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Term::ANSIColor(3pm)   Perl Programmers Reference Guide   Term::ANSIColor(3pm)

       Term::ANSIColor - Color screen output using ANSI escape sequences

           use Term::ANSIColor;
           print color 'bold blue';
           print "This text is bold blue.\n";
           print color 'reset';
           print "This text is normal.\n";
           print colored ("Yellow on magenta.", 'yellow on_magenta'), "\n";
           print "This text is normal.\n";
           print colored ['yellow on_magenta'], 'Yellow on magenta.';
           print "\n";

           use Term::ANSIColor qw(uncolor);
           print uncolor ('01;31'), "\n";

           use Term::ANSIColor qw(colorstrip);
           print colorstrip '\e[1mThis is bold\e[0m', "\n";

           use Term::ANSIColor qw(colorvalid);
           my $valid = colorvalid ('blue bold', 'on_magenta');
           print "Color string is ", $valid ? "valid\n" : "invalid\n";

           use Term::ANSIColor qw(:constants);
           print BOLD, BLUE, "This text is in bold blue.\n", RESET;

           use Term::ANSIColor qw(:constants);
               local $Term::ANSIColor::AUTORESET = 1;
               print BOLD BLUE "This text is in bold blue.\n";
               print "This text is normal.\n";

           use Term::ANSIColor qw(:pushpop);
           print PUSHCOLOR RED ON_GREEN "This text is red on green.\n";
           print PUSHCOLOR BLUE "This text is blue on green.\n";
           print RESET BLUE "This text is just blue.\n";
           print POPCOLOR "Back to red on green.\n";
           print LOCALCOLOR GREEN ON_BLUE "This text is green on blue.\n";
           print "This text is red on green.\n";
               local $Term::ANSIColor::AUTOLOCAL = 1;
               print ON_BLUE "This text is red on blue.\n";
               print "This text is red on green.\n";
           print POPCOLOR "Back to whatever we started as.\n";

       This module has two interfaces, one through color() and colored() and
       the other through constants.  It also offers the utility functions
       uncolor(), colorstrip(), and colorvalid(), which have to be explicitly
       imported to be used (see "SYNOPSIS").

   Function Interface
       color() takes any number of strings as arguments and considers them to
       be space-separated lists of attributes.  It then forms and returns the
       escape sequence to set those attributes.  It doesn't print it out, just
       returns it, so you'll have to print it yourself if you want to (this is
       so that you can save it as a string, pass it to something else, send it
       to a file handle, or do anything else with it that you might care to).
       color() throws an exception if given an invalid attribute, so you can
       also use it to check attribute names for validity (see "EXAMPLES").

       uncolor() performs the opposite translation, turning escape sequences
       into a list of strings.

       colorstrip() removes all color escape sequences from the provided
       strings, returning the modified strings separately in array context or
       joined together in scalar context.  Its arguments are not modified.

       colorvalid() takes attribute strings the same as color() and returns
       true if all attributes are known and false otherwise.

       The recognized non-color attributes are clear, reset, bold, dark,
       faint, underline, underscore, blink, reverse, and concealed.  Clear and
       reset (reset to default attributes), dark and faint (dim and
       saturated), and underline and underscore are equivalent, so use
       whichever is the most intuitive to you.  The recognized foreground
       color attributes are black, red, green, yellow, blue, magenta, cyan,
       and white.  The recognized background color attributes are on_black,
       on_red, on_green, on_yellow, on_blue, on_magenta, on_cyan, and
       on_white.  Case is not significant.

       Note that not all attributes are supported by all terminal types, and
       some terminals may not support any of these sequences.  Dark and faint,
       blink, and concealed in particular are frequently not implemented.

       Attributes, once set, last until they are unset (by sending the
       attribute "clear" or "reset").  Be careful to do this, or otherwise
       your attribute will last after your script is done running, and people
       get very annoyed at having their prompt and typing changed to weird

       As an aid to help with this, colored() takes a scalar as the first
       argument and any number of attribute strings as the second argument and
       returns the scalar wrapped in escape codes so that the attributes will
       be set as requested before the string and reset to normal after the
       string.  Alternately, you can pass a reference to an array as the first
       argument, and then the contents of that array will be taken as
       attributes and color codes and the remainder of the arguments as text
       to colorize.

