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Test::More(3pm)        Perl Programmers Reference Guide        Test::More(3pm)

       Test::More - yet another framework for writing test scripts

         use Test::More tests => 23;
         # or
         use Test::More skip_all => $reason;
         # or
         use Test::More;   # see done_testing()

         BEGIN { use_ok( 'Some::Module' ); }
         require_ok( 'Some::Module' );

         # Various ways to say "ok"
         ok($got eq $expected, $test_name);

         is  ($got, $expected, $test_name);
         isnt($got, $expected, $test_name);

         # Rather than print STDERR "# here's what went wrong\n"
         diag("here's what went wrong");

         like  ($got, qr/expected/, $test_name);
         unlike($got, qr/expected/, $test_name);

         cmp_ok($got, '==', $expected, $test_name);

         is_deeply($got_complex_structure, $expected_complex_structure, $test_name);

         SKIP: {
             skip $why, $how_many unless $have_some_feature;

             ok( foo(),       $test_name );
             is( foo(42), 23, $test_name );

         TODO: {
             local $TODO = $why;

             ok( foo(),       $test_name );
             is( foo(42), 23, $test_name );

         can_ok($module, @methods);
         isa_ok($object, $class);



         # UNIMPLEMENTED!!!
         my @status = Test::More::status;

       STOP! If you're just getting started writing tests, have a look at
       Test::Simple first.  This is a drop in replacement for Test::Simple
       which you can switch to once you get the hang of basic testing.

       The purpose of this module is to provide a wide range of testing
       utilities.  Various ways to say "ok" with better diagnostics,
       facilities to skip tests, test future features and compare complicated
       data structures.  While you can do almost anything with a simple "ok()"
       function, it doesn't provide good diagnostic output.

   I love it when a plan comes together
       Before anything else, you need a testing plan.  This basically declares
       how many tests your script is going to run to protect against premature

       The preferred way to do this is to declare a plan when you "use

         use Test::More tests => 23;

       There are cases when you will not know beforehand how many tests your
       script is going to run.  In this case, you can declare your tests at
       the end.

         use Test::More;

         ... run your tests ...

         done_testing( $number_of_tests_run );

       Sometimes you really don't know how many tests were run, or it's too
       difficult to calculate.  In which case you can leave off

       In some cases, you'll want to completely skip an entire testing script.

         use Test::More skip_all => $skip_reason;

       Your script will declare a skip with the reason why you skipped and
       exit immediately with a zero (success).  See Test::Harness for details.

       If you want to control what functions Test::More will export, you have
       to use the 'import' option.  For example, to import everything but
       'fail', you'd do:

         use Test::More tests => 23, import => ['!fail'];

       Alternatively, you can use the plan() function.  Useful for when you
       have to calculate the number of tests.

         use Test::More;
         plan tests => keys %Stuff * 3;

       or for deciding between running the tests at all:

         use Test::More;
         if( $^O eq 'MacOS' ) {
             plan skip_all => 'Test irrelevant on MacOS';
         else {
             plan tests => 42;


           If you don't know how many tests you're going to run, you can issue
           the plan when you're done running tests.

           $number_of_tests is the same as plan(), it's the number of tests
           you expected to run.  You can omit this, in which case the number
           of tests you ran doesn't matter, just the fact that your tests ran
           to conclusion.

           This is safer than and replaces the "no_plan" plan.

   Test names
       By convention, each test is assigned a number in order.  This is
       largely done automatically for you.  However, it's often very useful to
       assign a name to each test.  Which would you rather see:

         ok 4
         not ok 5
         ok 6


         ok 4 - basic multi-variable
         not ok 5 - simple exponential
         ok 6 - force == mass * acceleration

       The later gives you some idea of what failed.  It also makes it easier
       to find the test in your script, simply search for "simple

       All test functions take a name argument.  It's optional, but highly
       suggested that you use it.

   I'm ok, you're not ok.
       The basic purpose of this module is to print out either "ok #" or "not
       ok #" depending on if a given test succeeded or failed.  Everything
       else is just gravy.

       All of the following print "ok" or "not ok" depending on if the test
       succeeded or failed.  They all also return true or false, respectively.

             ok($got eq $expected, $test_name);

           This simply evaluates any expression ("$got eq $expected" is just a
           simple example) and uses that to determine if the test succeeded or
           failed.  A true expression passes, a false one fails.  Very simple.

