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Unicode::UCD(3pm)      Perl Programmers Reference Guide      Unicode::UCD(3pm)

NAME
       Unicode::UCD - Unicode character database

SYNOPSIS
           use Unicode::UCD 'charinfo';
           my $charinfo   = charinfo($codepoint);

           use Unicode::UCD 'casefold';
           my $casefold = casefold(0xFB00);

           use Unicode::UCD 'casespec';
           my $casespec = casespec(0xFB00);

           use Unicode::UCD 'charblock';
           my $charblock  = charblock($codepoint);

           use Unicode::UCD 'charscript';
           my $charscript = charscript($codepoint);

           use Unicode::UCD 'charblocks';
           my $charblocks = charblocks();

           use Unicode::UCD 'charscripts';
           my $charscripts = charscripts();

           use Unicode::UCD qw(charscript charinrange);
           my $range = charscript($script);
           print "looks like $script\n" if charinrange($range, $codepoint);

           use Unicode::UCD qw(general_categories bidi_types);
           my $categories = general_categories();
           my $types = bidi_types();

           use Unicode::UCD 'compexcl';
           my $compexcl = compexcl($codepoint);

           use Unicode::UCD 'namedseq';
           my $namedseq = namedseq($named_sequence_name);

           my $unicode_version = Unicode::UCD::UnicodeVersion();

DESCRIPTION
       The Unicode::UCD module offers a series of functions that provide a
       simple interface to the Unicode Character Database.

   code point argument
       Some of the functions are called with a code point argument, which is
       either a decimal or a hexadecimal scalar designating a Unicode code
       point, or "U+" followed by hexadecimals designating a Unicode code
       point.  In other words, if you want a code point to be interpreted as a
       hexadecimal number, you must prefix it with either "0x" or "U+",
       because a string like e.g. 123 will be interpreted as a decimal code
       point.  Also note that Unicode is not limited to 16 bits (the number of
       Unicode code points is open-ended, in theory unlimited): you may have
       more than 4 hexdigits.

   charinfo()
           use Unicode::UCD 'charinfo';

           my $charinfo = charinfo(0x41);

       This returns information about the input "code point argument" as a
       reference to a hash of fields as defined by the Unicode standard.  If
       the "code point argument" is not assigned in the standard (i.e., has
       the general category "Cn" meaning "Unassigned") or is a non-character
       (meaning it is guaranteed to never be assigned in the standard), undef
       is returned.

       Fields that aren't applicable to the particular code point argument
       exist in the returned hash, and are empty.

       The keys in the hash with the meanings of their values are:

       code
           the input "code point argument" expressed in hexadecimal, with
           leading zeros added if necessary to make it contain at least four
           hexdigits

       name
           name of code, all IN UPPER CASE.  Some control-type code points do
           not have names.  This field will be empty for "Surrogate" and
           "Private Use" code points, and for the others without a name, it
           will contain a description enclosed in angle brackets, like
           "<control>".

       category
           The short name of the general category of code.  This will match
           one of the keys in the hash returned by "general_categories()".

       combining
           the combining class number for code used in the Canonical Ordering
           Algorithm.  For Unicode 5.1, this is described in Section 3.11
           "Canonical Ordering Behavior" available at
           <http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode5.1.0/>

       bidi
           bidirectional type of code.  This will match one of the keys in the
           hash returned by "bidi_types()".

       decomposition
           is empty if code has no decomposition; or is one or more codes
           (separated by spaces) that taken in order represent a decomposition
           for code.  Each has at least four hexdigits.  The codes may be
           preceded by a word enclosed in angle brackets then a space, like
           "<compat> ", giving the type of decomposition

       decimal
           if code is a decimal digit this is its integer numeric value

       digit
           if code represents a whole number, this is its integer numeric
           value

       numeric
           if code represents a whole or rational number, this is its numeric
           value.  Rational values are expressed as a string like "1/4".

       mirrored
           "Y" or "N" designating if code is mirrored in bidirectional text

       unicode10
           name of code in the Unicode 1.0 standard if one existed for this
           code point and is different from the current name

       comment
           ISO 10646 comment field.  It appears in parentheses in the ISO
           10646 names list, or contains an asterisk to indicate there is a
           note for this code point in Annex P of that standard.

       upper
           is empty if there is no single code point uppercase mapping for
           code; otherwise it is that mapping expressed as at least four
           hexdigits.  ("casespec()" should be used in addition to charinfo()
           for case mappings when the calling program can cope with multiple
           code point mappings.)

       lower
           is empty if there is no single code point lowercase mapping for
           code; otherwise it is that mapping expressed as at least four
           hexdigits.  ("casespec()" should be used in addition to charinfo()
           for case mappings when the calling program can cope with multiple
           code point mappings.)

       title
           is empty if there is no single code point titlecase mapping for
           code; otherwise it is that mapping expressed as at least four
           hexdigits.  ("casespec()" should be used in addition to charinfo()
           for case mappings when the calling program can cope with multiple
           code point mappings.)

       block
           block code belongs to (used in \p{In...}).  See "Blocks versus
           Scripts".

       script
           script code belongs to.  See "Blocks versus Scripts".