       Normally, colored() just puts attribute codes at the beginning and end
       of the string, but if you set $Term::ANSIColor::EACHLINE to some
       string, that string will be considered the line delimiter and the
       attribute will be set at the beginning of each line of the passed
       string and reset at the end of each line.  This is often desirable if
       the output contains newlines and you're using background colors, since
       a background color that persists across a newline is often interpreted
       by the terminal as providing the default background color for the next
       line.  Programs like pagers can also be confused by attributes that
       span lines.  Normally you'll want to set $Term::ANSIColor::EACHLINE to
       "\n" to use this feature.

   Constant Interface
       Alternately, if you import ":constants", you can use the constants
       and ON_WHITE directly.  These are the same as color('attribute') and
       can be used if you prefer typing:

           print BOLD BLUE ON_WHITE "Text", RESET, "\n";


           print colored ("Text", 'bold blue on_white'), "\n";

       (Note that the newline is kept separate to avoid confusing the terminal
       as described above since a background color is being used.)

       When using the constants, if you don't want to have to remember to add
       the ", RESET" at the end of each print line, you can set
       $Term::ANSIColor::AUTORESET to a true value.  Then, the display mode
       will automatically be reset if there is no comma after the constant.
       In other words, with that variable set:

           print BOLD BLUE "Text\n";

       will reset the display mode afterward, whereas:

           print BOLD, BLUE, "Text\n";

       will not.  If you are using background colors, you will probably want
       to print the newline with a separate print statement to avoid confusing
       the terminal.

       The subroutine interface has the advantage over the constants interface
       in that only two subroutines are exported into your namespace, versus
       twenty-two in the constants interface.  On the flip side, the constants
       interface has the advantage of better compile time error checking,
       since misspelled names of colors or attributes in calls to color() and
       colored() won't be caught until runtime whereas misspelled names of
       constants will be caught at compile time.  So, pollute your namespace
       with almost two dozen subroutines that you may not even use that often,
       or risk a silly bug by mistyping an attribute.  Your choice, TMTOWTDI
       after all.

   The Color Stack
       As of Term::ANSIColor 2.0, you can import ":pushpop" and maintain a
       stack of colors using PUSHCOLOR, POPCOLOR, and LOCALCOLOR.  PUSHCOLOR
       takes the attribute string that starts its argument and pushes it onto
       a stack of attributes.  POPCOLOR removes the top of the stack and
       restores the previous attributes set by the argument of a prior
       PUSHCOLOR.  LOCALCOLOR surrounds its argument in a PUSHCOLOR and
       POPCOLOR so that the color resets afterward.

       When using PUSHCOLOR, POPCOLOR, and LOCALCOLOR, it's particularly
       important to not put commas between the constants.

           print PUSHCOLOR BLUE "Text\n";

       will correctly push BLUE onto the top of the stack.

           print PUSHCOLOR, BLUE, "Text\n";    # wrong!

       will not, and a subsequent pop won't restore the correct attributes.
       PUSHCOLOR pushes the attributes set by its argument, which is normally
       a string of color constants.  It can't ask the terminal what the
       current attributes are.

       Bad escape sequence %s
           (F) You passed an invalid ANSI escape sequence to uncolor().

       Bareword "%s" not allowed while "strict subs" in use
           (F) You probably mistyped a constant color name such as:

               $Foobar = FOOBAR . "This line should be blue\n";


               @Foobar = FOOBAR, "This line should be blue\n";

           This will only show up under use strict (another good reason to run
           under use strict).

       Invalid attribute name %s
           (F) You passed an invalid attribute name to either color() or

       Name "%s" used only once: possible typo
           (W) You probably mistyped a constant color name such as:

               print FOOBAR "This text is color FOOBAR\n";

           It's probably better to always use commas after constant names in
           order to force the next error.

       No comma allowed after filehandle
           (F) You probably mistyped a constant color name such as:

               print FOOBAR, "This text is color FOOBAR\n";

           Generating this fatal compile error is one of the main advantages
           of using the constants interface, since you'll immediately know if
           you mistype a color name.

       No name for escape sequence %s
           (F) The ANSI escape sequence passed to uncolor() contains escapes
           which aren't recognized and can't be translated to names.