           For example:

               ok( $exp{9} == 81,                   'simple exponential' );
               ok( Film->can('db_Main'),            'set_db()' );
               ok( $p->tests == 4,                  'saw tests' );
               ok( !grep !defined $_, @items,       'items populated' );

           (Mnemonic:  "This is ok.")

           $test_name is a very short description of the test that will be
           printed out.  It makes it very easy to find a test in your script
           when it fails and gives others an idea of your intentions.
           $test_name is optional, but we very strongly encourage its use.

           Should an ok() fail, it will produce some diagnostics:

               not ok 18 - sufficient mucus
               #   Failed test 'sufficient mucus'
               #   in foo.t at line 42.

           This is the same as Test::Simple's ok() routine.

             is  ( $got, $expected, $test_name );
             isnt( $got, $expected, $test_name );

           Similar to ok(), is() and isnt() compare their two arguments with
           "eq" and "ne" respectively and use the result of that to determine
           if the test succeeded or failed.  So these:

               # Is the ultimate answer 42?
               is( ultimate_answer(), 42,          "Meaning of Life" );

               # $foo isn't empty
               isnt( $foo, '',     "Got some foo" );

           are similar to these:

               ok( ultimate_answer() eq 42,        "Meaning of Life" );
               ok( $foo ne '',     "Got some foo" );

           (Mnemonic:  "This is that."  "This isn't that.")

           So why use these?  They produce better diagnostics on failure.
           ok() cannot know what you are testing for (beyond the name), but
           is() and isnt() know what the test was and why it failed.  For
           example this test:

               my $foo = 'waffle';  my $bar = 'yarblokos';
               is( $foo, $bar,   'Is foo the same as bar?' );

           Will produce something like this:

               not ok 17 - Is foo the same as bar?
               #   Failed test 'Is foo the same as bar?'
               #   in foo.t at line 139.
               #          got: 'waffle'
               #     expected: 'yarblokos'

           So you can figure out what went wrong without rerunning the test.

           You are encouraged to use is() and isnt() over ok() where possible,
           however do not be tempted to use them to find out if something is
           true or false!

             # XXX BAD!
             is( exists $brooklyn{tree}, 1, 'A tree grows in Brooklyn' );

           This does not check if "exists $brooklyn{tree}" is true, it checks
           if it returns 1.  Very different.  Similar caveats exist for false
           and 0.  In these cases, use ok().

             ok( exists $brooklyn{tree},    'A tree grows in Brooklyn' );

           A simple call to isnt() usually does not provide a strong test but
           there are cases when you cannot say much more about a value than
           that it is different from some other value:

             new_ok $obj, "Foo";

             my $clone = $obj->clone;
             isa_ok $obj, "Foo", "Foo->clone";

             isnt $obj, $clone, "clone() produces a different object";

           For those grammatical pedants out there, there's an "isn't()"
           function which is an alias of isnt().

             like( $got, qr/expected/, $test_name );

           Similar to ok(), like() matches $got against the regex

           So this:

               like($got, qr/expected/, 'this is like that');

           is similar to:

               ok( $got =~ /expected/, 'this is like that');

           (Mnemonic "This is like that".)

           The second argument is a regular expression.  It may be given as a
           regex reference (i.e. "qr//") or (for better compatibility with
           older perls) as a string that looks like a regex (alternative
           delimiters are currently not supported):

               like( $got, '/expected/', 'this is like that' );

           Regex options may be placed on the end ('/expected/i').

           Its advantages over ok() are similar to that of is() and isnt().
           Better diagnostics on failure.

             unlike( $got, qr/expected/, $test_name );

           Works exactly as like(), only it checks if $got does not match the
           given pattern.

             cmp_ok( $got, $op, $expected, $test_name );

           Halfway between ok() and is() lies cmp_ok().  This allows you to
           compare two arguments using any binary perl operator.

