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Unicode::Normalize(3pm)Perl Programmers Reference GuideUnicode::Normalize(3pm)

NAME
       Unicode::Normalize - Unicode Normalization Forms

SYNOPSIS
       (1) using function names exported by default:

         use Unicode::Normalize;

         $NFD_string  = NFD($string);  # Normalization Form D
         $NFC_string  = NFC($string);  # Normalization Form C
         $NFKD_string = NFKD($string); # Normalization Form KD
         $NFKC_string = NFKC($string); # Normalization Form KC

       (2) using function names exported on request:

         use Unicode::Normalize 'normalize';

         $NFD_string  = normalize('D',  $string);  # Normalization Form D
         $NFC_string  = normalize('C',  $string);  # Normalization Form C
         $NFKD_string = normalize('KD', $string);  # Normalization Form KD
         $NFKC_string = normalize('KC', $string);  # Normalization Form KC

DESCRIPTION
       Parameters:

       $string is used as a string under character semantics (see
       perlunicode).

       $code_point should be an unsigned integer representing a Unicode code
       point.

       Note: Between XSUB and pure Perl, there is an incompatibility about the
       interpretation of $code_point as a decimal number.  XSUB converts
       $code_point to an unsigned integer, but pure Perl does not.  Do not use
       a floating point nor a negative sign in $code_point.

   Normalization Forms
       "$NFD_string = NFD($string)"
           It returns the Normalization Form D (formed by canonical
           decomposition).

       "$NFC_string = NFC($string)"
           It returns the Normalization Form C (formed by canonical
           decomposition followed by canonical composition).

       "$NFKD_string = NFKD($string)"
           It returns the Normalization Form KD (formed by compatibility
           decomposition).

       "$NFKC_string = NFKC($string)"
           It returns the Normalization Form KC (formed by compatibility
           decomposition followed by canonical composition).

       "$FCD_string = FCD($string)"
           If the given string is in FCD ("Fast C or D" form; cf. UTN #5), it
           returns the string without modification; otherwise it returns an
           FCD string.

           Note: FCD is not always unique, then plural forms may be equivalent
           each other. "FCD()" will return one of these equivalent forms.

       "$FCC_string = FCC($string)"
           It returns the FCC form ("Fast C Contiguous"; cf. UTN #5).

           Note: FCC is unique, as well as four normalization forms (NF*).

       "$normalized_string = normalize($form_name, $string)"
           It returns the normalization form of $form_name.

           As $form_name, one of the following names must be given.

             'C'  or 'NFC'  for Normalization Form C  (UAX #15)
             'D'  or 'NFD'  for Normalization Form D  (UAX #15)
             'KC' or 'NFKC' for Normalization Form KC (UAX #15)
             'KD' or 'NFKD' for Normalization Form KD (UAX #15)

             'FCD'          for "Fast C or D" Form  (UTN #5)
             'FCC'          for "Fast C Contiguous" (UTN #5)

   Decomposition and Composition
       "$decomposed_string = decompose($string [, $useCompatMapping])"
           It returns the concatenation of the decomposition of each character
           in the string.

           If the second parameter (a boolean) is omitted or false, the
           decomposition is canonical decomposition; if the second parameter
           (a boolean) is true, the decomposition is compatibility
           decomposition.

           The string returned is not always in NFD/NFKD. Reordering may be
           required.

               $NFD_string  = reorder(decompose($string));       # eq. to NFD()
               $NFKD_string = reorder(decompose($string, TRUE)); # eq. to NFKD()

       "$reordered_string = reorder($string)"
           It returns the result of reordering the combining characters
           according to Canonical Ordering Behavior.

           For example, when you have a list of NFD/NFKD strings, you can get
           the concatenated NFD/NFKD string from them, by saying

               $concat_NFD  = reorder(join '', @NFD_strings);
               $concat_NFKD = reorder(join '', @NFKD_strings);

       "$composed_string = compose($string)"
           It returns the result of canonical composition without applying any
           decomposition.

           For example, when you have a NFD/NFKD string, you can get its
           NFC/NFKC string, by saying

               $NFC_string  = compose($NFD_string);
               $NFKC_string = compose($NFKD_string);

   Quick Check
       (see Annex 8, UAX #15; and DerivedNormalizationProps.txt)

       The following functions check whether the string is in that
       normalization form.