       Note that you cannot do (de)composition and casing based solely on the
       decomposition, combining, lower, upper, and title fields; you will need
       also the "compexcl()", and "casespec()" functions.

   charblock()
           use Unicode::UCD 'charblock';

           my $charblock = charblock(0x41);
           my $charblock = charblock(1234);
           my $charblock = charblock(0x263a);
           my $charblock = charblock("U+263a");

           my $range     = charblock('Armenian');

       With a "code point argument" charblock() returns the block the code
       point belongs to, e.g.  "Basic Latin".  If the code point is
       unassigned, this returns the block it would belong to if it were
       assigned (which it may in future versions of the Unicode Standard).

       See also "Blocks versus Scripts".

       If supplied with an argument that can't be a code point, charblock()
       tries to do the opposite and interpret the argument as a code point
       block. The return value is a range: an anonymous list of lists that
       contain start-of-range, end-of-range code point pairs. You can test
       whether a code point is in a range using the "charinrange()" function.
       If the argument is not a known code point block, undef is returned.

   charscript()
           use Unicode::UCD 'charscript';

           my $charscript = charscript(0x41);
           my $charscript = charscript(1234);
           my $charscript = charscript("U+263a");

           my $range      = charscript('Thai');

       With a "code point argument" charscript() returns the script the code
       point belongs to, e.g.  "Latin", "Greek", "Han".  If the code point is
       unassigned, it returns undef

       If supplied with an argument that can't be a code point, charscript()
       tries to do the opposite and interpret the argument as a code point
       script. The return value is a range: an anonymous list of lists that
       contain start-of-range, end-of-range code point pairs. You can test
       whether a code point is in a range using the "charinrange()" function.
       If the argument is not a known code point script, undef is returned.

       See also "Blocks versus Scripts".

   charblocks()
           use Unicode::UCD 'charblocks';

           my $charblocks = charblocks();

       charblocks() returns a reference to a hash with the known block names
       as the keys, and the code point ranges (see "charblock()") as the
       values.

       See also "Blocks versus Scripts".

   charscripts()
           use Unicode::UCD 'charscripts';

           my $charscripts = charscripts();

       charscripts() returns a reference to a hash with the known script names
       as the keys, and the code point ranges (see "charscript()") as the
       values.

       See also "Blocks versus Scripts".

   charinrange()
       In addition to using the "\p{In...}" and "\P{In...}" constructs, you
       can also test whether a code point is in the range as returned by
       "charblock()" and "charscript()" or as the values of the hash returned
       by "charblocks()" and "charscripts()" by using charinrange():

           use Unicode::UCD qw(charscript charinrange);

           $range = charscript('Hiragana');
           print "looks like hiragana\n" if charinrange($range, $codepoint);

   general_categories()
           use Unicode::UCD 'general_categories';

           my $categories = general_categories();

       This returns a reference to a hash which has short general category
       names (such as "Lu", "Nd", "Zs", "S") as keys and long names (such as
       "UppercaseLetter", "DecimalNumber", "SpaceSeparator", "Symbol") as
       values.  The hash is reversible in case you need to go from the long
       names to the short names.  The general category is the one returned
       from "charinfo()" under the "category" key.

   bidi_types()
           use Unicode::UCD 'bidi_types';

           my $categories = bidi_types();

       This returns a reference to a hash which has the short bidi
       (bidirectional) type names (such as "L", "R") as keys and long names
       (such as "Left-to-Right", "Right-to-Left") as values.  The hash is
       reversible in case you need to go from the long names to the short
       names.  The bidi type is the one returned from "charinfo()" under the
       "bidi" key.  For the exact meaning of the various bidi classes the
       Unicode TR9 is recommended reading:
       <http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr9/> (as of Unicode 5.0.0)

   compexcl()
           use Unicode::UCD 'compexcl';

           my $compexcl = compexcl(0x09dc);

       This returns true if the "code point argument" should not be produced
       by composition normalization, AND if that fact is not otherwise
       determinable from the Unicode data base.  It currently does not return
       true if the code point has a decomposition consisting of another single
       code point, nor if its decomposition starts with a code point whose
       combining class is non-zero.  Code points that meet either of these
       conditions should also not be produced by composition normalization.