               # ok( $got eq $expected );
               cmp_ok( $got, 'eq', $expected, 'this eq that' );

               # ok( $got == $expected );
               cmp_ok( $got, '==', $expected, 'this == that' );

               # ok( $got && $expected );
               cmp_ok( $got, '&&', $expected, 'this && that' );

           Its advantage over ok() is when the test fails you'll know what
           $got and $expected were:

               not ok 1
               #   Failed test in foo.t at line 12.
               #     '23'
               #         &&
               #     undef

           It's also useful in those cases where you are comparing numbers and
           is()'s use of "eq" will interfere:

               cmp_ok( $big_hairy_number, '==', $another_big_hairy_number );

           It's especially useful when comparing greater-than or smaller-than
           relation between values:

               cmp_ok( $some_value, '<=', $upper_limit );

             can_ok($module, @methods);
             can_ok($object, @methods);

           Checks to make sure the $module or $object can do these @methods
           (works with functions, too).

               can_ok('Foo', qw(this that whatever));

           is almost exactly like saying:

               ok( Foo->can('this') &&
                   Foo->can('that') &&

           only without all the typing and with a better interface.  Handy for
           quickly testing an interface.

           No matter how many @methods you check, a single can_ok() call
           counts as one test.  If you desire otherwise, use:

               foreach my $meth (@methods) {
                   can_ok('Foo', $meth);

             isa_ok($object,   $class, $object_name);
             isa_ok($subclass, $class, $object_name);
             isa_ok($ref,      $type,  $ref_name);

           Checks to see if the given "$object->isa($class)".  Also checks to
           make sure the object was defined in the first place.  Handy for
           this sort of thing:

               my $obj = Some::Module->new;
               isa_ok( $obj, 'Some::Module' );

           where you'd otherwise have to write

               my $obj = Some::Module->new;
               ok( defined $obj && $obj->isa('Some::Module') );

           to safeguard against your test script blowing up.

           You can also test a class, to make sure that it has the right

               isa_ok( 'Vole', 'Rodent' );

           It works on references, too:

               isa_ok( $array_ref, 'ARRAY' );

           The diagnostics of this test normally just refer to 'the object'.
           If you'd like them to be more specific, you can supply an
           $object_name (for example 'Test customer').

             my $obj = new_ok( $class );
             my $obj = new_ok( $class => \@args );
             my $obj = new_ok( $class => \@args, $object_name );

           A convenience function which combines creating an object and
           calling isa_ok() on that object.

           It is basically equivalent to:

               my $obj = $class->new(@args);
               isa_ok $obj, $class, $object_name;

           If @args is not given, an empty list will be used.

           This function only works on new() and it assumes new() will return
           just a single object which isa $class.

               subtest $name => \&code;

           subtest() runs the &code as its own little test with its own plan
           and its own result.  The main test counts this as a single test
           using the result of the whole subtest to determine if its ok or not

           For example...

             use Test::More tests => 3;

             pass("First test");

             subtest 'An example subtest' => sub {
                 plan tests => 2;

                 pass("This is a subtest");
                 pass("So is this");

             pass("Third test");

           This would produce.

             ok 1 - First test
                 ok 1 - This is a subtest
                 ok 2 - So is this
             ok 2 - An example subtest
             ok 3 - Third test

           A subtest may call "skip_all".  No tests will be run, but the
           subtest is considered a skip.

             subtest 'skippy' => sub {
                 plan skip_all => 'cuz I said so';
                 pass('this test will never be run');

           Returns true if the subtest passed, false otherwise.


           Sometimes you just want to say that the tests have passed.  Usually
           the case is you've got some complicated condition that is difficult
           to wedge into an ok().  In this case, you can simply use pass() (to
           declare the test ok) or fail (for not ok).  They are synonyms for
           ok(1) and ok(0).

           Use these very, very, very sparingly.

   Module tests
       You usually want to test if the module you're testing loads ok, rather
       than just vomiting if its load fails.  For such purposes we have
       "use_ok" and "require_ok".

              BEGIN { use_ok($module); }
              BEGIN { use_ok($module, @imports); }

           These simply use the given $module and test to make sure the load
           happened ok.  It's recommended that you run use_ok() inside a BEGIN
           block so its functions are exported at compile-time and prototypes
           are properly honored.

