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Locale::Country(3pm)   Perl Programmers Reference Guide   Locale::Country(3pm)

NAME
       Locale::Country - ISO codes for country identification (ISO 3166)

SYNOPSIS
           use Locale::Country;

           $country = code2country('jp');        # $country gets 'Japan'
           $code    = country2code('Norway');    # $code gets 'no'

           @codes   = all_country_codes();
           @names   = all_country_names();

           # semi-private routines
           Locale::Country::alias_code('uk' => 'gb');
           Locale::Country::rename_country('gb' => 'Great Britain');

DESCRIPTION
       The "Locale::Country" module provides access to the ISO codes for
       identifying countries, as defined in ISO 3166-1.  You can either access
       the codes via the "conversion routines" (described below), or with the
       two functions which return lists of all country codes or all country
       names.

       There are three different code sets you can use for identifying
       countries:

       alpha-2
           Two letter codes, such as 'tv' for Tuvalu.  This code set is
           identified with the symbol "LOCALE_CODE_ALPHA_2".

       alpha-3
           Three letter codes, such as 'brb' for Barbados.  This code set is
           identified with the symbol "LOCALE_CODE_ALPHA_3".

       numeric
           Numeric codes, such as 064 for Bhutan.  This code set is identified
           with the symbol "LOCALE_CODE_NUMERIC".

       All of the routines take an optional additional argument which
       specifies the code set to use.  If not specified, it defaults to the
       two-letter codes.  This is partly for backwards compatibility (previous
       versions of this module only supported the alpha-2 codes), and partly
       because they are the most widely used codes.

       The alpha-2 and alpha-3 codes are not case-dependent, so you can use
       'BO', 'Bo', 'bO' or 'bo' for Bolivia.  When a code is returned by one
       of the functions in this module, it will always be lower-case.

       As of version 2.00, Locale::Country supports variant names for
       countries. So, for example, the country code for "United States" is
       "us", so country2code('United States') returns 'us'.  Now the following
       will also return 'us':

           country2code('United States of America')
           country2code('USA')

CONVERSION ROUTINES
       There are three conversion routines: "code2country()",
       "country2code()", and "country_code2code()".

       code2country( CODE, [ CODESET ] )
           This function takes a country code and returns a string which
           contains the name of the country identified.  If the code is not a
           valid country code, as defined by ISO 3166, then "undef" will be
           returned:

               $country = code2country('fi');

       country2code( STRING, [ CODESET ] )
           This function takes a country name and returns the corresponding
           country code, if such exists.  If the argument could not be
           identified as a country name, then "undef" will be returned:

               $code = country2code('Norway', LOCALE_CODE_ALPHA_3);
               # $code will now be 'nor'

           The case of the country name is not important.  See the section
           "KNOWN BUGS AND LIMITATIONS" below.

       country_code2code( CODE, CODESET, CODESET )
           This function takes a country code from one code set, and returns
           the corresponding code from another code set.

               $alpha2 = country_code2code('fin',
                            LOCALE_CODE_ALPHA_3, LOCALE_CODE_ALPHA_2);
               # $alpha2 will now be 'fi'

           If the code passed is not a valid country code in the first code
           set, or if there isn't a code for the corresponding country in the
           second code set, then "undef" will be returned.

QUERY ROUTINES
       There are two function which can be used to obtain a list of all codes,
       or all country names:

       "all_country_codes( [ CODESET ] )"
           Returns a list of all two-letter country codes.  The codes are
           guaranteed to be all lower-case, and not in any particular order.

       "all_country_names( [ CODESET ] )"
           Returns a list of all country names for which there is a
           corresponding country code in the specified code set.  The names
           are capitalised, and not returned in any particular order.

           Not all countries have alpha-3 and numeric codes - some just have
           an alpha-2 code, so you'll get a different number of countries
           depending on which code set you specify.