           If this environment variable is set, all of the functions defined
           by this module (color(), colored(), and all of the constants not
           previously used in the program) will not output any escape
           sequences and instead will just return the empty string or pass
           through the original text as appropriate.  This is intended to
           support easy use of scripts using this module on platforms that
           don't support ANSI escape sequences.

           For it to have its proper effect, this environment variable must be
           set before any color constants are used in the program.

       It would be nice if one could leave off the commas around the constants
       entirely and just say:

           print BOLD BLUE ON_WHITE "Text\n" RESET;

       but the syntax of Perl doesn't allow this.  You need a comma after the
       string.  (Of course, you may consider it a bug that commas between all
       the constants aren't required, in which case you may feel free to
       insert commas unless you're using $Term::ANSIColor::AUTORESET or

       For easier debugging, you may prefer to always use the commas when not
       setting $Term::ANSIColor::AUTORESET or PUSHCOLOR/POPCOLOR so that
       you'll get a fatal compile error rather than a warning.

       The codes generated by this module are standard terminal control codes,
       complying with ECMA-048 and ISO 6429 (generally referred to as "ANSI
       color" for the color codes).  The non-color control codes (bold, dark,
       italic, underline, and reverse) are part of the earlier ANSI X3.64
       standard for control sequences for video terminals and peripherals.

       Note that not all displays are ISO 6429-compliant, or even
       X3.64-compliant (or are even attempting to be so).  This module will
       not work as expected on displays that do not honor these escape
       sequences, such as cmd.exe, 4nt.exe, and command.com under either
       Windows NT or Windows 2000.  They may just be ignored, or they may
       display as an ESC character followed by some apparent garbage.

       Jean Delvare provided the following table of different common terminal
       emulators and their support for the various attributes and others have
       helped me flesh it out:

                     clear    bold     faint   under    blink   reverse  conceal
        xterm         yes      yes      no      yes      yes      yes      yes
        linux         yes      yes      yes    bold      yes      yes      no
        rxvt          yes      yes      no      yes  bold/black   yes      no
        dtterm        yes      yes      yes     yes    reverse    yes      yes
        teraterm      yes    reverse    no      yes    rev/red    yes      no
        aixterm      kinda   normal     no      yes      no       yes      yes
        PuTTY         yes     color     no      yes      no       yes      no
        Windows       yes      no       no      no       no       yes      no
        Cygwin SSH    yes      yes      no     color    color    color     yes
        Mac Terminal  yes      yes      no      yes      yes      yes      yes

       Windows is Windows telnet, Cygwin SSH is the OpenSSH implementation
       under Cygwin on Windows NT, and Mac Terminal is the Terminal
       application in Mac OS X.  Where the entry is other than yes or no, that
       emulator displays the given attribute as something else instead.  Note
       that on an aixterm, clear doesn't reset colors; you have to explicitly
       set the colors back to what you want.  More entries in this table are

       Note that codes 3 (italic), 6 (rapid blink), and 9 (strike-through) are
       specified in ANSI X3.64 and ECMA-048 but are not commonly supported by
       most displays and emulators and therefore aren't supported by this
       module at the present time.  ECMA-048 also specifies a large number of
       other attributes, including a sequence of attributes for font changes,
       Fraktur characters, double-underlining, framing, circling, and
       overlining.  As none of these attributes are widely supported or
       useful, they also aren't currently supported by this module.

       ECMA-048 is available on-line (at least at the time of this writing) at

       ISO 6429 is available from ISO for a charge; the author of this module
       does not own a copy of it.  Since the source material for ISO 6429 was
       ECMA-048 and the latter is available for free, there seems little
       reason to obtain the ISO standard.

       The current version of this module is always available from its web
       site at <http://www.eyrie.org/~eagle/software/ansicolor/>.  It is also
       part of the Perl core distribution as of 5.6.0.

       Original idea (using constants) by Zenin, reimplemented using subs by
       Russ Allbery <rra@stanford.edu>, and then combined with the original
       idea by Russ with input from Zenin.  Russ Allbery now maintains this

       Copyright 1996, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009
       Russ Allbery <rra@stanford.edu> and Zenin.  This program is free
       software; you may redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms
       as Perl itself.

       PUSHCOLOR, POPCOLOR, and LOCALCOLOR were contributed by openmethods.com
       voice solutions.

perl v5.12.1                      2010-04-26              Term::ANSIColor(3pm)

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