           If @imports are given, they are passed through to the use.  So

              BEGIN { use_ok('Some::Module', qw(foo bar)) }

           is like doing this:

              use Some::Module qw(foo bar);

           Version numbers can be checked like so:

              # Just like "use Some::Module 1.02"
              BEGIN { use_ok('Some::Module', 1.02) }

           Don't try to do this:

              BEGIN {

                  ...some code that depends on the use...
                  ...happening at compile time...

           because the notion of "compile-time" is relative.  Instead, you

             BEGIN { use_ok('Some::Module') }
             BEGIN { ...some code that depends on the use... }


           Like use_ok(), except it requires the $module or $file.

   Complex data structures
       Not everything is a simple eq check or regex.  There are times you need
       to see if two data structures are equivalent.  For these instances
       Test::More provides a handful of useful functions.

       NOTE I'm not quite sure what will happen with filehandles.

             is_deeply( $got, $expected, $test_name );

           Similar to is(), except that if $got and $expected are references,
           it does a deep comparison walking each data structure to see if
           they are equivalent.  If the two structures are different, it will
           display the place where they start differing.

           is_deeply() compares the dereferenced values of references, the
           references themselves (except for their type) are ignored.  This
           means aspects such as blessing and ties are not considered

           is_deeply() currently has very limited handling of function
           reference and globs.  It merely checks if they have the same
           referent.  This may improve in the future.

           Test::Differences and Test::Deep provide more in-depth
           functionality along these lines.

       If you pick the right test function, you'll usually get a good idea of
       what went wrong when it failed.  But sometimes it doesn't work out that
       way.  So here we have ways for you to write your own diagnostic
       messages which are safer than just "print STDERR".


           Prints a diagnostic message which is guaranteed not to interfere
           with test output.  Like "print" @diagnostic_message is simply
           concatenated together.

           Returns false, so as to preserve failure.

           Handy for this sort of thing:

               ok( grep(/foo/, @users), "There's a foo user" ) or
                   diag("Since there's no foo, check that /etc/bar is set up right");

           which would produce:

               not ok 42 - There's a foo user
               #   Failed test 'There's a foo user'
               #   in foo.t at line 52.
               # Since there's no foo, check that /etc/bar is set up right.

           You might remember "ok() or diag()" with the mnemonic "open() or

           NOTE The exact formatting of the diagnostic output is still
           changing, but it is guaranteed that whatever you throw at it it
           won't interfere with the test.


           Like diag(), except the message will not be seen when the test is
           run in a harness.  It will only be visible in the verbose TAP

           Handy for putting in notes which might be useful for debugging, but
           don't indicate a problem.

               note("Tempfile is $tempfile");

             my @dump = explain @diagnostic_message;

           Will dump the contents of any references in a human readable
           format.  Usually you want to pass this into "note" or "diag".

           Handy for things like...

               is_deeply($have, $want) || diag explain $have;


               note explain \%args;

   Conditional tests
       Sometimes running a test under certain conditions will cause the test
       script to die.  A certain function or method isn't implemented (such as
       fork() on MacOS), some resource isn't available (like a net connection)
       or a module isn't available.  In these cases it's necessary to skip
       tests, or declare that they are supposed to fail but will work in the
       future (a todo test).

       For more details on the mechanics of skip and todo tests see

       The way Test::More handles this is with a named block.  Basically, a
       block of tests which can be skipped over or made todo.  It's best if I
       just show you...

       SKIP: BLOCK
             SKIP: {
                 skip $why, $how_many if $condition;

                 ...normal testing code goes here...

           This declares a block of tests that might be skipped, $how_many
           tests there are, $why and under what $condition to skip them.  An
           example is the easiest way to illustrate:

               SKIP: {
                   eval { require HTML::Lint };

                   skip "HTML::Lint not installed", 2 if $@;

                   my $lint = new HTML::Lint;
                   isa_ok( $lint, "HTML::Lint" );

                   $lint->parse( $html );
                   is( $lint->errors, 0, "No errors found in HTML" );

           If the user does not have HTML::Lint installed, the whole block of
           code won't be run at all.  Test::More will output special ok's
           which Test::Harness interprets as skipped, but passing, tests.

           It's important that $how_many accurately reflects the number of
           tests in the SKIP block so the # of tests run will match up with
           your plan.  If your plan is "no_plan" $how_many is optional and
           will default to 1.

