 

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