       The result returned will be one of the following:

           YES     The string is in that normalization form.
           NO      The string is not in that normalization form.
           MAYBE   Dubious. Maybe yes, maybe no.

       "$result = checkNFD($string)"
           It returns true (1) if "YES"; false ("empty string") if "NO".

       "$result = checkNFC($string)"
           It returns true (1) if "YES"; false ("empty string") if "NO";
           "undef" if "MAYBE".

       "$result = checkNFKD($string)"
           It returns true (1) if "YES"; false ("empty string") if "NO".

       "$result = checkNFKC($string)"
           It returns true (1) if "YES"; false ("empty string") if "NO";
           "undef" if "MAYBE".

       "$result = checkFCD($string)"
           It returns true (1) if "YES"; false ("empty string") if "NO".

       "$result = checkFCC($string)"
           It returns true (1) if "YES"; false ("empty string") if "NO";
           "undef" if "MAYBE".

           Note: If a string is not in FCD, it must not be in FCC.  So
           "checkFCC($not_FCD_string)" should return "NO".

       "$result = check($form_name, $string)"
           It returns true (1) if "YES"; false ("empty string") if "NO";
           "undef" if "MAYBE".

           As $form_name, one of the following names must be given.

             'C'  or 'NFC'  for Normalization Form C  (UAX #15)
             'D'  or 'NFD'  for Normalization Form D  (UAX #15)
             'KC' or 'NFKC' for Normalization Form KC (UAX #15)
             'KD' or 'NFKD' for Normalization Form KD (UAX #15)

             'FCD'          for "Fast C or D" Form  (UTN #5)
             'FCC'          for "Fast C Contiguous" (UTN #5)

       Note

       In the cases of NFD, NFKD, and FCD, the answer must be either "YES" or
       "NO". The answer "MAYBE" may be returned in the cases of NFC, NFKC, and
       FCC.

       A "MAYBE" string should contain at least one combining character or the
       like. For example, "COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT" has the
       MAYBE_NFC/MAYBE_NFKC property.

       Both "checkNFC("A\N{COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT}")" and
       "checkNFC("B\N{COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT}")" will return "MAYBE".
       "A\N{COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT}" is not in NFC (its NFC is "\N{LATIN
       CAPITAL LETTER A WITH ACUTE}"), while "B\N{COMBINING ACUTE ACCENT}" is
       in NFC.

       If you want to check exactly, compare the string with its NFC/NFKC/FCC.

           if ($string eq NFC($string)) {
               # $string is exactly normalized in NFC;
           } else {
               # $string is not normalized in NFC;
           }

           if ($string eq NFKC($string)) {
               # $string is exactly normalized in NFKC;
           } else {
               # $string is not normalized in NFKC;
           }

   Character Data
       These functions are interface of character data used internally.  If
       you want only to get Unicode normalization forms, you don't need call
       them yourself.

       "$canonical_decomposition = getCanon($code_point)"
           If the character is canonically decomposable (including Hangul
           Syllables), it returns the (full) canonical decomposition as a
           string.  Otherwise it returns "undef".

           Note: According to the Unicode standard, the canonical
           decomposition of the character that is not canonically decomposable
           is same as the character itself.

       "$compatibility_decomposition = getCompat($code_point)"
           If the character is compatibility decomposable (including Hangul
           Syllables), it returns the (full) compatibility decomposition as a
           string.  Otherwise it returns "undef".

           Note: According to the Unicode standard, the compatibility
           decomposition of the character that is not compatibility
           decomposable is same as the character itself.

       "$code_point_composite = getComposite($code_point_here,
       $code_point_next)"
           If two characters here and next (as code points) are composable
           (including Hangul Jamo/Syllables and Composition Exclusions), it
           returns the code point of the composite.

           If they are not composable, it returns "undef".

       "$combining_class = getCombinClass($code_point)"
           It returns the combining class (as an integer) of the character.

       "$may_be_composed_with_prev_char = isComp2nd($code_point)"
           It returns a boolean whether the character of the specified
           codepoint may be composed with the previous one in a certain
           composition (including Hangul Compositions, but excluding
           Composition Exclusions and Non-Starter Decompositions).