           It's perfectly safe to nest SKIP blocks.  Each SKIP block must have
           the label "SKIP", or Test::More can't work its magic.

           You don't skip tests which are failing because there's a bug in
           your program, or for which you don't yet have code written.  For
           that you use TODO.  Read on.

       TODO: BLOCK
               TODO: {
                   local $TODO = $why if $condition;

                   ...normal testing code goes here...

           Declares a block of tests you expect to fail and $why.  Perhaps
           it's because you haven't fixed a bug or haven't finished a new

               TODO: {
                   local $TODO = "URI::Geller not finished";

                   my $card = "Eight of clubs";
                   is( URI::Geller->your_card, $card, 'Is THIS your card?' );

                   my $spoon;
                   is( $spoon, 'bent',    "Spoon bending, that's original" );

           With a todo block, the tests inside are expected to fail.
           Test::More will run the tests normally, but print out special flags
           indicating they are "todo".  Test::Harness will interpret failures
           as being ok.  Should anything succeed, it will report it as an
           unexpected success.  You then know the thing you had todo is done
           and can remove the TODO flag.

           The nice part about todo tests, as opposed to simply commenting out
           a block of tests, is it's like having a programmatic todo list.
           You know how much work is left to be done, you're aware of what
           bugs there are, and you'll know immediately when they're fixed.

           Once a todo test starts succeeding, simply move it outside the
           block.  When the block is empty, delete it.

               TODO: {
                   todo_skip $why, $how_many if $condition;

                   ...normal testing code...

           With todo tests, it's best to have the tests actually run.  That
           way you'll know when they start passing.  Sometimes this isn't
           possible.  Often a failing test will cause the whole program to die
           or hang, even inside an "eval BLOCK" with and using "alarm".  In
           these extreme cases you have no choice but to skip over the broken
           tests entirely.

           The syntax and behavior is similar to a "SKIP: BLOCK" except the
           tests will be marked as failing but todo.  Test::Harness will
           interpret them as passing.

       When do I use SKIP vs. TODO?
           If it's something the user might not be able to do, use SKIP.  This
           includes optional modules that aren't installed, running under an
           OS that doesn't have some feature (like fork() or symlinks), or
           maybe you need an Internet connection and one isn't available.

           If it's something the programmer hasn't done yet, use TODO.  This
           is for any code you haven't written yet, or bugs you have yet to
           fix, but want to put tests in your testing script (always a good

   Test control

           Indicates to the harness that things are going so badly all testing
           should terminate.  This includes the running any additional test

           This is typically used when testing cannot continue such as a
           critical module failing to compile or a necessary external utility
           not being available such as a database connection failing.

           The test will exit with 255.

           For even better control look at Test::Most.

   Discouraged comparison functions
       The use of the following functions is discouraged as they are not
       actually testing functions and produce no diagnostics to help figure
       out what went wrong.  They were written before is_deeply() existed
       because I couldn't figure out how to display a useful diff of two
       arbitrary data structures.

       These functions are usually used inside an ok().

           ok( eq_array(\@got, \@expected) );

       "is_deeply()" can do that better and with diagnostics.

           is_deeply( \@got, \@expected );

       They may be deprecated in future versions.

             my $is_eq = eq_array(\@got, \@expected);

           Checks if two arrays are equivalent.  This is a deep check, so
           multi-level structures are handled correctly.

             my $is_eq = eq_hash(\%got, \%expected);

           Determines if the two hashes contain the same keys and values.
           This is a deep check.

             my $is_eq = eq_set(\@got, \@expected);

           Similar to eq_array(), except the order of the elements is not
           important.  This is a deep check, but the irrelevancy of order only
           applies to the top level.

               ok( eq_set(\@got, \@expected) );

           Is better written:

               is_deeply( [sort @got], [sort @expected] );

           NOTE By historical accident, this is not a true set comparison.
           While the order of elements does not matter, duplicate elements do.

           NOTE eq_set() does not know how to deal with references at the top
           level.  The following is an example of a comparison which might not

               eq_set([\1, \2], [\2, \1]);

           Test::Deep contains much better set comparison functions.

