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LBER_ENCODE(3)                                                  LBER_ENCODE(3)

NAME
       ber_alloc_t,    ber_flush,    ber_flush2,    ber_printf,   ber_put_int,
       ber_put_enum,    ber_put_ostring,     ber_put_string,     ber_put_null,
       ber_put_boolean,   ber_put_bitstring,   ber_start_seq,   ber_start_set,
       ber_put_seq, ber_put_set -  OpenLDAP  LBER  simplified  Basic  Encoding
       Rules library routines for encoding

LIBRARY
       OpenLDAP LBER (liblber, -llber)

SYNOPSIS
       #include <lber.h>

       BerElement *ber_alloc_t(int options);

       int ber_flush(Sockbuf *sb, BerElement *ber, int freeit);

       int ber_flush2(Sockbuf *sb, BerElement *ber, int freeit);

       int ber_printf(BerElement *ber, const char *fmt, ...);

       int ber_put_int(BerElement *ber, ber_int_t num, ber_tag_t tag);

       int ber_put_enum(BerElement *ber, ber_int_t num, ber_tag_t tag);

       int  ber_put_ostring(BerElement  *ber,  const char *str, ber_len_t len,
       ber_tag_t tag);

       int ber_put_string(BerElement *ber, const char *str, ber_tag_t tag);

       int ber_put_null(BerElement *ber, ber_tag_t tag);

       int ber_put_boolean(BerElement *ber, ber_int_t bool, ber_tag_t tag);

       int ber_put_bitstring(BerElement *ber, const char *str, ber_len_t blen,
       ber_tag_t tag);

       int ber_start_seq(BerElement *ber, ber_tag_t tag);

       int ber_start_set(BerElement *ber, ber_tag_t tag);

       int ber_put_seq(BerElement *ber);

       int ber_put_set(BerElement *ber);

DESCRIPTION
       These routines provide a subroutine interface to a simplified implemen-
       tation of the Basic Encoding Rules of ASN.1.  The version of BER  these
       routines  support is the one defined for the LDAP protocol.  The encod-
       ing rules are the same as BER, except that only definite  form  lengths
       are used, and bitstrings and octet strings are always encoded in primi-
       tive form.  This man page describes the encoding routines in  the  lber
       library.   See lber-decode(3) for details on the corresponding decoding
       routines.  Consult lber-types(3) for information about  types,  alloca-
       tors, and deallocators.

       Normally,  the  only  routines that need to be called by an application
       are ber_alloc_t() to allocate a BER element for encoding,  ber_printf()
       to  do the actual encoding, and ber_flush2() to actually write the ele-
       ment.  The other routines are provided for those applications that need
       more  control  than  ber_printf() provides.  In general, these routines
       return the length of the element encoded, or -1 if an error occurred.

       The ber_alloc_t() routine is used to allocate a new  BER  element.   It
       should be called with an argument of LBER_USE_DER.

       The  ber_flush2()  routine  is  used to actually write the element to a
       socket (or file) descriptor, once it  has  been  fully  encoded  (using
       ber_printf() and friends).  See lber-sockbuf(3) for more details on the
       Sockbuf implementation of the sb parameter.  If the freeit parameter is
       non-zero,  the  supplied ber will be freed.  If LBER_FLUSH_FREE_ON_SUC-
       CESS is used, the ber is only freed when successfully  flushed,  other-
       wise it is left intact; if LBER_FLUSH_FREE_ON_ERROR is used, the ber is
       only freed when an error  occurs,  otherwise  it  is  left  intact;  if
       LBER_FLUSH_FREE_ALWAYS is used, the ber is freed anyway.  This function
       differs from the original ber_flush(3) function, whose behavior  corre-
       sponds  to that indicated for LBER_FLUSH_FREE_ON_SUCCESS.  Note that in
       the future, the behavior of ber_flush(3)  with  freeit  non-zero  might
       change    into    that    of   ber_flush2(3)   with   freeit   set   to
       LBER_FLUSH_FREE_ALWAYS.

       The ber_printf() routine is used to encode a BER element  in  much  the
       same  way  that sprintf(3) works.  One important difference, though, is
       that some state information is kept with the ber parameter so that mul-
       tiple  calls can be made to ber_printf() to append things to the end of
       the BER element.  Ber_printf() writes to ber, a pointer to a BerElement
       such as returned by ber_alloc_t().  It interprets and formats its argu-
       ments according to the format string fmt.  The format string  can  con-
       tain the following characters:

              b  Boolean.   An  ber_int_t  parameter  should  be  supplied.  A
                 boolean element is output.

              e  Enumeration.  An ber_int_t parameter should be supplied.   An
                 enumeration element is output.

              i  Integer.   An  ber_int_t  parameter  should  be supplied.  An
                 integer element is output.

