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Text::Soundex(3pm)     Perl Programmers Reference Guide     Text::Soundex(3pm)

       Text::Soundex - Implementation of the soundex algorithm.

         use Text::Soundex;

         # Original algorithm.
         $code = soundex($name);    # Get the soundex code for a name.
         @codes = soundex(@names);  # Get the list of codes for a list of names.

         # American Soundex variant (NARA) - Used for US census data.
         $code = soundex_nara($name);    # Get the soundex code for a name.
         @codes = soundex_nara(@names);  # Get the list of codes for a list of names.

         # Redefine the value that soundex() will return if the input string
         # contains no identifiable sounds within it.
         $Text::Soundex::nocode = 'Z000';

       Soundex is a phonetic algorithm for indexing names by sound, as
       pronounced in English. The goal is for names with the same
       pronunciation to be encoded to the same representation so that they can
       be matched despite minor differences in spelling. Soundex is the most
       widely known of all phonetic algorithms and is often used (incorrectly)
       as a synonym for "phonetic algorithm". Improvements to Soundex are the
       basis for many modern phonetic algorithms. (Wikipedia, 2007)

       This module implements the original soundex algorithm developed by
       Robert Russell and Margaret Odell, patented in 1918 and 1922, as well
       as a variation called "American Soundex" used for US census data, and
       current maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration

       The soundex algorithm may be recognized from Donald Knuth's The Art of
       Computer Programming. The algorithm described by Knuth is the NARA

       The value returned for strings which have no soundex encoding is
       defined using $Text::Soundex::nocode. The default value is "undef",
       however values such as 'Z000' are commonly used alternatives.

       For backward compatibility with older versions of this module the
       $Text::Soundex::nocode is exported into the caller's namespace as

       In scalar context, "soundex()" returns the soundex code of its first
       argument. In list context, a list is returned in which each element is
       the soundex code for the corresponding argument passed to "soundex()".
       For example, the following code assigns @codes the value "('M200',

          @codes = soundex qw(Mike Stok);

       To use "Text::Soundex" to generate codes that can be used to search one
       of the publically available US Censuses, a variant of the soundex
       algorithm must be used:

           use Text::Soundex;
           $code = soundex_nara($name);

       An example of where these algorithm differ follows:

           use Text::Soundex;
           print soundex("Ashcraft"), "\n";       # prints: A226
           print soundex_nara("Ashcraft"), "\n";  # prints: A261

       Donald Knuth's examples of names and the soundex codes they map to are
       listed below:

         Euler, Ellery -> E460
         Gauss, Ghosh -> G200
         Hilbert, Heilbronn -> H416
         Knuth, Kant -> K530
         Lloyd, Ladd -> L300
         Lukasiewicz, Lissajous -> L222


         $code = soundex 'Knuth';         # $code contains 'K530'
         @list = soundex qw(Lloyd Gauss); # @list contains 'L300', 'G200'

       As the soundex algorithm was originally used a long time ago in the US
       it considers only the English alphabet and pronunciation. In
       particular, non-ASCII characters will be ignored. The recommended
       method of dealing with characters that have accents, or other unicode
       characters, is to use the Text::Unidecode module available from CPAN.
       Either use the module explicitly:

           use Text::Soundex;
           use Text::Unidecode;

           print soundex(unidecode("Fran\xE7ais")), "\n"; # Prints "F652\n"

       Or use the convenient wrapper routine:

           use Text::Soundex 'soundex_unicode';

           print soundex_unicode("Fran\xE7ais"), "\n";    # Prints "F652\n"

       Since the soundex algorithm maps a large space (strings of arbitrary
       length) onto a small space (single letter plus 3 digits) no inference
       can be made about the similarity of two strings which end up with the
       same soundex code.  For example, both "Hilbert" and "Heilbronn" end up
       with a soundex code of "H416".

       This module is currently maintain by Mark Mielke ("mark@mielke.cc").

       Version 3 is a significant update to provide support for versions of
       Perl later than Perl 5.004. Specifically, the XS version of the
       soundex() subroutine understands strings that are encoded using UTF-8
       (unicode strings).

       Version 2 of this module was a re-write by Mark Mielke
       ("mark@mielke.cc") to improve the speed of the subroutines. The XS
       version of the soundex() subroutine was introduced in 2.00.

       Version 1 of this module was written by Mike Stok ("mike@stok.co.uk")
       and was included into the Perl core library set.

       Dave Carlsen ("dcarlsen@csranet.com") made the request for the NARA
       algorithm to be included. The NARA soundex page can be viewed at:

       Ian Phillips ("ian@pipex.net") and Rich Pinder ("rpinder@hsc.usc.edu")
       supplied ideas and spotted mistakes for v1.x.

perl v5.12.1                      2010-04-26                Text::Soundex(3pm)

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