   Extending and Embedding Test::More
       Sometimes the Test::More interface isn't quite enough.  Fortunately,
       Test::More is built on top of Test::Builder which provides a single,
       unified backend for any test library to use.  This means two test
       libraries which both use Test::Builder can be used together in the same

       If you simply want to do a little tweaking of how the tests behave, you
       can access the underlying Test::Builder object like so:

               my $test_builder = Test::More->builder;

           Returns the Test::Builder object underlying Test::More for you to
           play with.

       If all your tests passed, Test::Builder will exit with zero (which is
       normal).  If anything failed it will exit with how many failed.  If you
       run less (or more) tests than you planned, the missing (or extras) will
       be considered failures.  If no tests were ever run Test::Builder will
       throw a warning and exit with 255.  If the test died, even after having
       successfully completed all its tests, it will still be considered a
       failure and will exit with 255.

       So the exit codes are...

           0                   all tests successful
           255                 test died or all passed but wrong # of tests run
           any other number    how many failed (including missing or extras)

       If you fail more than 254 tests, it will be reported as 254.

       NOTE  This behavior may go away in future versions.

       Backwards compatibility
           Test::More works with Perls as old as 5.6.0.

       utf8 / "Wide character in print"
           If you use utf8 or other non-ASCII characters with Test::More you
           might get a "Wide character in print" warning.  Using "binmode
           STDOUT, ":utf8"" will not fix it.  Test::Builder (which powers
           Test::More) duplicates STDOUT and STDERR.  So any changes to them,
           including changing their output disciplines, will not be seem by

           The work around is to change the filehandles used by Test::Builder

               my $builder = Test::More->builder;
               binmode $builder->output,         ":utf8";
               binmode $builder->failure_output, ":utf8";
               binmode $builder->todo_output,    ":utf8";

       Overloaded objects
           String overloaded objects are compared as strings (or in cmp_ok()'s
           case, strings or numbers as appropriate to the comparison op).
           This prevents Test::More from piercing an object's interface
           allowing better blackbox testing.  So if a function starts
           returning overloaded objects instead of bare strings your tests
           won't notice the difference.  This is good.

           However, it does mean that functions like is_deeply() cannot be
           used to test the internals of string overloaded objects.  In this
           case I would suggest Test::Deep which contains more flexible
           testing functions for complex data structures.

           Test::More will only be aware of threads if "use threads" has been
           done before Test::More is loaded.  This is ok:

               use threads;
               use Test::More;

           This may cause problems:

               use Test::More
               use threads;

           5.8.1 and above are supported.  Anything below that has too many

       This is a case of convergent evolution with Joshua Pritikin's Test
       module.  I was largely unaware of its existence when I'd first written
       my own ok() routines.  This module exists because I can't figure out
       how to easily wedge test names into Test's interface (along with a few
       other problems).

       The goal here is to have a testing utility that's simple to learn,
       quick to use and difficult to trip yourself up with while still
       providing more flexibility than the existing Test.pm.  As such, the
       names of the most common routines are kept tiny, special cases and
       magic side-effects are kept to a minimum.  WYSIWYG.

       Test::Simple if all this confuses you and you just want to write some
       tests.  You can upgrade to Test::More later (it's forward compatible).

       Test::Harness is the test runner and output interpreter for Perl.  It's
       the thing that powers "make test" and where the "prove" utility comes

       Test::Legacy tests written with Test.pm, the original testing module,
       do not play well with other testing libraries.  Test::Legacy emulates
       the Test.pm interface and does play well with others.

       Test::Differences for more ways to test complex data structures.  And
       it plays well with Test::More.

       Test::Class is like xUnit but more perlish.

       Test::Deep gives you more powerful complex data structure testing.

       Test::Inline shows the idea of embedded testing.

       Bundle::Test installs a whole bunch of useful test modules.

       Michael G Schwern <schwern@pobox.com> with much inspiration from Joshua
       Pritikin's Test module and lots of help from Barrie Slaymaker, Tony
       Bowden, blackstar.co.uk, chromatic, Fergal Daly and the perl-qa gang.

       See http://rt.cpan.org to report and view bugs.

       The source code repository for Test::More can be found at

       Copyright 2001-2008 by Michael G Schwern <schwern@pobox.com>.

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself.

       See http://www.perl.com/perl/misc/Artistic.html

perl v5.12.1                      2010-04-26                   Test::More(3pm)

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