       It returns false otherwise.

   casefold()
           use Unicode::UCD 'casefold';

           my $casefold = casefold(0xDF);
           if (defined $casefold) {
               my @full_fold_hex = split / /, $casefold->{'full'};
               my $full_fold_string =
                           join "", map {chr(hex($_))} @full_fold_hex;
               my @turkic_fold_hex =
                               split / /, ($casefold->{'turkic'} ne "")
                                               ? $casefold->{'turkic'}
                                               : $casefold->{'full'};
               my $turkic_fold_string =
                               join "", map {chr(hex($_))} @turkic_fold_hex;
           }
           if (defined $casefold && $casefold->{'simple'} ne "") {
               my $simple_fold_hex = $casefold->{'simple'};
               my $simple_fold_string = chr(hex($simple_fold_hex));
           }

       This returns the (almost) locale-independent case folding of the
       character specified by the "code point argument".

       If there is no case folding for that code point, undef is returned.

       If there is a case folding for that code point, a reference to a hash
       with the following fields is returned:

       code
           the input "code point argument" expressed in hexadecimal, with
           leading zeros added if necessary to make it contain at least four
           hexdigits

       full
           one or more codes (separated by spaces) that taken in order give
           the code points for the case folding for code.  Each has at least
           four hexdigits.

       simple
           is empty, or is exactly one code with at least four hexdigits which
           can be used as an alternative case folding when the calling program
           cannot cope with the fold being a sequence of multiple code points.
           If full is just one code point, then simple equals full.  If there
           is no single code point folding defined for code, then simple is
           the empty string.  Otherwise, it is an inferior, but still better-
           than-nothing alternative folding to full.

       mapping
           is the same as simple if simple is not empty, and it is the same as
           full otherwise.  It can be considered to be the simplest possible
           folding for code.  It is defined primarily for backwards
           compatibility.

       status
           is "C" (for "common") if the best possible fold is a single code
           point (simple equals full equals mapping).  It is "S" if there are
           distinct folds, simple and full (mapping equals simple).  And it is
           "F" if there only a full fold (mapping equals full; simple is
           empty).  Note that this describes the contents of mapping.  It is
           defined primarily for backwards compatibility.

           On versions 3.1 and earlier of Unicode, status can also be "I"
           which is the same as "C" but is a special case for dotted uppercase
           I and dotless lowercase i:

           *   If you use this "I" mapping, the result is case-insensitive,
               but dotless and dotted I's are not distinguished

           *   If you exclude this "I" mapping, the result is not fully case-
               insensitive, but dotless and dotted I's are distinguished

       turkic
           contains any special folding for Turkic languages.  For versions of
           Unicode starting with 3.2, this field is empty unless code has a
           different folding in Turkic languages, in which case it is one or
           more codes (separated by spaces) that taken in order give the code
           points for the case folding for code in those languages.  Each code
           has at least four hexdigits.  Note that this folding does not
           maintain canonical equivalence without additional processing.

           For versions of Unicode 3.1 and earlier, this field is empty unless
           there is a special folding for Turkic languages, in which case
           status is "I", and mapping, full, simple, and turkic are all equal.

       Programs that want complete generality and the best folding results
       should use the folding contained in the full field.  But note that the
       fold for some code points will be a sequence of multiple code points.

       Programs that can't cope with the fold mapping being multiple code
       points can use the folding contained in the simple field, with the loss
       of some generality.  In Unicode 5.1, about 7% of the defined foldings
       have no single code point folding.

       The mapping and status fields are provided for backwards compatibility
       for existing programs.  They contain the same values as in previous
       versions of this function.

       Locale is not completely independent.  The turkic field contains
       results to use when the locale is a Turkic language.

       For more information about case mappings see
       <http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr21>

   casespec()
           use Unicode::UCD 'casespec';

           my $casespec = casespec(0xFB00);

       This returns the potentially locale-dependent case mappings of the
       "code point argument".  The mappings may be longer than a single code
       point (which the basic Unicode case mappings as returned by
       "charinfo()" never are).

       If there are no case mappings for the "code point argument", or if all
       three possible mappings (lower, title and upper) result in single code
       points and are locale independent and unconditional, undef is returned
       (which means that the case mappings, if any, for the code point are
       those returned by "charinfo()").