SEMI-PRIVATE ROUTINES
       Locale::Country provides two semi-private routines for modifying the
       internal data.  Given their status, they aren't exported by default,
       and so need to be called by prefixing the function name with the
       package name.

   alias_code
       Define a new code as an alias for an existing code:

           Locale::Country::alias_code( ALIAS => CODE [, CODESET ] )

       This feature was added as a mechanism for handling a "uk" code. The ISO
       standard says that the two-letter code for "United Kingdom" is "gb",
       whereas domain names are all .uk.

       By default the module does not understand "uk", since it is
       implementing an ISO standard. If you would like 'uk' to work as the
       two-letter code for United Kingdom, use the following:

           Locale::Country::alias_code('uk' => 'gb');

       With this code, both "uk" and "gb" are valid codes for United Kingdom,
       with the reverse lookup returning "uk" rather than the usual "gb".

       Note: this function was previously called _alias_code, but the leading
       underscore has been dropped.  The old name will be supported for all
       2.X releases for backwards compatibility.

   rename_country
       If the official country name just isn't good enough for you, you can
       rename a country. For example, the official country name for code 'gb'
       is 'United Kingdom'.  If you want to change that, you might call:

           Locale::Country::rename_country('gb' => 'Great Britain');

       This means that calling code2country('gb') will now return 'Great
       Britain' instead of 'United Kingdom'.  The original country name is
       retained as an alias, so for the above example, country2code('United
       Kingdom') will still return 'gb'.

EXAMPLES
       The following example illustrates use of the "code2country()" function.
       The user is prompted for a country code, and then told the
       corresponding country name:

           $| = 1;   # turn off buffering

           print "Enter country code: ";
           chop($code = <STDIN>);
           $country = code2country($code, LOCALE_CODE_ALPHA_2);
           if (defined $country)
           {
               print "$code = $country\n";
           }
           else
           {
               print "'$code' is not a valid country code!\n";
           }

DOMAIN NAMES
       Most top-level domain names are based on these codes, but there are
       certain codes which aren't.  If you are using this module to identify
       country from hostname, your best bet is to preprocess the country code.

       For example, edu, com, gov and friends would map to us; uk would map to
       gb. Any others?

KNOWN BUGS AND LIMITATIONS
       o   When using "country2code()", the country name must currently appear
           exactly as it does in the source of the module. The module now
           supports a small number of variants.

           Possible extensions to this are: an interface for getting at the
           list of variant names, and regular expression matches.

       o   In the current implementation, all data is read in when the module
           is loaded, and then held in memory.  A lazy implementation would be
           more memory friendly.

       o   Support for country names in different languages.

SEE ALSO
       Locale::Language
           ISO two letter codes for identification of language (ISO 639).

       Locale::Script
           ISO codes for identification of scripts (ISO 15924).

       Locale::Currency
           ISO three letter codes for identification of currencies and funds
           (ISO 4217).

       Locale::SubCountry
           ISO codes for country sub-divisions (states, counties, provinces,
           etc), as defined in ISO 3166-2.  This module is not part of the
           Locale-Codes distribution, but is available from CPAN in
           CPAN/modules/by-module/Locale/

       ISO 3166-1
           The ISO standard which defines these codes.

       http://www.iso.org/iso/en/prods-services/iso3166ma/index.html
           Official home page for the ISO 3166 maintenance agency.

       http://www.egt.ie/standards/iso3166/iso3166-1-en.html
           Another useful, but not official, home page.

       http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/docs/app-d-1.html
           An appendix in the CIA world fact book which lists country codes as
           defined by ISO 3166, FIPS 10-4, and internet domain names.

AUTHOR
       Neil Bowers <neil@bowers.com>

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 2002-2004, Neil Bowers.

       Copyright (c) 1997-2001 Canon Research Centre Europe (CRE).

       This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
       under the same terms as Perl itself.

perl v5.12.1                      2010-05-13              Locale::Country(3pm)
 

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