       "$is_exclusion = isExclusion($code_point)"
           It returns a boolean whether the code point is a composition
           exclusion.

       "$is_singleton = isSingleton($code_point)"
           It returns a boolean whether the code point is a singleton

       "$is_non_starter_decomposition = isNonStDecomp($code_point)"
           It returns a boolean whether the code point has Non-Starter
           Decomposition.

       "$is_Full_Composition_Exclusion = isComp_Ex($code_point)"
           It returns a boolean of the derived property Comp_Ex
           (Full_Composition_Exclusion). This property is generated from
           Composition Exclusions + Singletons + Non-Starter Decompositions.

       "$NFD_is_NO = isNFD_NO($code_point)"
           It returns a boolean of the derived property NFD_NO
           (NFD_Quick_Check=No).

       "$NFC_is_NO = isNFC_NO($code_point)"
           It returns a boolean of the derived property NFC_NO
           (NFC_Quick_Check=No).

       "$NFC_is_MAYBE = isNFC_MAYBE($code_point)"
           It returns a boolean of the derived property NFC_MAYBE
           (NFC_Quick_Check=Maybe).

       "$NFKD_is_NO = isNFKD_NO($code_point)"
           It returns a boolean of the derived property NFKD_NO
           (NFKD_Quick_Check=No).

       "$NFKC_is_NO = isNFKC_NO($code_point)"
           It returns a boolean of the derived property NFKC_NO
           (NFKC_Quick_Check=No).

       "$NFKC_is_MAYBE = isNFKC_MAYBE($code_point)"
           It returns a boolean of the derived property NFKC_MAYBE
           (NFKC_Quick_Check=Maybe).

EXPORT
       "NFC", "NFD", "NFKC", "NFKD": by default.

       "normalize" and other some functions: on request.

CAVEATS
       Perl's version vs. Unicode version
           Since this module refers to perl core's Unicode database in the
           directory /lib/unicore (or formerly /lib/unicode), the Unicode
           version of normalization implemented by this module depends on your
           perl's version.

               perl's version     implemented Unicode version
                  5.6.1              3.0.1
                  5.7.2              3.1.0
                  5.7.3              3.1.1 (normalization is same as 3.1.0)
                  5.8.0              3.2.0
                5.8.1-5.8.3          4.0.0
                5.8.4-5.8.6          4.0.1 (normalization is same as 4.0.0)
                5.8.7-5.8.8          4.1.0
                  5.10.0             5.0.0
                  5.8.9              5.1.0

       Correction of decomposition mapping
           In older Unicode versions, a small number of characters (all of
           which are CJK compatibility ideographs as far as they have been
           found) may have an erroneous decomposition mapping (see
           NormalizationCorrections.txt).  Anyhow, this module will neither
           refer to NormalizationCorrections.txt nor provide any specific
           version of normalization. Therefore this module running on an older
           perl with an older Unicode database may use the erroneous
           decomposition mapping blindly conforming to the Unicode database.

       Revised definition of canonical composition
           In Unicode 4.1.0, the definition D2 of canonical composition (which
           affects NFC and NFKC) has been changed (see Public Review Issue #29
           and recent UAX #15). This module has used the newer definition
           since the version 0.07 (Oct 31, 2001).  This module will not
           support the normalization according to the older definition, even
           if the Unicode version implemented by perl is lower than 4.1.0.

AUTHOR
       SADAHIRO Tomoyuki <SADAHIRO@cpan.org>

       Copyright(C) 2001-2007, SADAHIRO Tomoyuki. Japan. All rights reserved.

       This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself.

SEE ALSO
       http://www.unicode.org/reports/tr15/
           Unicode Normalization Forms - UAX #15

       http://www.unicode.org/Public/UNIDATA/CompositionExclusions.txt
           Composition Exclusion Table

       http://www.unicode.org/Public/UNIDATA/DerivedNormalizationProps.txt
           Derived Normalization Properties

       http://www.unicode.org/Public/UNIDATA/NormalizationCorrections.txt
           Normalization Corrections

       http://www.unicode.org/review/pr-29.html
           Public Review Issue #29: Normalization Issue

       http://www.unicode.org/notes/tn5/
           Canonical Equivalence in Applications - UTN #5

perl v5.12.1                      2010-04-26           Unicode::Normalize(3pm)
 

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