       Otherwise, a reference to a hash giving the mappings (or a reference to
       a hash of such hashes, explained below) is returned with the following
       keys and their meanings:

       The keys in the bottom layer hash with the meanings of their values
       are:

       code
           the input "code point argument" expressed in hexadecimal, with
           leading zeros added if necessary to make it contain at least four
           hexdigits

       lower
           one or more codes (separated by spaces) that taken in order give
           the code points for the lower case of code.  Each has at least four
           hexdigits.

       title
           one or more codes (separated by spaces) that taken in order give
           the code points for the title case of code.  Each has at least four
           hexdigits.

       lower
           one or more codes (separated by spaces) that taken in order give
           the code points for the upper case of code.  Each has at least four
           hexdigits.

       condition
           the conditions for the mappings to be valid.  If undef, the
           mappings are always valid.  When defined, this field is a list of
           conditions, all of which must be true for the mappings to be valid.
           The list consists of one or more locales (see below) and/or
           contexts (explained in the next paragraph), separated by spaces.
           (Other than as used to separate elements, spaces are to be
           ignored.)  Case distinctions in the condition list are not
           significant.  Conditions preceded by "NON_" represent the negation
           of the condition.

           A context is one of those defined in the Unicode standard.  For
           Unicode 5.1, they are defined in Section 3.13 "Default Case
           Operations" available at
           <http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode5.1.0/>.  These are for
           context-sensitive casing.

       The hash described above is returned for locale-independent casing,
       where at least one of the mappings has length longer than one.  If
       undef is returned, the code point may have mappings, but if so, all are
       length one, and are returned by "charinfo()".  Note that when this
       function does return a value, it will be for the complete set of
       mappings for a code point, even those whose length is one.

       If there are additional casing rules that apply only in certain
       locales, an additional key for each will be defined in the returned
       hash.  Each such key will be its locale name, defined as a 2-letter ISO
       3166 country code, possibly followed by a "_" and a 2-letter ISO
       language code (possibly followed by a "_" and a variant code).  You can
       find the lists of all possible locales, see Locale::Country and
       Locale::Language.  (In Unicode 5.1, the only locales returned by this
       function are "lt", "tr", and "az".)

       Each locale key is a reference to a hash that has the form above, and
       gives the casing rules for that particular locale, which take
       precedence over the locale-independent ones when in that locale.

       If the only casing for a code point is locale-dependent, then the
       returned hash will not have any of the base keys, like "code", "upper",
       etc., but will contain only locale keys.

       For more information about case mappings see
       <http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr21/>

   namedseq()
           use Unicode::UCD 'namedseq';

           my $namedseq = namedseq("KATAKANA LETTER AINU P");
           my @namedseq = namedseq("KATAKANA LETTER AINU P");
           my %namedseq = namedseq();

       If used with a single argument in a scalar context, returns the string
       consisting of the code points of the named sequence, or undef if no
       named sequence by that name exists.  If used with a single argument in
       a list context, it returns the list of the ordinals of the code points.
       If used with no arguments in a list context, returns a hash with the
       names of the named sequences as the keys and the named sequences as
       strings as the values.  Otherwise, it returns undef or an empty list
       depending on the context.

       This function only operates on officially approved (not provisional)
       named sequences.

   Unicode::UCD::UnicodeVersion
       This returns the version of the Unicode Character Database, in other
       words, the version of the Unicode standard the database implements.
       The version is a string of numbers delimited by dots ('.').

   Blocks versus Scripts
       The difference between a block and a script is that scripts are closer
       to the linguistic notion of a set of code points required to present
       languages, while block is more of an artifact of the Unicode code point
       numbering and separation into blocks of (mostly) 256 code points.

       For example the Latin script is spread over several blocks, such as
       "Basic Latin", "Latin 1 Supplement", "Latin Extended-A", and "Latin
       Extended-B".  On the other hand, the Latin script does not contain all
       the characters of the "Basic Latin" block (also known as ASCII): it
       includes only the letters, and not, for example, the digits or the
       punctuation.

       For blocks see <http://www.unicode.org/Public/UNIDATA/Blocks.txt>

       For scripts see UTR #24: <http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr24/>

   Matching Scripts and Blocks
       Scripts are matched with the regular-expression construct "\p{...}"
       (e.g. "\p{Tibetan}" matches characters of the Tibetan script), while
       "\p{In...}" is used for blocks (e.g. "\p{InTibetan}" matches any of the
       256 code points in the Tibetan block).

   Implementation Note
       The first use of charinfo() opens a read-only filehandle to the Unicode
       Character Database (the database is included in the Perl distribution).
       The filehandle is then kept open for further queries.  In other words,
       if you are wondering where one of your filehandles went, that's where.

BUGS
       Does not yet support EBCDIC platforms.

       "compexcl()" should give a complete list of excluded code points.

AUTHOR
       Jarkko Hietaniemi

perl v5.12.1                      2010-05-13                 Unicode::UCD(3pm)
 

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