              B  Bitstring.  A char * pointer to the start of the bitstring is
                 supplied, followed by the number of bits in the bitstring.  A
                 bitstring element is output.

              n  Null.  No parameter is required.  A null element is output.

              o  Octet string.  A char * is supplied, followed by  the  length
                 of the string pointed to.  An octet string element is output.

              O  Octet string.  A struct  berval  *  is  supplied.   An  octet
                 string element is output.

              s  Octet  string.   A  null-terminated  string  is supplied.  An
                 octet string element is output, not  including  the  trailing
                 NULL octet.

              t  Tag.  A ber_tag_t specifying the tag to give the next element
                 is provided.  This works across calls.

              v  Several octet strings.  A null-terminated array of  char  *'s
                 is supplied.  Note that a construct like '{v}' is required to
                 get an actual SEQUENCE OF octet strings.

              V  Several octet strings.  A  null-terminated  array  of  struct
                 berval  *'s is supplied.  Note that a construct like '{V}' is
                 required to get an actual SEQUENCE OF octet strings.

              W  Several octet strings.  An array of struct berval's  is  sup-
                 plied.   The  array  is  terminated by a struct berval with a
                 NULL bv_val.  Note that a construct like '{W}' is required to
                 get an actual SEQUENCE OF octet strings.

              {  Begin sequence.  No parameter is required.

              }  End sequence.  No parameter is required.

              [  Begin set.  No parameter is required.

              ]  End set.  No parameter is required.

       The  ber_put_int()  routine  writes  the integer element num to the BER
       element ber.

       The ber_put_enum() routine writes the enumeration element  num  to  the
       BER element ber.

       The ber_put_boolean() routine writes the boolean value given by bool to
       the BER element.

       The ber_put_bitstring() routine writes blen bits starting at str  as  a
       bitstring value to the given BER element.  Note that blen is the length
       in bits of the bitstring.

       The ber_put_ostring() routine writes len bytes starting at str  to  the
       BER element as an octet string.

       The  ber_put_string()  routine writes the null-terminated string (minus
       the terminating ' ') to the BER element as an octet string.

       The ber_put_null() routine writes a NULL element to the BER element.

       The ber_start_seq() routine is used to start a sequence in the BER ele-
       ment.   The  ber_start_set()  routine  works similarly.  The end of the
       sequence or set is marked by the nearest matching call to ber_put_seq()
       or ber_put_set(), respectively.

EXAMPLES
       Assuming  the  following  variable declarations, and that the variables
       have been assigned appropriately, an lber  encoding  of  the  following
       ASN.1 object:

             AlmostASearchRequest := SEQUENCE {
                 baseObject      DistinguishedName,
                 scope           ENUMERATED {
                     baseObject    (0),
                     singleLevel   (1),
                     wholeSubtree  (2)
                 },
                 derefAliases    ENUMERATED {
                     neverDerefaliases   (0),
                     derefInSearching    (1),
                     derefFindingBaseObj (2),
                     alwaysDerefAliases  (3)
                 },
                 sizelimit       INTEGER (0 .. 65535),
                 timelimit       INTEGER (0 .. 65535),
                 attrsOnly       BOOLEAN,
                 attributes      SEQUENCE OF AttributeType
             }

       can be achieved like so:

             int rc;
             ber_int_t    scope, ali, size, time, attrsonly;
             char   *dn, **attrs;
             BerElement *ber;

             /* ... fill in values ... */

             ber = ber_alloc_t( LBER_USE_DER );

             if ( ber == NULL ) {
                     /* error */
             }

             rc = ber_printf( ber, "{siiiib{v}}", dn, scope, ali,
                 size, time, attrsonly, attrs );

             if( rc == -1 ) {
                     /* error */
             } else {
                     /* success */
             }

ERRORS
       If an error occurs during encoding, generally these routines return -1.

NOTES
       The return values for all  of  these  functions  are  declared  in  the
       <lber.h> header file.

SEE ALSO
       lber-decode(3), lber-memory(3), lber-sockbuf(3), lber-types(3)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
       OpenLDAP  Software  is developed and maintained by The OpenLDAP Project
       <http://www.openldap.org/>.  OpenLDAP Software is derived from  Univer-
       sity of Michigan LDAP 3.3 Release.

OpenLDAP 2.4.21                   2009/12/20                    LBER_ENCODE(3)
 

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